|Basic info||Taxonomic history||Classification||Relationships|
|Morphology||Ecology and taphonomy||External Literature Search||Age range and collections|
If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.
|S. Cevalloz-Ferriz and R. A. Stockey 1988||Araceous fruits with one locule; fruit wall with inner single layer of quadrangular cells, middle layer of parenchymatous cells with numerous vascular bundles and outer layer of rectangular cells. Eight or more spiny, reniform, campylotropous seeds per locule; seeds 2.5-3.2 mm long x 1.8-2.3 mm high x 1.1-1.6 mm in diameter, flattened ventrally and expanded dorsally with three parallel rows of large spines; micropyle dorsal to hilum, reflexed ca. 140 degrees. Integumentary spines up to 0.8 mm long in three dorsal rows. Integument of pitted, isodiametric, radially aligned sclereids, 15-27 micrometers in diameter, with thinner walls around raphe area and near seed periphery; outer integumentary layer containing scatteres circular to oval, enlarged, thick-walled cellsbetween spine ridges. Micropylar region of seed expanded and conical in outline; integument thinning dramatically near the micropylar opening. Nucellus fused to integument except near micropylar end. Endosperm of nearly cuboidal cells with dark contents. Embryo linear, curved, monocotyledonous.|
|S. Y. Smith and R. A. Stockey 2003||Seeds 2.53.2 mm long × 1.82.3 mm high × 1.11.6 mm in diameter; flattened ventrally and expanded dorsally with single, large dorsal ridge and smaller, more irregular ridge on either side, remaining seed coat warty; micropyle dorsal to hilum, reflexed ca. 140°. Integumentary dorsal ridge up to 0.8 mm high. Integument of pitted, isodiametric, radially aligned sclereids, 1527 m in diameter, with thinner walls around raphe area and near seed periphery; outer integumentary layer containing scattered circular to oval, enlarged, thick-walled idioblasts. Micropylar region of seed expanded and conical; integument thinning greatly near micropylar end to form micropylar cover; epistase present. Hypostase and podium present at chalazal end of seed. Nucellus fused to integument and continuous with epistase and podium. Endosperm of nearly cuboidal cells with dark contents. Embryo curved, monocotyledonous.|