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Cycadaceae

Cycadopsida - Cycadales - Cycadaceae

Synonymy list
YearName and author
1807Cycadaceae Persoon p. 630
1919Cycadaceae Knowlton
1941Cycadaceae MacGinitie
1984Cycadaceae Meyen p. 90
2000Cycadaceae Mabberley
2001Cycadaceae Doweld p. xvii
2011Cycadaceae Christenhusz et al.

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomPlantae
subkingdomEmbryophyta
phylumCycadophytaBessey 1907
classCycadopsidaBrongniart 1843
RankNameAuthor
orderCycadalesDumortier 1829
familyCycadaceaePersoon 1807
familyCycadaceaePersoon 1807

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Fm. Cycadaceae Persoon 1807
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G. †Beaniopsis Ganju 1947
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G. †Ctenophyllum Schimper 1870
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Ctenophyllum angustifolium Fontaine 1896
Ctenophyllum braunianum Göppert 1844
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Invalid names: Pterophyllum decussatum Emmons 1856 [synonym], Pterophyllum spatulatum Emmons 1857 [synonym], Pterozamites abbreviatus Braun 1843 [synonym], Pterozamites obtusifolius Rogers 1843 [synonym]
Ctenophyllum densifolium Fontaine 1896
Ctenophyllum giganteum Fontaine 1883
Ctenophyllum grandifolium Fontaine 1883
Ctenophyllum latifolium Fontaine 1889
Ctenophyllum lineare Emmons 1857
Ctenophyllum pachynerve Fontaine 1905
Ctenophyllum robustum Emmons 1857
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Invalid names: Ctenophyllum emmonsi Fontaine 1883 [synonym]
Ctenophyllum taxinum Lindley and Hutton 1835
Ctenophyllum truncatum Fontaine 1883
Ctenophyllum wannerianum Fontaine 1900
Ctenophyllum wardii Fontaine 1896
G. †Ctenopsis Berry 1911
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Ctenopsis latifolia Fontaine 1889
G. †Cycadinocarpus Schimper 1870
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Cycadinocarpus chapini Newberry 1888
Cycadinocarpus circularis Newberry 1895
Cycadinocarpus rajamahalensis Feistmantel 1877
G. †Cycadites Buckland 1836
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Cycadites acutus Emmons 1856
Cycadites cutchensis Feistmantel 1876
Cycadites megalophyllus Buckland 1836
Cycadites pungens Lesquereux 1891
Cycadites rajmahalensis Oldham 1863
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Invalid names: Cycadites blanfordianus Oldham 1863 [synonym], Cycadites conferta Morris 1863 [synonym]
Cycadites tenuinervis Fontaine 1883
Cycadites unjiga Dawson 1882
Cycadites wadianus Bose et al. 1983
G. †Cycadospadix Schimper 1870
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G. Cycas Linnaeus 1753
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Cycas fujiiana Yokoyama 1911
G. †Dichotozamites Berry 1911
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Dichotozamites cycadopsis Fontaine 1889
G. †Dioonites Miquel 1851
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Dioonites borealis Dawson 1882
Dioonites buchianus Ettingshausen 1852
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Invalid names: Pterophyllum abietinum Göppert 1816 [synonym]
Dioonites carnallianus Göppert 1843
Dioonites columbianus Dawson 1873
Dioonites dunkerianus Göppert 1843
Dioonites feneonis Brongniart 1828
G. †Encephalartopsis Fontaine 1889
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Encephalartopsis nervosa Fontaine 1889
G. Encephalartos Lehmann 1834 [bread tree]
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Encephalartos cretaceus Lesquereux 1891
G. †Glossozamites Schimper 1870
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Glossozamites distans Fontaine 1889
G. †Leprospermum Heer 1877
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G. †Leptocycas Delevoryas and Hope 1971
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Leptocycas gracilis Delevoryas and Hope 1971
G. †Menucoa Petriella 1969
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Menucoa cazaui Petriella 1969
G. †Microzamia Corda 1846
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Microzamia dubia Berry 1905
Microzamia gibba Reuss 1844
G. †Platypterygium Feistmantel 1886
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Platypterygium densinerve Fontaine 1889
Platypterygium rogersianum Fontaine 1889
G. †Sphenozamites Brongniart 1849
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Sphenozamites beani Lindley and Hutton 1832
Sphenozamites oblanceolatus Penhallow 1902
Sphenozamites rogersianus Fontaine 1883
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Invalid names: Calamites punctatus Emmons 1857 [synonym]
G. †Zamiopsis Fontaine 1889
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Zamiopsis dentata Fontaine 1889
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Invalid names: Zamiopsis longipennis Fontaine 1889 [synonym], Zamiopsis pinnatifida Fontaine 1889 [synonym]
Zamiopsis laciniata Fontaine 1889
Zamiopsis petiolata Fontaine 1889
G. †Zamiostrobus Endlicher 1836
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Zamiostrobus macrocephalus Endlicher 1836
Zamiostrobus virginiensis Fontaine 1883
Diagnosis
No diagnoses are available
Measurements
No measurements are available
No ecological data are available

Age range

Maximum range based only on fossils: base of the Sakmarian to the top of the Holocene or 295.50000 to 0.00000 Ma
Minimum age of oldest fossil (stem group age): 290.1 Ma

Collections (93 total)


Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Permian298.9 - 252.17USA (Kansas) Cycadospadix sp. (11155)
Sakmarian295.5 - 290.1India (Jharkhand) Cycadites sp. (226925)
Sakmarian295.5 - 290.1India Cycadites sp. (30145)
Sakmarian - Kungurian295.5 - 272.3USA (Texas) Cycadospadix sp. (11146)
Wordian - Capitanian268.8 - 259.9South Korea Glossozamites sp. 1 (30268)
Capitanian - Wuchiapingian265.1 - 254.17China (Heilongjiang) Glossozamites sp. 1 (30078)
Induan252.17 - 251.2Russian Federation Glossozamites sp. 1 (30484)
Early/Lower Triassic252.17 - 247.2Russian Federation Glossozamites sp. 1 (30490)
Ladinian242.0 - 237.0Germany Pterophyllum robustum (24820)
Ladinian242.0 - 237.0Russian Federation Sphenozamites sp. 1 (30455)
Ladinian242.0 - 237.0Italy Sphenozamites sp. (154327 154328)
Carnian237.0 - 228.0USA (Virginia) Pterophyllum braunianum (24112) Pterophyllum braunianum, Sphenozamites rogersianus (24111) Zamiostrobus lissocardius, Pterophyllum braunianum, Sphenozamites rogersianus (24110) Zamiostrobus triasiccus (24114)
Carnian237.0 - 228.0Ukraine Cycadospadix sp. 1 (30953)
Carnian237.0 - 228.0Mexico (Sonora) Ctenophyllum braunianum (24005 24036 24069 24073 24074 24075 24076 142640) Ctenophyllum braunianum, Pterophyllum robustum (24092) Pterophyllum robustum (24033 24037)
Carnian237.0 - 228.0Austria Dioonites pachyrhachis (24680)
Carnian237.0 - 228.0Germany (Sud-Deutsche Senke) Pterophyllum robustum (24812)
Carnian237.0 - 228.0China (Fujian) Sphenozamites sp. 1 (29781)
Carnian237.0 - 228.0USA (North Carolina) Leptocycas gracilis (24554) Leptocycas sp. (24499)
Carnian237.0 - 228.0USA (Virginia/North Carolina) Zamiostrobus lissocardus (24383)
Carnian237.0 - 228.0Italy Sphenozamites bronnii, Sphenozamites angustipinnatus (31290)
Carnian - Norian237.0 - 208.5Russian Federation Sphenozamites sp. 1 (30742)
Carnian - Rhaetian237.0 - 201.3China (Hebei) Sphenozamites sp. 1 (29727)
Carnian - Rhaetian237.0 - 201.3China (Ningxia) Sphenozamites sp. 1 (29878)
Late/Upper Triassic237.0 - 201.3USA (North Carolina) Pterozamites decussatus (202497)
Norian228.0 - 208.5USA (North Carolina) Sphenozamites sp., Zamiostrobus lissocardus (55493)
Norian228.0 - 208.5China (Sichuan) Sphenozamites sp. 1 (30030)
Norian228.0 - 208.5China (Hunan) Sphenozamites sp. 1 (29636 29686 29983)
Norian - Rhaetian228.0 - 201.3China (Sichuan) Sphenozamites sp. 1 (30052)
Norian - Rhaetian228.0 - 201.3China (Hubei) Sphenozamites sp. 1 (29863)
Rhaetian208.5 - 201.3China (Shaanxi) Sphenozamites sp. 1 (29940)
Rhaetian208.5 - 201.3Poland Pterophyllum carnallianum (24657)
Hettangian201.3 - 199.3Tajikistan Sphenozamites sp. 1 (30919)
Early/Lower Jurassic201.3 - 174.1USA (Alaska) Ctenophyllum angustifolim (24779)
Early/Lower Jurassic - Middle Jurassic201.3 - 163.5Mexico (Veracruz) Sphenozamites sp. (24736)
Pliensbachian190.8 - 182.7Italy Sphenozamites rossii, Sphenozamites sp. (24564)
Pliensbachian - Bajocian190.8 - 168.3Kazakhstan Glossozamites sp. 1 (30244)
Middle Jurassic174.1 - 163.5Russian Federation Dioonites sp. 1 (30609)
Middle Jurassic174.1 - 163.5Kazakhstan Glossozamites sp. 1 (30243)
Middle Jurassic - Late/Upper Jurassic174.1 - 145.0India (Ladakh) Cycadites wadianus (229179)
Bajocian170.3 - 168.3United Kingdom (England) Cycadospadix sp. (21110 24337)
Middle Bathonian167.7 - 164.7France Sphenozamites brongniartii (31318) Sphenozamites sp. (31317)
Middle Bathonian167.7 - 164.7United Kingdom (England) Sphenozamites bellii (24227)
Late/Upper Jurassic163.5 - 145.0Kazakhstan Sphenozamites sp. 1 (30231)
Late/Upper Jurassic163.5 - 145.0India (Odisha) Cycadites conferta (224689)
Late/Upper Jurassic163.5 - 145.0India (Jharkhand) Beaniopsis rajmahalensis, Cycadites rajmahalensis (224706) Cycadites rajmahalensis, Cycadites blanfordianus, Cycadites conferta (224686)
Late/Upper Jurassic163.5 - 145.0India (Andhra Pradesh) Pterophyllum braunianum (224645)
Late/Upper Jurassic - Early/Lower Cretaceous163.5 - 100.5India (Gujarat) Cycadites cutchensis (226874)
Middle Oxfordian161.2 - 155.7France Zamiostrobus index, Cycadospadix moroeanus (24421)
Kimmeridgian - Tithonian157.3 - 145.0Russian Federation Glossozamites sp. 1 (30448)
Kimmeridgian - Tithonian157.3 - 145.0USA (Wyoming) Cycadaceae indet. (58507)
Tithonian152.1 - 145.0Russian Federation Glossozamites sp. 1 (30597)
Cretaceous145.0 - 66.0USA (South Dakota) Glossozamites Fontaineanus (32034)
Cretaceous145.0 - 66.0Greenland Microzamia paututensis (23411 23412 23504 23509) Microzamia paututensis, Microzamia sp. (23435) Microzamia sp. (23418 23419)
Aptian125.0 - 113.0USA (Virginia) Zamites buchianus (36515)
Late/Upper Aptian - Early/Lower Albian122.46 - 109.0India (Gujarat) Cycadospadix sp. (32378)
Early/Lower Albian - Late/Upper Aptian112.03 - 112.03Ecuador (El Oro) Dioonites buchianus (32482)
Early/Lower Albian - Late/Upper Aptian112.03 - 112.03Ecuador (Loja) Dioonites buchianus (32488)
Early/Lower Albian112.03 - 109.0USA (Virginia) Dichotozamites cycadopsis (20897)
Middle Cenomanian - Late/Upper Cenomanian99.6 - 93.5Spain (Castilla-La Mancha) Cycadaceae indet. (132494)
Paleogene66.0 - 23.03Argentina (Río Negro) Menucoa cazaui (138338)
Clarkforkian56.8 - 55.8USA (Wyoming) C. FW52 (28650)
Wasatchian55.8 - 50.3USA (Wyoming) C. RR68 (28741)
Middle Eocene - Late/Upper Eocene48.6 - 33.9China (Liaoning) Cycas anomostoma (223815)
Bartonian41.3 - 38.0Japan Cycas fujiiana (179906)
Tortonian11.62 - 7.246China (Yunnan) Cycas sp. (11798)
Pliocene - Pleistocene5.333 - 0.0117Congo-Kinshasa Encephalartos laurenianus (22346)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0Bahamas (Great Abaco Island) Cycadaceae indet. (144662)