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Ceratopsia

Reptilia -

Taxonomy
Ceratopsia was named by Marsh (1890). It is not extant. It was considered monophyletic by Butler et al. (2008).

It was reranked as the superfamily Ceratopsia by Zittel (1890); it was reranked as the infraorder Ceratopsia by Van Den Broeck (1900), Parks (1935) and Cooper (1985); it was synonymized subjectively with Ceratopsoidea by Hay (1902); it was reranked as the order Ceratopsia by Bakker and Galton (1974); it was reranked as the unranked clade Ceratopsia by Dodson (1997), Butler et al. (2008), Han et al. (2012), Brown and Henderson (2015), Rivera-Sylva et al. (2017), Ryan et al. (2017) and Dalman et al. (2018).

It was assigned to Dinosauri by Gadow (1897); to Predentata by Marsh (1894), Marsh (1895), Marsh (1896) and Hatcher et al. (1907); to Orthopoda by Zittel (1890), Van Den Broeck (1900) and Lull (1912); to Dinosauria by Tornier (1913); to Ornithischia by Parks (1935); to Enoplosauria by Swinton (1970); to Ornithischia by Bakker and Galton (1974); to Neornithopoda by Cooper (1985); to Thyreophora by Bakker (1986); to Ornithischia by Arldt (1909), Lull (1915), Matthew (1915), Lull (1924), Lull (1933), Roxo (1937), Kuhn (1946), Romer (1956), Parsch (1963), Tatarinov (1964), Estes (1964), Kuhn (1964), Ostrom (1965), Kuhn (1966), Romer (1966), Thulborn (1971), Krebs (1974), Bonaparte (1978), Benton (1979), Ostrom (1980), McIntosh (1981), Russell (1984), Maryanska and Osmólska (1985), Carroll (1988), Buffetaut and Ingavat (1992) and Peng et al. (2001); to Marginocephalia by Sereno (1986), Sues and Galton (1987), Benton (1990), Dodson (1990), Dodson (1997), Sereno (1997), Sereno (1998), Sereno (1999), Sereno (2000), Lambert et al. (2001), Weishampel (2004), Xu et al. (2006), Butler et al. (2007), Butler et al. (2008) and Han et al. (2012); and to Ornithischia by Brown and Henderson (2015), Rivera-Sylva et al. (2017), Ryan et al. (2017) and Dalman et al. (2018).

Synonyms
Synonymy list
YearName and author
1876Dysganus Cope
1876Dysganus bicarinatus Cope
1876Dysganus encaustus Cope
1876Dysganus haydenianus Cope
1876Dysganus peiganus Cope
1876Dysganus bicarinatus Cope p. 5
1876Dysganus peiganus Cope p. 5
1876Dysganus Cope p. 250
1876Dysganus encaustus Cope p. 250
1876Dysganus haydenianus Cope p. 251
1877Dysganus Cope p. 266
1877Dysganus bicarinatus Cope p. 316
1877Dysganus encaustus Cope p. 316
1877Dysganus haydenianus Cope p. 316
1877Dysganus peiganus Cope p. 316
1877Dysganus Cope p. 572
1877Dysganus bicarinatus Cope p. 572
1877Dysganus encaustus Cope p. 572
1877Dysganus haydenianus Cope p. 572
1877Dysganus peiganus Cope p. 572
1883Dysganus Cope p. 99
1890Ceratopsia Marsh p. 418
1890Ceratopsia Zittel p. 749
1890Dysganus Zittel p. 765
1894Ceratopsia Marsh
1895Ceratopsia Marsh
1896Ceratopsia Marsh p. 243
1897Ceratopsia Gadow p. 205
1900Ceratopsia Van Den Broeck p. 85
1902Dysganus Hay p. 504
1902Dysganus bicarinatus Hay p. 504
1902Dysganus encaustus Hay p. 505
1902Dysganus haydenianus Hay p. 505
1902Dysganus peiganus Hay p. 505
1907Ceratopsia Hatcher et al. p. 10
1909Ceratopsia Arldt p. 263
1909Dysganus Huene p. 18
1912Ceratopsia Lull p. 210
1913Ceratopsia Tornier p. 373
1915Ceratopsia Lull p. 117
1915Ceratopsia Matthew p. 32
1924Ceratopsia Lull p. 243–244
1933Ceratopsia Lull p. 74
1935Ceratopsia Parks p. 184
1937Ceratopsia Roxo p. 44
1946Ceratopsia Kuhn p. 66
1948Ponderopoda Huene p. 95
1954Ponderopoda Huene p. 50
1956Dysganus Romer p. 630
1956Ceratopsia Romer p. 636
1958Ponderopoda Huene p. 206
1963Ceratopsia Parsch p. 4
1964Ceratopsia Estes p. 145
1964Dysganus Kuhn p. 17
1964Dysganus bicarinatus Kuhn p. 17
1964Dysganus encaustus Kuhn p. 17
1964Dysganus haydenianus Kuhn p. 17
1964Dysganus peiganus Kuhn p. 17
1964Ceratopsia Kuhn p. 52
1964Dysganus Tatarinov p. 569
1964Ceratopsia Tatarinov p. 578
1965Ceratopsia Ostrom p. 39
1966Ceratopsia Kuhn p. 106
1966Ceratopsia Romer p. 370
1966Dysganus Romer p. 370
1970Ceratopsia Swinton p. 117
1971Ceratopsia Thulborn pp. 77-78 fig. 4
1974Ceratopsia Bakker and Galton p. 171
1974Ceratopsia Krebs p. 22
1974Dysganus Thulborn p. 173
1978Ceratopsia Bonaparte p. 331
1979Ceratopsia Benton p. 144
1980Ceratopsia Ostrom p. 23
1981Ceratopsia McIntosh p. 40
1984Ceratopsia Russell p. 29
1985Ceratopsia Cooper p. 291
1985Ceratopsia Maryanska and Osmólska pp. 143-144 fig. 1
1986Ceratopsia Bakker p. 461
1986Ceratopsia Sereno
1987Ceratopsia Sues and Galton pp. 36-37
1988Ceratopsia Carroll
1990Ceratopsia Benton p. 19
1990Ceratopsia Dodson p. 562
1992Ceratopsia Buffetaut and Ingavat
1992Psittacosaurus sattayaraki Buffetaut and Ingavat
1993Psittacosaurus sattayaraki Buffetaut et al. p. 57
1995Kulceratops Nessov p. 52
1995Kulceratops kulensis Nessov pp. 52-54 figs. Pl. 4:12
1997Psittacosaurus sattayaraki Buffetaut p. 690
1997Psittacosaurus sattayaraki Buffetaut et al. p. 183
1997Ceratopsia Dodson p. 474
1997Kulceratops Ryan p. 442
1997Kulceratops kulensis Ryan p. 442
1997Ceratopsia Sereno p. 443
1998Psittacosaurus sattayaraki Buffetaut p. 94
1998Ceratopsia Sereno p. 62
1999Ceratopsia Sereno p. 2138 fig. 2
2000Ceratopsia Sereno p. 482
2001Ceratopsia Lambert et al. p. 7
2001Ceratopsia Peng et al. p. 35
2002Psittacosaurus sattayaraki Buffetaut and Suteethorn pp. 71-73
2003Kulceratops Tereschenko and Alifanov p. 301
2003Kulceratops kulensis Tereschenko and Alifanov p. 301
2004Ceratopsia Weishampel p. 323
2005Psittacosaurus sattayaraki Buffetaut et al. pp. 577-578
2006Ceratopsia Xu et al. p. 2135
2007Psittacosaurus sattayaraki Buffetaut et al. p. 338
2007Ceratopsia Butler et al. p. S19 fig. S2
2008Ceratopsia Butler et al. pp. 21-22
2008Psittacosaurus sattayaraki Suteethorn and Buffetaut p. 55
2012Ceratopsia Han et al. p. 1391 fig. 14
2015Ceratopsia Brown and Henderson
2017Ceratopsia Rivera-Sylva et al.
2017Ceratopsia Ryan et al.
2018Ceratopsia Dalman et al.

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subphylumVertebrata
superclassGnathostomata
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda()
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
Batrachosauria()
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
Sauropsida
classReptilia
subclassEureptilia()
Romeriida
RankNameAuthor
Diapsida()
Eosuchia()
Neodiapsida
SauriaGauthier 1984
Archosauromorpha(Huene 1946)
Crocopoda
ArchosauriformesGauthier 1986
Eucrocopoda
Archosauria()
informalAvemetatarsalia
Ornithodira
Dinosauromorpha
Dinosauriformes
Dinosauria()
Ornithischia()
Neornithischia()
Clypeodonta
Cerapoda
Marginocephalia
Ceratopsia()
Ceratopsia()

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
ReferenceDiagnosis
K. A. v. Zittel 1890Wirbel platycöl. Rüekenmarkcanal im Sacrum nur massig
erweitert. Skeletknochen massiv. Schädel mit langen, zugespitzten Knochenzapf en auf dem Stirnbein und grossem, nach hinten stark verbreitertem Scheitelbein. Zwischenkiefer ver- schmolzen, davor ein zugespitztes Schnauzenbein (os rostrale), welches dem zahnlosen Praedentale des Unterkiefers entspricht. Zähne mit zwei Wurzeln. Vorderbeine den Hinterbeinen an Länge wenig nachstehend, alle Zehen mit breiten Hufen. Pubis einfach, nach vorn und unten gerichtet, distal verbreitert; Postpubis fehlt. Femur ohne dritten Trochanter. Hautskelet zuweilen einen geschlossenen Panzer bildend.
R. S. Lull 1924Horned dinosaurs with huge skull, upwards of one-third the entire length of the animal, with one to three horns on the facial region and a backwardly projecting crest or frill formed of the squamosals and postparietals (dermosupra-occipitals, Huene); upper and lower temporal openings present; no preorbital fenestra; toothless premaxillaries, in front of which is an unpaired rostral element, which bore the turtle-like cutting beak and met the corresponding toothless predentary of the lower jaw; teeth in deep groove and with divided roots, unique among reptiles; vertebrae amphiplatyan, with four anterior cervicals fused; both vertebrae and limb bones solid; fore limbs somewhat shorter than hind and with heavy rugosities; femur longer than tibia; hoof-like phalanges, five in front and four behind; integument covered with thick, mosaic-like squamation;
F. v. Huene 1948 (Ponderopoda)Late secondarily quadrupedous. Originated probably from Kalodontoidea and parallel branch to the Trachodontoidea. Teeth can be derived from kalodont type. Crests on the prefrontal and squamosal, similar to those on the premaxilla and nasal found in the Trachodonts; rostral and predental; nuchal shield formed by squamosal, parietal, interparietal; short neck; long sacrum; pubis reduced; little horny plates in skin. Upper Cretaceous
P. Dodson 1997Derived characters by which the Ceratopsia are distinguished from all other dinosaurs include a special bone, the rostral, situated in front of the premaxilla. The rostral bone takes the form of a narrow, sharply keeled beak that articulates with a lower beak formed by the predentary bone. Another distinctive character is the presence of laterally flaring jugal bones in the cheek region that may form distinct ventral or ventrolateral processes. All ceratopsians have at least the beginnings of a crest at the back of the skull.
Measurements
No measurements are available
Composition: hydroxyapatiteo
Entire body: yeso
Adult length: 10 to < 100o
Adult width: 1.0 to < 10o
Adult height: 1.0 to < 10o
Maximum body mass: 10000 kgg
Minimum body mass: 3 kgg
Architecture: compact or denseo
Ontogeny: accretion, modification of partso
Grouping: gregariouso
Environment: terrestrialsubo
Locomotion: actively mobileo
Life habit: ground dwellingsubo
Diet: herbivoresubo
Reproduction: oviparouso
Dispersal: direct/internalo
Dispersal 2: mobileo
Created: 2005-09-15 11:08:09
Modified: 2005-09-15 13:08:09
Source: g = genus, subo = suborder, o = order
References: Kiessling 2004, Peczkis 1995, Norman and Weishampel 1991, Marsh 1875

Age range: base of the Oxfordian to the top of the Lancian or 163.50000 to 66.00000 Ma

Collections (909 total)

Oldest occurrences

Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Oxfordian163.5 - 157.3China (Xinjiang) Hualianceratops wucaiwanensis (175359) Yinlong downsi (72107)
Late/Upper Jurassic163.5 - 145.0China (Hebei) Xuanhuaceratops niei (91320)
Late/Upper Jurassic - Early/Lower Cretaceous163.5 - 100.5Mongolia (Bayankhongor) Psittacosauridae indet. (69914)
Late/Upper Tithonian - Valanginian150.8 - 132.9China (Liaoning) Chaoyangosaurus liaosiensis (10755)
Berriasian145.0 - 139.8Germany (Niedersachsen) Stenopelix valdensis (69694)
Berriasian - Valanginian145.0 - 132.9Mongolia (Ovorhangai) Psittacosaurus sp. (94111)
Neocomian145.0 - 130.0Japan (Fukuoka) Ceratopsia indet. (166076)
Early/Lower Cretaceous145.0 - 100.5Mongolia (Dornogov) Psittacosauridae indet. (127658) Psittacosaurus sp. (48931)
Early/Lower Cretaceous145.0 - 100.5China (Nei Mongol) Psittacosaurus guyangensis, Psittacosaurus osborni (49797) Psittacosaurus sp. (85296)
Early/Lower Cretaceous145.0 - 100.5Mongolia (Ovorkhangai) Psittacosaurus mongoliensis (48936) Psittacosaurus sp. (59358 70140 79703) Psittacosaurus sp., Protiguanodon mongoliense (48939) Psittacosaurus sp., Psittacosaurus mongoliensis (48937)

Youngest occurrences

Time interval Ma Country or state PBDB collection number
Late/Upper Maastrichtian70.6 - 66.0USA (North Dakota) Triceratops horridus (191374) Triceratops sp. (45123)
Late/Upper Maastrichtian70.6 - 66.0USA (New Mexico) Ceratopsidae indet. (62529 62531 62532 62534 62546)
Late/Upper Maastrichtian70.6 - 66.0Canada (Alberta) Eotriceratops xerinsularis (75475) Montanoceratops sp. (64791)
Late/Upper Maastrichtian70.6 - 66.0USA (Wyoming) Leptoceratops sp. (53824) Triceratops eurycephalus (52107) Triceratops flabellatus (165876) Triceratops sp. (14585 52088 164991 164992 164993)
Late/Upper Maastrichtian70.6 - 66.0Canada (Saskatchewan) Chasmosaurinae indet. (52837) Triceratops sp. (52836 54105)
Late/Upper Maastrichtian70.6 - 66.0USA (Montana) Leptoceratops gracilis (73947 73948) Triceratops prorsus (14674) Triceratops sp. (67129 88990 109659 162855 189003)
Late/Upper Maastrichtian70.6 - 66.0Russian Federation (Chukot) Neoceratopsia indet. (86529)
Late/Upper Maastrichtian70.6 - 66.0USA (Utah) Triceratops sp. (48549)
Late/Upper Maastrichtian70.6 - 66.0USA (Alaska) Pachyrhinosaurus sp. (51889)
Late/Upper Maastrichtian70.6 - 66.0USA (South Dakota) Tatankaceratops sacrisonorum (97798)