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Elasmobranchii (elasmobranch)

Chondrichthyes -

Taxonomy
Elasmobranchii was named by Bonaparte (1838). It is extant. It was considered monophyletic by Duffin (2001) and Soto et al. (2012) and Pinheiro et al. (2013).

It was reranked as the unranked clade Elasmobranchii by Bryant (1932) and Säve-Söderbergh (1934); it was reranked as the class Elasmobranchii by Jordan (1963).

It was assigned to Pisces by Eastman (1904), Andrews (1906) and Bryant (1932); to Gnathostomata by Säve-Söderbergh (1934); to Vertebrata by Jordan (1963); and to Chondrichthyes by Fedorowski (1912), Daly (1973), Case (1979), Zangerl (1981), Thurmond and Jones (1981), Thies (1983), Duffin and Ward (1983), Williams (1985), Schultze (1985), Lund (1985), Kumar and Loyal (1987), Cappetta (1987), Case and Schwimmer (1988), Murry (1989), Kindlimann (1990), Long (1992), Cappetta (1992), Duffin (1993), Long et al. (1993), Dica et al. (1996), Johns (1997), Duffin (1998), Williams (1998), Heidtke (1998), Ivanov (1999), Duffin (2001), Marss and Gagnier (2001), Williams (2001), Peng et al. (2001), Delsate (2003), Duncan (2003), Yamagishi (2004), Duncan (2004), Everhart (2004), Kriwet (2005), Chandler et al. (2006), Carnevale (2007), Everhart (2007), Kriwet et al. (2007), Marsili et al. (2007), Chrzastek (2008), Pereira and Medeiros (2008), Adnet et al. (2008), Kriwet (2008), Hairapetian et al. (2008), Kriwet et al. (2009), Ehret et al. (2009), Ginter et al. (2010), Cook et al. (2011), Long (2011), Ehret et al. (2012), Soto et al. (2012), Pinheiro et al. (2013) and Engelbrecht et al. (2017).

Sister taxa
Selachii

View classification of included taxa

Synonyms
Synonymy list
YearName and author
1838Elasmobranchii Bonaparte
1904Elasmobranchii Eastman p. 71
1906Elasmobranchii Andrews p. 317
1912Elasmobranchii Fedorowski p. 55
1921Cladodus wildungensis Jaekel
1932Elasmobranchii Bryant p. 232
1934Elasmobranchii Säve-Söderbergh p. 17
1937Cladodus hassiacus Gross
1963Elasmobranchii Jordan p. 590
1973Elasmobranchii Daly p. 564
1979Elasmobranchii Case p. 79
1981Elasmobranchii Thurmond and Jones p. 36
1981Elasmobranchii Zangerl p. 50
1983Elasmobranchii Duffin and Ward p. 839
1983Elasmobranchii Thies p. 10
1985Elasmobranchii Lund p. 2
1985Elasmobranchii Schultze p. 6 figs. 2-3
1985Elasmobranchii Williams p. 88
1987Elasmobranchii Cappetta p. 27
1987Elasmobranchii Kumar and Loyal p. 62
1988Elasmobranchii Case and Schwimmer p. 291
1989Elasmobranchii Murry p. 250
1990Elasmobranchii Kindlimann p. 834
1992Elasmobranchii Cappetta p. 640
1992Elasmobranchii Long p. 14
1993Elasmobranchii Duffin p. 7
1993Elasmobranchii Long et al. p. 655
1996Elasmobranchii Dica et al. p. 118
1997Elasmobranchii Johns p. 29
1998Elasmobranchii Duffin p. 160
1998Elasmobranchii Heidtke p. 137
1998Elasmobranchii Williams p. 251
1999Elasmobranchii Ivanov p. 271
2001Elasmobranchii Duffin
2001Elasmobranchii Marss and Gagnier
2001Elasmobranchii Peng et al. p. 5
2001Elasmobranchii Williams p. 215
2003Elasmobranchii Delsate p. 4
2003Elasmobranchii Duncan p. 114
2004Elasmobranchii Duncan p. 419
2004Elasmobranchii Everhart
2004Elasmobranchii Yamagishi p. 566
2005Elasmobranchii Kriwet
2006Elasmobranchii Chandler et al. p. 2
2007Elasmobranchii Carnevale p. 6
2007Elasmobranchii Everhart p. 226
2007Elasmobranchii Kriwet et al.
2007Elasmobranchii Marsili et al. p. 30
2008Elasmobranchii Adnet et al. p. 713
2008Elasmobranchii Chrzastek p. 228
2008Elasmobranchii Hairapetian et al. p. 174
2008Elasmobranchii Kriwet p. 236
2008Elasmobranchii Pereira and Medeiros p. 209
2009Elasmobranchii Ehret et al. p. 3
2009Elasmobranchii Kriwet et al. p. 320
2010Elasmobranchii Ginter et al. p. 27
2011Elasmobranchii Cook et al.
2011Elasmobranchii Long p. 242
2012Elasmobranchii Ehret et al. p. 1145
2012Elasmobranchii Soto et al.
2013Elasmobranchii Pinheiro et al.
2017Elasmobranchii Engelbrecht et al. p. 2

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
RankNameAuthor
subphylumVertebrata
superclassGnathostomata
classChondrichthyes
subclassElasmobranchiiBonaparte 1838
subclassElasmobranchiiBonaparte 1838

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
No diagnoses are available
Measurements
No measurements are available
Composition: phosphaticsubp
Environment: marinesubp
Locomotion: actively mobilec
Life habit: nektonicc
Diet: carnivorec
Created: 2004-08-17 13:49:23
Modified: 2009-12-13 03:31:01
Source: c = class, subp = subphylum
References: Wagner 2017, Carroll 1988

Age range

Maximum range based only on fossils: base of the Ludfordian to the top of the Holocene or 425.60000 to 0.00000 Ma
Minimum age of oldest fossil (stem group age): 423.0 Ma

Collections (3109 total)

Oldest occurrences

Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Silurian443.4 - 419.2Canada (Nunavut) Kannathalepis milleri (135991)
Ludfordian425.6 - 423.0United Kingdom (England) Onchus sp. (8325)
Ohesaare423.0 - 419.2Estonia Onchus murchisoni, Onchus tenuistriatus, Climatius curvatus (13831)
Pridoli423.0 - 419.2China (Sichuan) Ischnacanthidae indet. (182549)
Pridoli423.0 - 419.2Estonia Onchus roemeri, Onchus tenuistriatus (13829) Onchus tenuistriatus (13830)
Pridoli423.0 - 419.2United Kingdom (Shropshire) Onchus tenuistriatus (132714)
Pridoli423.0 - 419.2Czech Republic Onchus sp. (13894)
Lochkovian419.2 - 410.8United Kingdom (England) Onchus besomensis, Onchus wheathillensis (90352)
Lochkovian419.2 - 410.8Canada (Nova Scotia) Onchus sp., Climatius sp. (14201)
Lochkovian - Pragian419.2 - 407.6USA (Ohio) Onchus sp. (26874)
Lochkovian - Pragian419.2 - 407.6United Kingdom (Scotland) Climatius sp. (26908)
Early/Lower Devonian419.2 - 393.3Bolivia Gyracanthus seriponensis, Gyracanthus sp., Onchus punctuatus, Onchus sicaeformis, Onchus sp., Antarctilamna seriponensis, Climatius enodiscosta (25592)
Early/Lower Devonian419.2 - 393.3Antarctica Machaeracanthus kayseri (35567) Machaeracanthus sp. (35564)
Devonian419.2 - 358.9USA (Kentucky) Asteracanthus siderius (87058)
Pragian - Emsian410.8 - 393.3Canada (New Brunswick) Protodus jexi (90629)
Early/Lower Emsian409.1 - 402.5Germany Machaeracanthus peracutus (74300)
Early/Lower Emsian409.1 - 402.5Russian Federation Elasmobranchii indet. (35710 35711 35712 35713)
Early/Lower Emsian409.1 - 402.5Morocco Machaeracanthus peracutus (150334 150360 150361 150365) Machaeracanthus peracutus, Machaeracanthus sp. (150363)
Early/Lower Emsian409.1 - 402.5Germany (Gemuenden) Gemuendina stuertzi, Machaeracanthus sp. (26903)
Emsian407.6 - 393.3Canada (New Brunswick) Diplodus problematicus (197260)