|Basic info||Taxonomic history||Classification||Relationships|
|Morphology||Ecology and taphonomy||External Literature Search||Age range and collections|
If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.
|M. S. Zavada and J. M. Benson 1987||The fossil pollen is anasulcate, the aperture lenticular to ovoid (ulcerate) in shape. The pollen is shed in permanent tetrahedral tetrads. The tetrads average 34-36 micrometers in diameter (four specimens measured of fourteen). Exines sculpturing is scabrate with a conspicuous ridge located adjacent to the aperture. The pollen wall is comprised of an ektexine, an inner foot layer and an outer infrastructural layer and tectum. The infrastructural layer (although discontinuous, i.e., the thick tectum rests directly on the foot layer) is comprised of irregular to spherical shaped granules. The thick tectum is occasionally traversed by minute perforations. The conspicuous ridge adjacent to the aperture is formed by a separation of the foot layer (nexine) and the outer ektexine (infrastructure and tectum, i.e., sexine) forming a saccus. In the proximal region of each grain in the tetrad the outer ektexine (tectum and infrastructural layer) are absent, each grain being appressed to one another along their thick foot layer.|