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Troodontidae

Reptilia - Avetheropoda - Troodontidae

Taxonomy
Troodontidae was named by Gilmore (1924). It was considered monophyletic by Zheng et al. (2009).

It was synonymized subjectively with Pachycephalosauridae by Romer (1956), Romer (1966) and Maryanska and Osmolska (1974).

It was assigned to Ornithopoda by Lull (1924), Russell (1930), Roxo (1937) and Brown and Schlaikjer (1943); to Orthopoda by Gilmore (1924) and Bohlin (1953); to Megalosauroidea by Kuhn (1966); to Protoavia by Paul (1988); to Oviraptorosauria by Russell and Dong (1994); to Bullatosauria by Holtz (1994), Nessov (1995), Holtz and Padian (1995) and Hutchinson and Padian (1997); to Coelurosauria by Currie (1995) and Zinke (1998); to Theropoda by Eberth et al. (2001); to Theropoda by Russell (1948) and Peng et al. (2001); to Saurischia by Pearson et al. (2002) and Sankey et al. (2002); to Arctometatarsalia by Holtz (1995), Holtz (1998) and Senter et al. (2004); to Theropoda by Coulton (1976) and Chure et al. (2006); to Eumaniraptora by Godefroit et al. (2013); to Coelurosauria by Williamson and Brusatte (2014); to Paraves by Holtz (2000), Zanno et al. (2011) and O'Connor and Sullivan (2014); to Maniraptoriformes by Hendrickx and Mateus (2014); to Maniraptora by Benton (1990), Osmolska (1990), Chatterjee (1993), Currie (1997), Makovicky and Norell (2004), Xu et al. (2011), Xu et al. (2012), Pei et al. (2017), Shen et al. (2017), Xu et al. (2017), van der Reest and Currie (2017) and Shen et al. (2017); and to Deinonychosauria by Gauthier (1986), Sereno (1997), Sereno (1998), Sereno (1999), Rauhut (2003), Zheng et al. (2009), Gianechini et al. (2017) and Hartman et al. (2019).

Synonyms
Synonymy list
YearName and author
1876Laelaps cristatus Cope p. 344
1876Laelaps laevifrons Cope p. 344
1877Laelaps cristatus Cope p. 572
1877Laelaps laevifrons Cope p. 572
1887Ornithodesmus cluniculus Seeley p. 211 figs. Pl. 12
1889Ornithodesmus cluniculus Newton p. 260
1890Ornithodesmus cluniculus Woodward and Sherborn p. 307
1900Ornithodesmus cluniculus Van Den Broeck p. 73ff
1902Dryptosaurus cristatus Hay p. 488
1902Dryptosaurus laevifrons Hay p. 488
1922Dromaeosaurus cristatus Matthew and Brown p. 376
1922Dromaeosaurus laevifrons Matthew and Brown p. 376
1924Troodontidae Gilmore pp. 7-8
1924Troodontidae Lull p. 238
1927Dromaeosaurus cristatus Huene p. 260
1927Dromaeosaurus laevifrons Huene p. 260
1930Dromaeosaurus laevifrons Russell p. 142
1930Troodontidae Russell p. 142
1937Troodontidae Roxo p. 65
1943Troodontidae Brown and Schlaikjer p. 126
1948Troodontidae Russell p. 629
1953Troodontidae Bohlin p. 32
1965Dromaeosaurus cristatus Ostrom p. 39
1966Troodontidae Kuhn p. 96
1970Dryptosaurus cristatus Steel p. 31
1970Dryptosaurus laevifrons Steel p. 31
1974Saurornithoididae Barsbold p. 7
1975Heptasteornis andrewsi Harrison and Walker pp. 399-400 figs. Pl. 65:6-7; Pl. 66:1-7
1975Bradycneme Harrison and Walker pp. 564-565
1975Bradycneme draculae Harrison and Walker p. 565 figs. Pl. 65:1-5
1975Heptasteornis Harrison and Walker p. 566
1975Heptasteornis andrewsi Harrison and Walker p. 566 figs. Pl. 65:6-7; Pl. 66:1-7
1976Saurornithoididae Barsbold p. 74
1976Troodontidae Coulton p. 177
1977Saurornithoididae Barsbold p. 50
1977Saurornithoididae Rozhdestvensky p. 112
1978Bradycneme Brodkorb p. 223
1978Bradycneme draculae Brodkorb p. 223
1978Heptasteornis Brodkorb p. 224
1978Heptasteornis andrewsi Brodkorb p. 224
1978Ornithodesmus cluniculus Brodkorb p. 226
1983Saurornithoididae Barsbold p. 86
1984Saurornithoididae Russell p. 28
1984Saurornithoididae Thulborn p. 132
1985Saurornithoididae Gauthier and Padian p. 190
1986Bradycneme Buffetaut et al. p. 1395
1986Bradycneme draculae Buffetaut et al. p. 1395
1986Heptasteornis Buffetaut et al. p. 1395
1986Heptasteornis andrewsi Buffetaut et al. p. 1395
1986Saurornithoididae Buffetaut et al. p. 1395
1986Troodontidae Gauthier p. 11
1988Bradycneme Carroll
1988Heptasteornis Carroll
1988Saurornithoididae Carroll
1988Troodontidae Paul p. 394
1988Troodon andrewsi Paul pp. 399-400
1988Bradycneme Paul p. 400
1988Bradycneme draculae Paul p. 400
1990Troodontidae Benton p. 19
1990Troodontidae Osmolska p. 150
1991Euronychodon portucalensis Antunes and Sigogneau-Russell pp. 114, 117
1991Euronychodon Antunes and Sigogneau-Russell p. 117
1991Euronychodon portucalensis Antunes and Sigogneau-Russell p. 117
1991Bradycneme Weishampel et al. p. 209
1991Bradycneme draculae Weishampel et al. p. 209
1991Heptasteornis Weishampel et al. p. 209
1991Heptasteornis andrewsi Weishampel et al. p. 209
1992Euronychodon Antunes and Sigogneau pp. 54-55
1992Euronychodon portucalensis Antunes and Sigogneau pp. 54-55
1992Saurornithoididae Dong p. 164
1993Troodontidae Chatterjee p. 283
1994Koparion Chure p. 11 figs. Pl. 1
1994Koparion douglassi Chure p. 11 figs. Pl. 1
1994Troodontidae Holtz, Jr.
1994Troodontidae Russell and Dong p. 2125
1995Troodontidae Currie p. 25A
1995Troodontidae Holtz, Jr. p. 35A
1995Troodontidae Holtz, Jr. and Padian p. 35A
1995Troodontidae Nessov p. 41
1995Euronychodon Nessov p. 44
1995Euronychodon asiaticus Nessov p. 44
1995Euronychodon portucalensis Nessov p. 44
1996Euronychodon Galton p. 89
1996Euronychodon portucalensis Galton p. 89
1996Ornithodesmus cluniculus Hutt et al. p. 636
1997Troodontidae Currie p. 733
1997Troodontidae Hutchinson and Padian p. 130
1997Ornithodesmus cluniculus Norell and Makovicky p. 13
1997Euronychodon asiaticus Ryan p. 443
1997Troodontidae Sereno p. 444
1997Bradycneme Varricchio p. 750
1997Bradycneme draculae Varricchio p. 750
1997Heptasteornis Varricchio p. 750
1997Heptasteornis andrewsi Varricchio p. 750
1997Koparion Varricchio p. 750
1997Koparion douglassi Varricchio p. 750
1997Ornithodesmus cluniculus Varricchio p. 750
1998Ornithodesmus cluniculus Blows p. 35
1998Troodontidae Holtz, Jr. p. 40
1998Ornithodesmus cluniculus Makovicky and Sues p. 21
1998Troodontidae Sereno p. 65
1998Troodontidae Zinke p. 184
1999Ornithodesmus cluniculus Naish p. 371
1999Troodontidae Sereno p. 2139 fig. 2
2000Koparion douglassi Chure p. 2
2000Euronychodon Currie p. 450
2000Euronychodon asiaticus Currie p. 450
2000Troodontidae Holtz, Jr. p. 13 fig. 5
2000Ornithodesmus cluniculus Norell et al. p. 9
2000Troodon cristatus Olshevsky p. 97
2001Euronychodon Barco and Ruiz-Omeñaca p. 243
2001Troodontidae Eberth et al. p. 56
2001Troodontidae Peng et al. p. 37
2002Troodontidae Pearson et al. p. 154
2002Troodontidae Sankey et al. p. 755
2003Bradycneme draculae Grigorescu p. 100
2003Heptasteornis andrewsi Grigorescu p. 100
2003Troodontidae Rauhut p. 159
2003Ornithodesmus cluniculus Ruiz-Omeñaca and Canudo p. 297
2004Troodontidae Makovicky and Norell p. 185
2004Troodontidae Senter et al. p. 2 fig. 2
2005Koparion douglassi Carpenter et al. pp. 24-26
2006Koparion Chure et al. p. 236
2006Koparion douglassi Chure et al. p. 236
2006Troodontidae Chure et al. p. 236
2006Bradycneme draculae Dalla Vecchia p. 13
2006Heptasteornis andrewsi Dalla Vecchia p. 13
2006Koparion douglassi Hunt and Lucas p. 117
2006Koparion douglassi Mateus p. 231
2006Euronychodon portucalensis Mateus et al. p. 123
2007Ornithodesmus cluniculus Naish and Martill p. 504
2009Ornithodesmus cluniculus Chanthasit and Buffetaut p. 148
2009Troodontidae Zheng et al.
2011Troodontidae Xu et al. p. 2
2011Troodontidae Zanno et al. p. 3
2012Troodontidae Xu et al. p. 141
2013Troodontidae Godefroit et al.
2014Troodontidae Hendrickx and Mateus
2014Troodontidae O'Connor and Sullivan
2014Troodontidae Williamson and Brusatte p. 12
2017Troodontidae Gianechini et al. p. 12 fig. 8
2017Troodontidae Pei et al.
2017Troodontidae Shen et al.
2017Troodontidae Shen et al.
2017Troodontidae Xu et al.
2017Troodontidae van der Reest and Currie
2019Troodontidae Hartman et al.

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subphylumVertebrata
superclassGnathostomata
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda()
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
Batrachosauria()
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
Sauropsida
classReptilia
subclassEureptilia()
Romeriida
Diapsida()
Eosuchia()
Neodiapsida
RankNameAuthor
SauriaGauthier 1984
Archosauromorpha(Huene 1946)
Crocopoda
ArchosauriformesGauthier 1986
Eucrocopoda
Archosauria()
informalAvemetatarsalia
Ornithodira
Dinosauromorpha
Dinosauriformes
Dinosauria()
Saurischia()
Theropoda()
Neotheropoda
AverostraPaul 2002
Tetanurae
orderAvetheropoda
suborderCoelurosauria
Maniraptora
Paraves
infraorderDeinonychosauria
familyTroodontidae
familyTroodontidae

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
ReferenceDiagnosis
R. S. Lull 1924Aberrant Orthopoda with prernaxillary teeth, dome-like, thickened skull, and abdominal ribs.
B. Brown and E. M. Schlaikjer 1943Small bipedal dinosaurs. Skull with moderate thickening of frontoparietal area. Node-like ornamentations of the skull weakly developed. Supratemporal openings usually nearly closed; ocassionally completely closed on one side. Face short and deep. Premaxillaries with teeth.
Measurements
No measurements are available
Composition: hydroxyapatiteo
Entire body: yeso
Adult length: 10 to < 100o
Adult width: 1.0 to < 10o
Adult height: 1.0 to < 10o
Maximum body mass: 100 kgg
Minimum body mass: 10 kgg
Architecture: compact or denseo
Ontogeny: accretion, modification of partso
Grouping: solitaryo
Environment: terrestrialf
Locomotion: actively mobileo
Life habit: ground dwellingf
Diet: carnivoref
Diet 2: omnivoref
Reproduction: oviparousf
Dispersal: direct/internalo
Dispersal 2: mobileo
Created: 2005-09-11 17:03:06
Modified: 2005-09-11 19:03:56
Source: g = genus, f = family, o = order
References: Peczkis 1995, Holtz et al. 2000, Marsh 1875

Age range: base of the Kimmeridgian to the top of the Late/Upper Maastrichtian or 157.30000 to 66.00000 Ma

Collections (184 total)


Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Kimmeridgian157.3 - 152.1Portugal (Leiria) Troodontidae indet. (24563)
Kimmeridgian - Tithonian157.3 - 145.0USA (Utah) Koparion douglassi (22711)
Kimmeridgian - Tithonian157.3 - 145.0USA (Wyoming) Hesperornithoides miessleri (74664) Troodontidae indet. (74665)
Early/Lower Tithonian150.8 - 145.0France (Poitou-Charentes) Troodontidae indet. (164377)
Valanginian - Hauterivian139.8 - 129.4China (Liaoning) Mei long (133789)
Valanginian - Albian139.8 - 100.5China (Nei Mongol) Saurornithoides sp. (46934)
Hauterivian132.9 - 129.4China (Liaoning) Liaoningvenator curriei (203179)
Late/Upper Barremian - Early/Lower Aptian130.0 - 122.46China (Liaoning) Daliansaurus liaoningensis (55709)
Barremian129.4 - 125.0China (Hebei) Jinfengopteryx elegans (156414)
Barremian129.4 - 125.0USA (Utah) Geminiraptor suarezarum (97956)
Barremian - Early/Lower Aptian129.4 - 122.46United Kingdom (England) Ornithodesmus cluniculus (101087)
Barremian - Aptian129.4 - 113.0Russian Federation (Kemerovo) Troodontidae indet. (39680 52808)
Early/Lower Aptian125.45 - 122.46China (Liaoning) Jianianhualong tengi (67611) Sinovenator changii (55685) Sinovenator changii, Mei long, Sinusonasus magnodens (53493) Troodontidae indet. (83249)
Aptian - Albian125.0 - 100.5Russian Federation (Kemerovo) Troodontidae indet. (167303)
Aptian - Albian125.0 - 100.5Mongolia (Dornogov) Troodontidae indet. (32362)
Early/Lower Albian - Middle Albian112.03 - 105.3China (Gansu) Sinornithoides sp. (45166)
Cenomanian100.5 - 93.9Uzbekistan (Navoi) Urbacodon itemirensis (70426)
Cenomanian - Santonian100.5 - 83.6Mongolia (Omnogov) Troodontidae indet. (55254)
Late/Upper Cretaceous100.5 - 66.0China (Henan) Troodontidae indet. (84996)
Early/Lower Cenomanian99.6 - 93.5Uzbekistan (Navoi) Pectinodon asiamericanus (64684)
Early/Lower Cenomanian99.6 - 93.5France (Poitou-Charentes) Troodontidae indet. (73862)
Middle Turonian - Late/Upper Turonian93.5 - 89.3Uzbekistan (Navoi) Euronychodon asiaticus (58168) Ornithomimidae indet. (58158)
Coniacian - Campanian89.8 - 72.1China (Henan) Xixiasaurus henanensis (101070)
Santonian86.3 - 83.6USA (Montana) Troodon sp. (53055 53056)
Santonian - Early/Lower Campanian86.3 - 70.6Kazakhstan (Qyzylorda) Troodontidae indet. (53134)
Early/Lower Santonian85.8 - 83.5Tajikistan Saurornithoididae indet. (58701)
Late/Upper Santonian - Early/Lower Campanian85.8 - 70.6USA (Montana) Troodon formosus (22689)
Late/Upper Santonian - Early/Lower Campanian85.8 - 70.6USA (Utah) Troodontidae indet. (14413)
Campanian83.6 - 72.1Mongolia (Ömnögovi Aimag) Troodontidae indet. (130798)
Campanian83.6 - 72.1Canada (Alberta) Stenonychosaurus inequalis (45753) Troodon formosus (45821 58808)
Campanian83.6 - 72.1USA (Montana) Hypsilophodontidae indet. (13281) Troodon formosus (59373)
Campanian83.6 - 72.1Mongolia (Omnogov) Almas ukhaa (190544) Byronosaurus jaffei (37209) Troodontidae indet. (37211)
Campanian83.6 - 72.1Mongolia (Omnogov Aimak) Saurornithoides mongoliensis (37213)
Campanian83.6 - 72.1China (Nei Mongol) Linhevenator tani, Philovenator curriei (131828) Saurornithoides mongoliensis (46973)
Campanian - Maastrichtian83.6 - 66.0Mongolia (Omnogov) Saurornithoides sp. (37020)
Early/Lower Campanian83.5 - 70.6Kazakhstan (Ongtüstik Qazaqstan) Troodon sp. (59730)
Judithian83.5 - 70.6USA (Montana) Troodon formosus, Theropoda indet. (14453)
Late/Upper Campanian83.5 - 70.6Canada (Alberta) Polyodontosaurus grandis (64327) Stenonychosaurus inequalis (34745 59115 59131 59137 184041) Troodon formosus (22659 22695 22697 22698 24894 34307 34309 45264 45671 45892 45893 45897 45898 46951 47784 47807 47811 47812 64325 64326 76030) Troodon sp. (22699 45238 45261 45262 67874 67876 67881 67893 67894 89604 89605) Troodon sp., Troodon formosus (53050) Troodontidae indet. (52991)
Late/Upper Campanian83.5 - 70.6USA (Montana) Troodon formosus (59217)
Late/Upper Campanian83.5 - 70.6Mexico (Coahuila) Troodontidae indet. (24257)
Late/Upper Campanian83.5 - 70.6USA (Utah) Talos sampsoni (131870)
Late/Upper Campanian83.5 - 70.6Spain (Castilla y Leon) Euronychodon sp. (28406)
Late/Upper Campanian83.5 - 70.6USA (New Mexico) Troodontidae indet. (154661)
Late/Upper Campanian83.5 - 70.6Mongolia (Omnogov) Archaeornithoides deinosauriscus (37009) Dromaeosauridae indet. (45090) Ornithoides oshiensis (46152)
Middle Campanian83.5 - 70.6Canada (Alberta) Saurornithoididae indet. (61470) Troodon formosus (45240 47795 47809) Troodon sp. (47794 67880 67892)
Middle Campanian83.5 - 70.6USA (Montana) Troodon sp. (25658)
Middle Campanian - Late/Upper Campanian83.5 - 70.6Canada (Saskatchewan) Troodon sp. (14494)
Middle Campanian - Late/Upper Campanian83.5 - 70.6Canada (Alberta) Stenonychosaurus inequalis (179240 179241 179242 179243 179244 179245 179246)
Middle Campanian - Late/Upper Campanian83.5 - 70.6USA (Montana) Troodon formosus (14437 14446 14457 14490 50907 64643 69213) Troodon sp. (14462 60518) Troodontidae indet. (167801)
Late/Upper Campanian - Early/Lower Maastrichtian83.5 - 66.0Mongolia (Omnogov) Saurornithoides sp. (168988) Troodontidae indet. (51972)
Late/Upper Campanian - Early/Lower Maastrichtian83.5 - 66.0Romania (Judetul Covurlui) Troodontidae indet., Euronychodon sp., Bradycneme draculae, Elopteryx nopcsai (59410)
Late/Upper Campanian - Early/Lower Maastrichtian83.5 - 66.0USA (Alaska) Troodon formosus (88975)
Late/Upper Campanian - Early/Lower Maastrichtian83.5 - 66.0Canada (Alberta) Troodon sp. (52072 144539 152270 152271 152272)
Late/Upper Campanian - Late/Upper Maastrichtian83.5 - 66.0USA (Alaska) Troodon formosus (51892 51893)
Late/Upper Campanian - Maastrichtian83.5 - 66.0Slovenia (Obalno-Kraska) Troodontidae indet. (67198)
Late/Upper Campanian - Maastrichtian83.5 - 66.0Portugal (Aveiro) Troodontidae indet. (75866)
Maastrichtian72.1 - 66.0Portugal (Coimbra) Euronychodon portucalensis, Troodontidae indet. (49276)
Maastrichtian72.1 - 66.0USA (North Dakota) Troodon sp. (45099)
Maastrichtian72.1 - 66.0Spain (Castilla y Leon) Paronychodon sp. (61321)
Maastrichtian72.1 - 66.0USA (New Mexico) Troodontidae indet. (59068)
Maastrichtian72.1 - 66.0USA (Montana) Pectinodon sp. (183109) Stenonychosaurus inequalis (142326)
Maastrichtian72.1 - 66.0Mongolia (Omnogov) Saurornithoides junior (52012)
Early/Lower Maastrichtian70.6 - 66.0Canada (Alberta) Troodon formosus (64324) Troodon sp. (34744 55363 60563 96455 135739) Troodontidae indet. (76062)
Early/Lower Maastrichtian70.6 - 66.0USA (Alaska) Troodon sp. (51890)
Lancian70.6 - 66.0USA (New Mexico) Saurornithoididae indet. (14518)
Lancian70.6 - 66.0USA (South Dakota) Troodon sp., Saurornithoides mongoliensis (14537 192251)
Lancian70.6 - 66.0USA (Wyoming) Pectinodon bakkeri, Saurornithoides inequalis (14519) Troodon formosus (14542 14543 75298 75435 75442) Troodon sp. (14505) Troodon sp., Troodontidae indet., Pectinodon bakkeri (14566)
Lancian70.6 - 66.0USA (Montana) Troodon sp. (14508 14516 14521 14549 14568) Troodon sp., Troodontidae indet. (14582 14650) Troodontidae indet. (14623 14624)
Lancian70.6 - 66.0USA (North Dakota) Troodon sp. (14610)
Late/Upper Maastrichtian70.6 - 66.0Romania (Hunedoara) Euronychodon sp. (67818) Troodontidae indet. (26369) Troodontidae indet., Euronychodon sp. (27894)
Late/Upper Maastrichtian70.6 - 66.0Russian Federation (Chukot) Troodon sp. (59386) Troodontidae indet. sp. 1, Troodontidae indet. sp. 2 (86529)
Late/Upper Maastrichtian70.6 - 66.0Russian Federation (Amur) Troodon sp. (38134 47029)
Late/Upper Maastrichtian70.6 - 66.0USA (Wyoming) Troodon formosus (26760) Troodon sp., Saurornithoides sp., Pectinodon bakkeri (14585)
Late/Upper Maastrichtian70.6 - 66.0USA (Alaska) Troodon formosus (51889)
Late/Upper Maastrichtian70.6 - 66.0India (Tamil Nadu) Troodontidae indet. (153666)