Basic info Taxonomic history Classification Relationships
Morphology Ecology and taphonomy External Literature Search Age range and collections

Nodosauridae

Reptilia - Nodosauridae

Taxonomy
Nodosauridae was named by Marsh (1890). Its type is Nodosaurus. It was considered monophyletic by Vickaryous et al. (2004) and Blows and Honeysett (2014).

It was synonymized subjectively with Ankylosauridae by Matthew (1915); it was reranked as the subfamily Nodosauridae by Huene (1948); it was corrected as Nodosauria by Huene (1954).

It was assigned to Ceratopsia by Marsh (1890); to Stegosauroidea by Hay (1902); to Orthopoda by Gilmore (1933); to Thyreophoroidea by Nopcsa (1928), Nopcsa (1929) and Huene (1934); to Thyreophoroidea by Huene (1934); to Ornithischia by Parks (1935); to Stegosauria by Riabinin (1939); to Stegosauria by Marsh (1880), Marsh (1896), Hennig (1915), Lull (1921), Lull (1924), Russell (1930), Young (1935), Roxo (1937) and Kuhn (1946); to Apraedentalia by Huene (1948); to Thyreophora by Huene (1954) and Huene (1959); to Ankylosauroidea by Norman (1984) and Cooper (1985); to Ankylosauria by Romer (1956), Parsch (1963), Tatarinov (1964), Kuhn (1964), Simmons (1965), Romer (1966), Swinton (1970), Bonaparte (1978), Coombs (1978), Ostrom (1980), Galton (1980), McIntosh (1981), Santafé et al. (1982), Galton (1983), Kielan-Jaworowska (1984), Russell (1984), Sereno (1986), Bakker (1986), Sanz (1986), Tumanova (1987), Blows (1987), Carroll (1988), Cuny et al. (1991), Pereda-Suberbiola (1993), Pereda-Suberbiola (1994), Coombs and Deméré (1996), Carpenter et al. (1996), Sereno (1997), Sereno (1998), Barrett et al. (1998), Kirkland (1998), Sereno (1999), Ford (2000), Vickaryous et al. (2001), Carpenter (2001), Pereda Suberbiola and Galton (2001), Peng et al. (2001), Garcia and Pereda-Suberbiola (2003), Vickaryous et al. (2004), Ryan and Evans (2005), Lü et al. (2007), Lü et al. (2007) and Carpenter et al. (2008); and to Ankylosauria by Sánchez-Hernández et al. (2007), Osi and Makádi (2009), Parsons and Parsons (2009), Yang et al. (2013), Kirkland et al. (2013), Han et al. (2014), Blows and Honeysett (2014) and Brown et al. (2017).

Synonyms
Synonymy list
YearName and author
1880Nodosauridae Marsh
1890Nodosauridae Marsh
1896Nodosauridae Marsh p. 243
1902Nodosauridae Hay p. 497
1902Hylaeosauridae Nopcsa
1902Acanthopholididae Nopcsa p. 101
1911Polacanthidae Wieland p. 118
1915Nodosauridae Hennig p. 12
1918Palaeoscincidae Nopcsa
1921Nodosauridae Lull p. 123
1923Acanthopholididae Nopcsa p. 106
1923Acanthopholidae Nopcsa p. 126
1924Acanthopholidae Lull p. 243
1924Nodosauridae Lull p. 243
1927Acanthopholidae Huene p. 257
1928Acanthopholidae Nopcsa p. 73
1928Nodosauridae Nopcsa p. 185
1929Acanthopholinae Nopcsa p. 71
1929Nodosauridae Nopcsa p. 71
1930Nodosauridae Russell p. 138
1933Nodosauridae Gilmore p. 3
1934Achantopholidae Huene p. 15
1934Nodosauridae Huene p. 15
1934Acanthopholidae Huene p. 184
1934Nodosauridae Huene p. 184
1935Nodosauridae Parks p. 194
1935Nodosauridae Young p. 24
1937Acanthopholidae Roxo p. 65
1937Nodosauridae Roxo p. 65
1939Nodosauridae Riabinin p. 23
1946Acanthopholidae Kuhn p. 66
1946Nodosauridae Kuhn p. 66
1948Acanthopholidae Huene p. 95
1948Nodosauridae Huene p. 95
1954Nodosauria Huene p. 51
1956Acanthopholidae Romer p. 635
1956Nodosauridae Romer p. 635
1959Acanthopholinae Huene p. 122
1959Nodosauridae Huene p. 122
1960Acanthopholidae Lapparent p. 43
1963Acanthopholidae Parsch p. 4
1963Nodosauridae Parsch p. 4
1964Acanthopholidae Casamiquela
1964Acanthopholididae Kuhn p. 40
1964Nodosauridae Kuhn p. 44
1964Acanthopholidae Tatarinov p. 574
1964Nodosauridae Tatarinov p. 575
1965Nodosauridae Simmons p. 69
1965Acanthopholidae Simmons p. 70
1966Acanthopholidae Romer p. 370
1966Nodosauridae Romer p. 370
1970Acanthopholidae Swinton p. 244
1970Nodosauridae Swinton p. 245
1977Acanthopholidae Rozhdestvensky p. 113
1978Acanthopholidae Bonaparte p. 570
1978Nodosauridae Bonaparte p. 570
1978Nodosauridae Coombs p. 143
1980Nodosauridae Galton p. 831
1980Nodosauridae Ostrom p. 23
1981Nodosauridae McIntosh p. 38
1982Nodosauridae Santafé et al. p. 98
1983Nodosauridae Galton p. 4
1984Nodosauridae Kielan-Jaworowska p. 104
1984Nodosauridae Norman pp. 159-160 fig. 2
1984Nodosauridae Russell p. 29
1985Acanthopholidae Cooper p. 289
1985Nodosauridae Cooper p. 289
1986Nodosauridae Bakker p. 461
1986Nodosauridae Sanz p. 86
1986Nodosauridae Sereno
1987Nodosauridae Blows p. 558
1987Nodosauridae Tumanova
1988Nodosauridae Carroll
1991Nodosauridae Cuny et al. p. 336
1993Nodosauridae Pereda-Suberbiola p. 769
1994Nodosauridae Pereda-Suberbiola p. 136
1996Nodosauridae Carpenter et al. p. 25A
1996Nodosauridae Coombs, Jr. and Deméré p. 319
1997Nodosauridae Sereno p. 443
1998Nodosauridae Barrett et al. p. 382
1998Nodosauridae Kirkland p. 273 fig. 3
1998Nodosauridae Sereno p. 61
1999Nodosauridae Sereno p. 2138 fig. 2
2000Nodosauridae Ford p. 174
2000Polacanthidae Ford p. 174
2001Nodosauridae Carpenter p. 457
2001Polacanthidae Carpenter p. 457
2001Nodosauridae Peng et al. p. 35
2001Nodosauridae Pereda Suberbiola and Galton p. 178
2001Nodosauridae Vickaryous et al. p. 1774
2003Nodosauridae Garcia and Pereda-Suberbiola p. 163
2004Nodosauridae Vickaryous et al. p. 365
2005Polacanthidae Kilbourne and Carpenter p. 113
2005Nodosauridae Ryan and Evans p. 315
2007Polacanthidae Galton p. 19
2007Nodosauridae Lü et al. p. 889 fig. 1
2007Nodosauridae Lü et al. p. 344
2007Nodosauridae Sánchez-Hernández et al. p. 206
2008Nodosauridae Carpenter et al. p. 1090
2009Nodosauridae Osi and Makádi p. 239 fig. 10
2009Nodosauridae Parsons and Parsons p. 736 fig. 18
2013Nodosauridae Kirkland et al. p. 7
2013Nodosauridae Yang et al. p. 268
2014Nodosauridae Blows and Honeysett
2014Nodosauridae Han et al. p. 14 fig. 11
2017Nodosauridae Brown et al.

Is something missing? Join the Paleobiology Database and enter the data

RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
OlfactoresJefferies 1991
subphylumVertebrata
Gnathostomata()
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda()
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
Batrachosauria()
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
Sauropsida
classReptilia
subclassEureptilia()
RankNameAuthor
Romeriida
Diapsida()
Eosuchia()
Neodiapsida
SauriaGauthier 1984
Archosauromorpha(Huene 1946)
Crocopoda
ArchosauriformesGauthier 1986
Eucrocopoda
Archosauria()
informalAvemetatarsalia
Ornithodira
Dinosauromorpha
Dinosauriformes
Dinosauria()
Ornithischia()
Genasauria
Thyreophora()
Ankylosauria()
familyNodosauridae
familyNodosauridae

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
ReferenceDiagnosis
R. S. Lull 1924Skull broad, depressed, triangular, with heavy beak and coalesced dermal armor; teeth small; vertebrae platyccelous or somewhat amphicoelous; three sacrals coalesced, with four presacrals and two sacro-caudals ; limb bones massive; sacral region armored with rump-shield, sometimes coössified with ilia; posterior ribs ankylosed with vertebrae; dermal armor plates oval, with median keel, sometimes spine-like; ponderous armored dinosaurs of the Upper Cretaceous of North America.
R. S. Lull 1924 (Acanthopholidae)Skull without upper temporal fenestra; small, quadrate shoulder spines; armor of the region of the pelvis coalesced into a Glyptodon-like rump-shield.
B. F. Nopcsa 1928skull large; cranial roof flat; without temporal vacuities, base of cranium narrow, condyle oblique; dentition much reduced; neck and back covered with plates in the middle and spines on the side. Tail with vertical plates; no acromion on scapula
B. F. Nopcsa 1928 (Acanthopholidae)skull small; base of cranium broad; upper temporal vacuities reduced; cranial roof rounded; condyle directed downward; premaxillary tooth-bearing; quadrate feeble, strongly inclined forward; scapula with acromion; anterior limbs long; back covered with spines; tail with flat plates
F. v. Huene 1948Secondary quadrupedal. Lower arm elongatd; large skull; occipital condyle directed downward; temporal fossae closed; teeth reduced; flat roof of skull; no predental; mandible elevated in complementary region; short neck; swollen body; thick scapula; long broad anterior extremity of ilium, upper border above acetabulum turned downward; bones of leg bulky; closed dermal cuirass from head to tail, also with spines. Upper Jurassic to Upper Cretaceous.
F. v. Huene 1948 (Acanthopholidae)Thick vaulted roof of skull; temporal fossae reduced; occipital condyle directed downward; preorbit; toothed premaxilla; no predental; relatively long anterior leg; body with lateral dermal spines, pairs of flat scutes on dorsum and tail. Cretaceous.
T. A. Tumanova 1987Ankylosaurs with narrow skulls, the length of which is distinctly greater than the width (Fig. 1); bones of the skull roof are covered by a few large plates; spines over the orbits are absent; nostrils are latero-terminal; no supplemental nasal sinuses, respiratory tract is straight, usual; occipital condyle is round, on a ventrally directed short neck; pterygoids fused with the basipterygoid processes; lateral temporal fenestra and quadrate condyle are not closed laterally by osteodermal armor plates; ends of paroccipital processes make contact further back behind the posterior border of the skull roof; pterygoid flanges directed forward; teeth large.