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Paraptenodytes robustus

Reptilia - Avetheropoda - Spheniscidae

Taxonomy
Palaeospheniscus robustus was named by Ameghino (1894). It is not extant.

It was recombined as Perispheniscus robustus by Brodkorb (1963); it was recombined as Paraptenodytes robustus by Simpson (1972), Acosta Hospitaleche (2005) and Acosta Hospitaleche and Tambussi (2008).

Synonyms
Synonymy list
YearName and author
1894Palaeospheniscus robustus Ameghino
1901Paraptenodytes curtus Ameghino p. 81
1901Paraptenodytes grandis Ameghino p. 81
1905Palaeospheniscus robustus Ameghino p. 105
1905Metancylornis curtus Ameghino p. 129
1905Isotremornis nordenskjoldi Ameghino p. 134
1905Arthrodytes grandis Ameghino p. 144
1905Treleudytes crassa Ameghino p. 156 figs. Fig. 4
1933Palaeospheniscus robustus Lambrecht p. 227
1933Metancylornis curtus Lambrecht p. 231
1933Isotremornis nordenskjoldi Lambrecht p. 232
1933Arthrodytes grandis Lambrecht p. 233
1933Treleudytes crassa Lambrecht p. 235
1946Palaeospheniscus robustus Simpson p. 28
1946Treleudytes crassus Simpson p. 31
1946Metancylornis curtus Simpson p. 32
1946Arthrodytes grandis Simpson p. 34
1963Arthrodytes grandis Brodkorb p. 235
1963Perispheniscus robustus Brodkorb p. 237
1963Isotremornis nordenskjoldi Brodkorb p. 239
1963Paraptenodytes curtus Brodkorb p. 239
1972Paraptenodytes robustus Simpson p. 22
1972Arthrodytes grandis Simpson p. 26
2005Paraptenodytes robustus Acosta Hospitaleche p. 408
2008Paraptenodytes robustus Acosta Hospitaleche and Tambussi p. 120

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subphylumVertebrata
superclassGnathostomata
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda()
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
Batrachosauria()
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
Sauropsida
classReptilia
subclassEureptilia()
Romeriida
Diapsida()
Eosuchia()
Neodiapsida
SauriaGauthier 1984
RankNameAuthor
Archosauromorpha(Huene 1946)
Crocopoda
ArchosauriformesGauthier 1986
Eucrocopoda
Archosauria()
informalAvemetatarsalia
Ornithodira
Dinosauromorpha
Dinosauriformes
Dinosauria()
Saurischia()
Theropoda()
Neotheropoda
AverostraPaul 2002
Tetanurae
orderAvetheropoda
suborderCoelurosauria
Maniraptora
Paraves
classAves
orderSphenisciformesSharpe 1891
familySpheniscidaeBonaparte 1831
genusParaptenodytes
speciesrobustus()

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
ReferenceDiagnosis
C. Acosta Hospitaleche and C. Tambussi 2008The preservation state of the material does not allow to base a diagnosis on the tarsometatarsus. Nevertheless, the size of its humerus makes possible to dif- ferentiate it from P. antarcticus.
Humerus. Robust but small, whereas it is slender and more elongate in P. antarcticus. The diaphysis is wide and the proximal epyphysis is proportionally larger than in P. antarcticus. The fossa tricipitalis is a little larger than in P. antarcticus.