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Ginkgoopsida

Ginkgoopsida

Taxonomy
Ginkgoopsida was named by Engler (1897). It is extant.

It was assigned to Pinophyta by Meyen (1984); to Gymnospermae by Mabberley (2000); and to Ginkgophyta by McLoughlin et al. (1995) and Doweld (2001).

Sister taxa
Calamopityales, Callistophytales, Caytoniales, Czekanowskiales, Ephedrales, Ginkgoales, Karkeniales, Leptostrobales, Pentoxylales

Synonymy list
YearName and author
1897Ginkgoopsida Engler p. 341
1984Ginkgoopsida Meyen p. 88
1995Ginkgoopsida McLoughlin et al.
2000Ginkgoopsida Mabberley
2001Ginkgoopsida Doweld p. xiii

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomPlantae
subkingdomEmbryophyta
phylumGinkgophytaBessey 1907
RankNameAuthor
classGinkgoopsidaEngler 1897
classGinkgoopsidaEngler 1897

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Cl. Ginkgoopsida Engler 1897
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G. †Asterophyllum Schimper 1869
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Asterophyllum furcatum Lindley and Hutton 1837
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Fm. †Calamopityaceae Scott 1909
+
G. †Calamopitys Unger 1856
+
Calamopitys saturni Unger 1856
G. †Calamopteris Unger 1856
+
Calamopteris debilis Unger 1856
G. †Calamosyrinx Unger 1856
+
Calamosyrinx devonica Unger 1856
G. †Deltasperma Long 1961
+
G. †Endoxylon Scott 1925
+
Endoxylon zonatum Kidston 1923
G. †Eosperma Barnard 1959
+
Eosperma oxroadense Barnard 1959
G. †Kalymma Unger 1856
+
Kalymma grandis Unger 1856
G. †Lyrasperma Long 1960
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Lyrasperma scotica Calder 1938
G. †Stenomyelon Kidston 1909
+
Stenomyelon tuedianum Kidston 1909
G. †Diichnia Read 1936
+
+
+
G. †Angarocarpus Radczenko 1955
+
Angarocarpus fusiformis Tchirkova 1955
G. †Callandrium Stidd and Hall 1970
+
Callandrium callistophytoides Stidd and Hall 1970
G. †Callistophyton Delevoryas and Morgan 1954
+
Callistophyton poroxyloides Delevoryas and Morgan 1954
G. †Callospermarion Eggert and Delevoryas 1960
+
Callospermarion pussillum Eggert and Delevoryas 1960
G. †Dicksonites Sterzel 1883
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Dicksonites pluckeneti Schlotheim 1881
G. †Eremopteris Schimper 1869
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Eremopteris artemisiaefolia Sternberg 1869
G. †Gondwanotheca Neuburg 1948
+
Gondwanotheca siberica Neuberg 1948
G. †Idanothekion Millay and Eggert 1970
+
Idanothekion glandulosum Millay and Eggert 1970
G. †Paragondwanidium Meyen 1967
Invalid names: Cornucarpaceae Doweld 2001 [empty]
+
G. †Amphorispermum Harris 1932
+
+
G. †Caytonia Thomas 1925
+
Caytonia indica Bose and Banerji 1984
Caytonia sewardi Thomas 1925
G. †Sagenopteris Presl 1838
+
Sagenopteris alaskensis Fontaine 1905
Sagenopteris colpodes Harris 1940
Sagenopteris elliptica Fontaine 1889
Sagenopteris emmonsi Fontaine 1900
+
Invalid names: Cyclopteris obscurus Emmons 1857 [replaced]
Sagenopteris grandifolia Fontaine 1905
Sagenopteris latifolia Fontaine 1889
Sagenopteris longicaulis Du Toit 1927
Sagenopteris mantelli Dunker 1846
Sagenopteris mclearni Berry 1929
Sagenopteris nervosa Fontaine 1905
Sagenopteris nilssoniana Brongniart 1825
+
Invalid names: Sagenopteris rhoifolia Presl 1838 [synonym]
Sagenopteris oblongifolia Penhallow 1902
Sagenopteris oregonensis Fontaine 1895
Sagenopteris paucifolia Phillips 1829
Sagenopteris stoliczkana Feistmantel 1879
Sagenopteris variabilis Velenovsky 1885
Sagenopteris virginiensis Fontaine 1889
Invalid names: Phyllopteris Brongniart 1849 [synonym]
G. †Gristhorpia Thomas 1925
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Gristhorpia nathorsti Thomas 1925
G. †Microcheiris Harris 1935
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Microcheiris enigma Harris 1935
G. †Pseudosagenopteris Potonie 1900
G. †Scoresbya Harris 1932
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Scoresbya dentata Harris 1932
G. †Vitreisporites Leschik 1955
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Vitreisporites pallidus Nilsson 1958
Vitreisporites rajmahalensis Sah and Jain 1965
Vitreisporites signatus Leschik 1956
Or. †Czekanowskiales Pant 1957
+
G. †Arctobaiera Florin 1936
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Arctobaiera flettii Florin 1936
G. †Czekanowskia Heer 1876
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Czekanowskia capillaris Newberry 1895
Czekanowskia nervosa Heer 1881
Czekanowskia setacea Heer 1876
G. †Hartzia Harris 1935
+
Hartzia tenuis Harris 1935
G. †Ixostrobus Raciborski 1891
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Ixostrobus siemiradzkii Raciborski 1891
G. †Leptostrobus Heer 1876
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Leptostrobus alatus Ward 1899
Leptostrobus mariposensis Fontaine 1900
Leptostrobus multiflorus Fontaine 1889
Leptostrobus ovalis Ward 1905
G. †Phoenicopsis Heer 1876
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Phoenicopsis elongatus Morris 1845
Phoenicopsis speciosa Heer 1876
Phoenicopteris croizeti Lapparent 1883
G. †Solenites Lindley and Hutton 1834
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Solenites baishanensis Li et al. 2015
Solenites gracilis Li et al. 2015
Solenites murrayana Lindley and Hutton 1834
G. †Sphenarion Harris
G. †Dactylophyllum Read 1934
+
Or. Ephedrales Dumortier 1829
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G. †Amphiephedra Miki 1964
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Fm. Ephedraceae Dumortier 1829 [jointfir]
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G. Ephedra Linnaeus 1753
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Ephedra distachya Cladera et al. 2007
G. †Ephedrites Göppert and Berendt 1845
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Ephedrites johnianus Goeppert and Berendt 1845
Ephedrites vernonensis Fontaine 1905
G. †Ephedripites Bolkhovitina and Potonié 1958
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Subg. †Ephedripites (Distachyapites) Krutzsch 1961
Ephedripites ambiguus Hedlund 1966
Ephedripites barghoornii Morgan 1978
Ephedripites caichiguensis Narváez and Sabino 2008
Ephedripites fissuratus Phillips 1971
Ephedripites irregularis Herngreen 1973
Ephedripites jansonii Muller 1968
Ephedripites montanaensis Brenner 1968
Ephedripites notensis Cookson 1957
Ephedripites ovalis Müller 1968
Ephedripites regularis van Hoeken-Klinkenberg 1964
Ephedripites strigatus Brenner 1968
Ephedripites translucidus Deák and Combaz 1967
Ephedripites vanegensis Van der Hammen and Garcia de Mutis 1966
Ephedripites zaklinskaiae Azéma and Boltenhagen 1974
G. †Regalipollenites de Lima 1980 [elaterate]
+
Regalipollenites amphoriformis de Lima 1980 [elaterate]
Or. Ginkgoales Goroschankin 1904
+
G. †Baieroxylon Greguss 1961
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Baieroxylon cicatricum Prasad and Lele 1984
Baieroxylon graminovillae Zimmerman 1953
Baieroxylon implexum Zimmermann 1953
Baieroxylon multiseriale Prasad 1982
Baieroxylon rocablanquense Gnaedinger 2012
G. †Bavaricutis Roselt and Schneider 1969
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Bavaricutis angustiora Roselt and Schenider 1969
G. †Caucasia Anisimova 1973
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Caucasia ginkgophylloides Anisimova 1973
G. †Eoginkgoites Bock 1952
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G. †Eretmophyllum Thomas 1914
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Eretmophyllum pubescens Thomas 1914
G. †Euryspatha Prinada 1956
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Euryspatha rarinervis Prinada 1956
Fm. †Ginkgoaceae Engler
+
G. †Baiera Braun 1843
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Baiera africana Baldoni 1980
Baiera baishanensis Zhao et al. 2016
Baiera cuyana Frenguelli 1942
Baiera digitata Brongniart 1828
Baiera foliosa Fontaine 1889
Baiera gracilis Bean 1843
Baiera grandis Hollick 1906
Baiera incurvata Heer 1882
Baiera indica Lele 1962
Baiera longifolia Pomel 1847
Baiera mansfeldensis Bauer et al. 2013
Baiera muensteriana Presl 1838
Baiera multifida Fontaine 1883
+
Invalid names: Noeggerathia striata Emmons 1857 [synonym]
Baiera rollerii Frenguelli 1946
G. †Baierophyllites Jain and Delevoryas 1967
+
Baierophyllites florinii Jain and Delevoryas 1967
G. †Esterella Boersma and Visscher 1969
+
Esterella gracilis Boersma and Visscher 1969
G. Ginkgo Linnaeus 1771 [ginkgo]
+
Ginkgo acetaria Ward 1905
Ginkgo adiantoides Unger 1845
Ginkgo baynesiana Dawson 1882
Ginkgo dawsoni Knowlton 1919
+
Invalid names: Ginkgo pusilla Dawson 1893 [replaced]
Ginkgo digitata Brongniart 1830
Ginkgo huttoni Sternberg 1833
Ginkgo laramiensis Ward 1885
Ginkgo lepida Heer 1885
Ginkgo lobata Feistmantel 1877
Ginkgo nana Dawson 1885
Ginkgo patagonica Berry 1935
Ginkgo pluripartita Heer 1876
Ginkgo pusilla Heer 1876
Ginkgo rajmahalensis Sah and Jain 1965
Ginkgo sibirica Heer 1885
+
Invalid names: Baiera brevifolia Newberry 1891 [synonym]
Ginkgo wyomingensis Manum 1966
Invalid names: Salisburia Ettinghausen and Gardner 1879 [synonym]
G. †Ginkgoitocladus Krasilov 1972
+
Ginkgoitocladus burejense Krasilov 1972
G. †Stachyopitys Schenk 1867
+
Stachyopitys anthoides Frenguelli 1944
Stachyopitys preslii Schenk 1867
G. †Ginkgoxylon Saporta 1884
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Ginkgoxylon asiaemediae Khudaiberdyev 1962
Ginkgoxylon dixitii Biradar and Mahabale 1978
G. †Gondwanophyton Maithy 1974
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Gondwanophyton indicum Maithy 1974
G. †Handapaphyllum Chandra and Singh 1988
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Handapaphyllum indicum Chandra and Singh 1988
G. †Permophyllum Zalessky 1937
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Permophyllum incisum Zalessky 1937
G. †Phyllotenia Salfeld 1909
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Phyllotenia longifolia Salfeld 1909
G. †Pseudoginkgo Velenovsky and Viniklar 1926
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Pseudoginkgo bohemica Velenovsky and Viniklar 1926
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G. †Burejospermum Krasilov 1972
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Burejospermum crassitestum Krasilov 1972
G. †Umaltolepis Krasilov 1972
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Umaltolepis vachrameevii Krasilov 1972
G. †Sphenobaiera Florin 1936
+
Sphenobaiera africana Baldoni 1980
+
Invalid names: Baiera taeniata Geinitz 1876 [synonym]
Sphenobaiera chilensis Florin 1940
Sphenobaiera granulifer Sixtel 1962
Sphenobaiera pontifolia Anderson and Anderson 1989
Sphenobaiera spectabilis Nathorst 1936
Sphenobaiera tenuifolia Johnston 1887
Fm. †Toretziaceae Stanislavsky 1973
+
G. †Toretzia Stanislavsky 1973
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Toretzia angustifolia Stanislavsky 1973
G. †Windwardia Florin 1936
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Windwardia crookallii Florin 1936
Invalid names: Schmeissneriaceae [empty], Umaltolepidiaceae [empty]
Or. †Karkeniales Doweld 2001
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Fm. †Karkeniaceae Krassilov 1972
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G. †Karkenia Archangelsky 1965
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Karkenia fecunda Retallack 1981
Karkenia incurva Archangelsky 1965
G. †Kiritchkovia Doweld 2013
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Kiritchkovia aksarinii Doweld 2013
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Invalid names: Sibiriella aksarinii Kiritchkova and Kostina 2005 [replaced]
Kiritchkovia koltogorica Doweld 2013
+
Invalid names: Sibiriella koltogorica Kiritchkova and Kostina 2005 [replaced]
Invalid names: Sibiriella Kiritchkova and Kostina 2005 [replaced]
+
Invalid names: Iraniaceae [empty], Leptostrobaceae [empty]
G. †Linguifolium Arber 1913
+
Linguifolium arctum Menendez 1951
Linguifolium curvatum Bose and Banerji 1984
Linguifolium lilleanum Arber 1913
Linguifolium steinmannii Solms-Laubach 1899
+
G. †Carnoconites Srivastava 1944
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Carnoconites compactum Srivastava 1944
G. †Nipaniophyllum Sahni 1948
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Nipaniophyllum raoi Sahni 1948
G. †Nipanioxylon Srivastava 1944
+
Nipanioxylon guptai Srivastava 1944
G. †Pentoxylon Srivastava 1944
+
Pentoxylon sahnii Srivastava 1944
G. †Sahnia Vishnu-Mittre 1953
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Sahnia nipaniensis Vishnu-Mittre 1953
Invalid names: Pentoxylaceae [empty]
Subcl. †Umaltolepididae Doweld 2001
+
Invalid names: Umaltolepidales Doweld 2001 [empty]
Diagnosis
No diagnoses are available
Measurements
No measurements are available
No ecological data are available

Age range

Maximum range based only on fossils: base of the Early/Lower Frasnian to the top of the Holocene or 383.70000 to 0.00000 Ma
Minimum age of oldest fossil (stem group age): 382.4 Ma

Collections (1978 total)

Oldest occurrences

Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Early/Lower Frasnian383.7 - 382.4USA (New York) Calamopitys eupuncatata (23188)
Famennian372.2 - 358.9USA (Kentucky) Calamopitys americana, Calamopitys foerstei, Stenomyelon muratum, Kalymma lirata, Kalymma resinosa, Kalymma auriculata, Calamopteris hippocrepis, Diichnia kentuckiensis, Kalymma grandis (21168) Calamopitys americana, Calamopitys foerstei, Stenomyelon muratum, Kalymma lirata, Kalymma resinosa, Kalymma hippocrepis (21178) Calamopitys americana, Calamopteris hippocrepis, Diichnia kentuckiensis (21177) Calamopitys americana, Stenomyelon muratum, Kalymma lirata, Kalymma resinosa, Kalymma auriculata, Calamopteris hippocrepis, Diichnia kentuckiensis, Kalymma grandis (20976) Kalymma lirata (21031 21032 21036) Kalymma lirata, Kalymma grandis (21028) Kalymma minuta (21205)
Famennian372.2 - 358.9USA (Indiana) Kalymma lirata (21033)
Hastarian - Ivorian358.9 - 346.7United Kingdom (Scotland) Endoxylon zonatum (10644)
Tournaisian358.9 - 346.7France (SC Massif Central) Calamopitys sp., Calamopitys embergeri (21362)
Tournaisian358.9 - 346.7United Kingdom (England) Kalymma sp. (21312)
Tournaisian358.9 - 346.7France Stenomyelon bifasciculare (23824 23826)
Tournaisian358.9 - 346.7United Kingdom (Scotland) Deltasperma fouldenense (34491 36227) Deltasperma fouldenense, Eosperma oxroadense (10673 10674 36224 36236 36239 36275 36276 36278) Eosperma edromense, Stenomyelon heterangioides, Stenomyelon tuedianum (23877) Eosperma edromense, Stenomyelon primaevum, Stenomyelon heterangoides, Kalymma tuediana, Lyrasperma scotica (10657) Eosperma oxroadense (10671 10677) Kalymma tuediana, Stenomyelon tuedianum (21324) Stenomyelon heterangioides, Deltasperma fouldenense, Stenomyelon tuedianum (23829) Stenomyelon heterangioides, Stenomyelon tuedianum (23830 23880 23881) Stenomyelon primaevum (23832 23878 23882 23883 23884)
Tournaisian358.9 - 346.7Germany (Thuringia) Calamopitys annularis, Calamopitys solmsii, Kalymma sp., Calamopitys saturni (21366)
Hastarian - Asbian358.9 - 336.0United Kingdom (Scotland) Calamopitys radiata (10645)
Tournaisian - Visean358.9 - 330.9United Kingdom (Scotland) Lyrasperma scotica (34509) Stenomyelon sp., Lyrasperma scotica (10652) Stenomyelon tripartium, Kalymma tuediana, Lyrasperma scotica (10656)
Mississippian358.9 - 323.2United Kingdom (Scotland) Eosperma oxroadense (10678) Eosperma oxroadense, Stenomyelon tuedianum (10648) Stenomyelon heterangoides, Lyrasperma scotica (10655)
Mississippian358.9 - 323.2France (Montagne Noire) Calamopitys blayacii, Calamopitys embergeri, Calamopitys sp., Stenomyelon sp., Kalymma coumiacensis, Kalymma sp. (10663)
Mississippian358.9 - 323.2USA (Illinois) Eremopteris sp. (13511)
Carboniferous - Desmoinesian358.9 - 306.0USA (Missouri) Eremopteris bilobata (11196)
Carboniferous358.9 - 298.9USA (Kentucky) Eremopteris gracilis (11203)
Carboniferous358.9 - 298.9Canada (Nova Scotia) Phyllopteris antiqua (13145)
Carboniferous358.9 - 298.9Spain (Malpica) Dicksonites potieri (28379)
Carboniferous358.9 - 298.9USA (Indiana) Dicksonites pluckeneti (12668)
Carboniferous358.9 - 298.9USA (Oklahoma) Callistophyton boyssetii (12769)