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Paraptenodytes antarcticus

Reptilia - Avetheropoda - Spheniscidae

Taxonomy
Palaeospheniscus antarcticus was named by Moreno and Mercerat (1891). Its type specimen is Museo de La Plata, a set of limb elements (femur, tibia, tarsometatarsus), and it is a 3D body fossil. Its type locality is Cerro del Castillo, Trelew, which is in an Aquitanian/Burdigalian shallow subtidal sandstone in the Gaiman Formation of Argentina.

It was recombined as Paraptenodytes antarcticus by Ameghino (1891), Ameghino (1894), Ameghino (1905), Lambrecht (1933), Simpson (1946), Brodkorb (1963), Acosta Hospitaleche (2005), Acosta Hospitaleche and Tambussi (2008) and Acosta Hospitaleche et al. (2008).

Synonymy list
YearName and author
1891Paraptenodytes antarcticus Ameghino p. 447
1891Palaeospheniscus antarcticus Moreno and Mercerat p. 16 figs. Plate 2, Fig. 1, 2,
1894Paraptenodytes antarcticus Ameghino
1905Paraptenodytes antarcticus Ameghino p. 139
1933Paraptenodytes antarcticus Lambrecht p. 232
1946Paraptenodytes antarcticus Simpson p. 33
1963Paraptenodytes antarcticus Brodkorb p. 238
2005Paraptenodytes antarcticus Acosta Hospitaleche p. 408
2008Paraptenodytes antarcticus Acosta Hospitaleche et al. p. 568
2008Paraptenodytes antarcticus Acosta Hospitaleche and Tambussi p. 118

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subphylumVertebrata
superclassGnathostomata
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda()
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
Batrachosauria()
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
Sauropsida
classReptilia
subclassEureptilia()
Romeriida
Diapsida()
Eosuchia()
Neodiapsida
SauriaGauthier 1984
RankNameAuthor
Archosauromorpha(Huene 1946)
Crocopoda
ArchosauriformesGauthier 1986
Eucrocopoda
Archosauria()
informalAvemetatarsalia
Ornithodira
Dinosauromorpha
Dinosauriformes
Dinosauria()
Saurischia()
Theropoda()
Neotheropoda
AverostraPaul 2002
Tetanurae
orderAvetheropoda
suborderCoelurosauria
Maniraptora
Paraves
classAves
orderSphenisciformesSharpe 1891
familySpheniscidaeBonaparte 1831
genusParaptenodytes
speciesantarcticus()

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
ReferenceDiagnosis
C. Acosta Hospitaleche and C. Tambussi 2008Tarsometatarsus. Metatarsals distally inclined to- wards the medial side. Both foramina vascularia proximalia open at the same level. Tuberositas musculi tibialis cranialis extended and rounded. Sulci longitudinalis dorsalis shallow and subequal in size. Absence of fossae infracotylaris dorsa- lis medialis and lateralis. Lateral surface with a rib weakly marked towards the facies caudalis. Robust trochleas, with a strong trochlear divergence. The cranial extension of the trochlea IV is larger than those of digits II and III. Trochlea III triangular in shape, with strong and divergent margins. Hypotarsus with two parallel cristae intermediae, one cris- tae medialis developed proximally to the foramen vasculare
proximale mediale (oblique to the cristae intermediae), and one weakly developed crista lateralis hypotarsi, proximal and lateral to the foramen vasculare proximale laterale.