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Cycadopsida (cycads)

Cycadopsida

Taxonomy
Cycadopsida was named by Brongniart (1843). It is extant.

It was assigned to Pinophyta by Meyen (1984); to Gymnospermae by Mabberley (2000); and to Cycadophyta by Lapasha and Miller (1985) and Doweld (2001).

Sister taxa
Cycadales, Dioales, Gnetales, Lagenostomales, Pteridospermales, Trigonocarpales (syn. Medullosales), Welwitschiales

Synonymy list
YearName and author
1843Cycadopsida Brongniart pp. xxxii, 136
1984Cycadopsida Meyen p. 89
1985Cycadopsida Lapasha and Miller
2000Cycadopsida Mabberley
2001Cycadopsida Doweld p. iii

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomPlantae
subkingdomEmbryophyta
phylumCycadophytaBessey 1907
RankNameAuthor
classCycadopsidaBrongniart 1843
classCycadopsidaBrongniart 1843

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Cl. Cycadopsida Brongniart 1843 [cycads]
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G. †Crassofilicites Bock 1969
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Or. Cycadales Dumortier 1829
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G. †Amuriella Prinada 1956
+
Amuriella extra Prinada 1956
G. †Anthrophyopsis Nathorst 1878
+
Anthrophyopsis crassinervis Nathorst 1878
Anthrophyopsis decurrens Kimura and Kim 1989
Anthrophyopsis miassica Vladimirovich 1958
Anthrophyopsis naruensis Doludenko and Svanidze 1970
Anthrophyopsis nilssoni Nathorst 1878
G. †Apoldia Wesley 1958
+
Apoldia tenera Compter 1883
G. †Archaeocycas Mamay 1973
+
Archaeocycas whitei Mamay 1973
G. †Aricycas Ash 1991
+
Aricycas paulae Ash 1991
Fm. †Beaniaceae
+
G. †Androstrobus Schimper 1870
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Androstrobus major Van Konijnenburg-Van Cittert 1968
Androstrobus manis Harris 1941
Androstrobus munku Archangelsky and Villar de Seoane 2004
Androstrobus patagonicus Archangelsky and Villar de Seoane 2004
Androstrobus rayen Archangelsky and Villar de Seoane 2004
Androstrobus wonnacotti Harris 1941
Androstrobus zamioides Schimper 1872
G. †Beania Carruthers 1869
+
Beania carruthersi Nathorst 1902
Beania gracilis Carruthers 1869
Beania kochi Harris 1937
G. †Behuninia Chandler 1966
+
Behuninia joannei Chandler 1966
G. †Bucklandia Sternberg 1825
+
Bucklandia anomala Sternberg 1825
+
Invalid names: Clathraria anomala Stokes and Webb 1824 [objective synonym]
Bucklandia dichotoma Sharma 1969
Bucklandia guptae Sharma 1967
Bucklandia sahnii Bose 1953
G. †Bureja Prinada 1956
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Bureja rigida Prinada 1956
G. †Cavamonocolpites de Lima 1989
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G. †Ctenozamites Nathorst 1886
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Ctenozamites cycadea Brongniart 1886
Ctenozamites kachchhensis Bose and Banerji 1984
Ctenozamites surangei Sukh-Dev and Zeba-Bano 1981
Fm. Cycadaceae Persoon 1807
+
G. †Beaniopsis Ganju 1947
+
G. †Ctenophyllum Schimper 1870
+
Ctenophyllum angustifolium Fontaine 1896
Ctenophyllum braunianum Göppert 1844
+
Invalid names: Pterophyllum decussatum Emmons 1856 [synonym], Pterophyllum spatulatum Emmons 1857 [synonym], Pterozamites abbreviatus Braun 1843 [synonym], Pterozamites obtusifolius Rogers 1843 [synonym]
Ctenophyllum densifolium Fontaine 1896
Ctenophyllum giganteum Fontaine 1883
Ctenophyllum grandifolium Fontaine 1883
Ctenophyllum latifolium Fontaine 1889
Ctenophyllum lineare Emmons 1857
Ctenophyllum pachynerve Fontaine 1905
Ctenophyllum robustum Emmons 1857
+
Invalid names: Ctenophyllum emmonsi Fontaine 1883 [synonym]
Ctenophyllum taxinum Lindley and Hutton 1835
Ctenophyllum truncatum Fontaine 1883
Ctenophyllum wannerianum Fontaine 1900
Ctenophyllum wardii Fontaine 1896
G. †Ctenopsis Berry 1911
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Ctenopsis latifolia Fontaine 1889
G. †Cycadinocarpus Schimper 1870
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Cycadinocarpus chapini Newberry 1888
Cycadinocarpus circularis Newberry 1895
Cycadinocarpus rajamahalensis Feistmantel 1877
G. †Cycadites Buckland 1836
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Cycadites acutus Emmons 1856
Cycadites cutchensis Feistmantel 1876
Cycadites megalophyllus Buckland 1836
Cycadites pungens Lesquereux 1891
Cycadites rajmahalensis Oldham 1863
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Invalid names: Cycadites blanfordianus Oldham 1863 [synonym], Cycadites conferta Morris 1863 [synonym]
Cycadites tenuinervis Fontaine 1883
Cycadites unjiga Dawson 1882
Cycadites wadianus Bose et al. 1983
G. †Cycadospadix Schimper 1870
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G. Cycas Linnaeus 1753
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Cycas fujiiana Yokoyama 1911
G. †Dichotozamites Berry 1911
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Dichotozamites cycadopsis Fontaine 1889
G. †Dioonites Miquel 1851
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Dioonites borealis Dawson 1882
Dioonites buchianus Ettingshausen 1852
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Invalid names: Pterophyllum abietinum Göppert 1816 [synonym]
Dioonites carnallianus Göppert 1843
Dioonites columbianus Dawson 1873
Dioonites dunkerianus Göppert 1843
Dioonites feneonis Brongniart 1828
G. †Encephalartopsis Fontaine 1889
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Encephalartopsis nervosa Fontaine 1889
G. Encephalartos Lehmann 1834 [bread tree]
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Encephalartos cretaceus Lesquereux 1891
G. †Glossozamites Schimper 1870
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Glossozamites distans Fontaine 1889
G. †Leprospermum Heer 1877
+
G. †Leptocycas Delevoryas and Hope 1971
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Leptocycas gracilis Delevoryas and Hope 1971
G. †Menucoa Petriella 1969
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Menucoa cazaui Petriella 1969
G. †Microzamia Corda 1846
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Microzamia dubia Berry 1905
Microzamia gibba Reuss 1844
G. †Platypterygium Feistmantel 1886
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Platypterygium densinerve Fontaine 1889
Platypterygium rogersianum Fontaine 1889
G. †Sphenozamites Brongniart 1849
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Sphenozamites beani Lindley and Hutton 1832
Sphenozamites oblanceolatus Penhallow 1902
Sphenozamites rogersianus Fontaine 1883
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Invalid names: Calamites punctatus Emmons 1857 [synonym]
G. †Zamiopsis Fontaine 1889
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Zamiopsis dentata Fontaine 1889
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Invalid names: Zamiopsis longipennis Fontaine 1889 [synonym], Zamiopsis pinnatifida Fontaine 1889 [synonym]
Zamiopsis laciniata Fontaine 1889
Zamiopsis petiolata Fontaine 1889
G. †Zamiostrobus Endlicher 1836
+
Zamiostrobus macrocephalus Endlicher 1836
Zamiostrobus virginiensis Fontaine 1883
G. †Cycadenia Bock 1969
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Cycadenia elongata Bock 1969
G. †Cycadinorachis Sharma 1969
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Cycadinorachis omegoides Sharma 1969
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G. †Dirhopalostachys Krassilov 1975
G. †Eucommiidites Erdtman 1948
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Eucommiidites minor Groot and Penny 1961
Eucommiidites troedsonii Potonié 1958
Eucommiidites troedssonii Potonié 1958
G. †Fascisvarioxylon Jain 1964
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Invalid names: Sewardioxylon Gupta 1971 [synonym]
G. †Gymnovulites Shukla 1948
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Gymnovulites deccanii Paradkar 1976
G. †Haitingeria Krasser 1916
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Haitingeria krasseri Schuster 1911
G. †Heilungia Prinada 1956
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Heilungia amureansis Novopokrovsky 1956
G. †Mesosingeria Archangelsky 1963
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Mesosingeria coriacea Archangelsky 1963
Mesosingeria oblonga Villar de Seoane 2005
G. †Michelilloa Archangelsky and Brett 1963
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Michelilloa waltoni Archangelsky and Brett 1963
G. †Nikania Prinada 1956
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Nikania pectinata Prinada 1956
G. †Nilsonia Brongniart 1825
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Nilsonia californica Fontaine 1894
Nilsonia compta Phillips 1905
Nilsonia gibbsii Newberry 1863
+
Invalid names: Nilsonia johnstrupi Heer 1882 [synonym]
Nilsonia lata Dawson 1882
Nilsonia nigracollensis Wieland 1905
Nilsonia nipponensis Yokoyama 1889
Nilsonia oregonensis Fontaine 1905
Nilsonia orientalis Heer 1878
Nilsonia parvula Heer 1876
Nilsonia pasaytensis Penhallow 1907
Nilsonia polymorpha Schenk 1867
Nilsonia pterophylloides Nathorst 1878
Nilsonia sambucensis Ward 1905
Nilsonia schaumbergensis Dunker 1889
Nilsonia stantoni Ward 1905
Nilssonia brevis Brongniart 1825
Nilssonia fissa Feistmantel 1879
Nilssonia princeps Oldham and Morris 1862
Fm. †Nilssoniaceae Kimura and Sekido 1975
+
G. †Nilssoniocladus Kimura and Sekido 1975
+
Nilssoniocladus yukonensis Peppe et al. 2007
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Invalid names: Phylloteuthis subovata Meek and Hayden 1860 [synonym]
Invalid names: Phylloteuthis Meek and Hayden 1860 [synonym]
G. †Pseudoctenis Seward 1911
+
Pseudoctenis azcaratei Herbst and Troncoso 2000
Pseudoctenis ballii Feistmantel 1886
Pseudoctenis eathiensis Richards 1911
Pseudoctenis fissa Du Toit 1927
Pseudoctenis fragilis Bose and Banerji 1984
Pseudoctenis grossa Holmes 1982
G. †Palaeozamia Endlicher 1836
G. †Paracycas Harris 1964
+
Paracycas cteis Harris 1964
G. †Phasmatocycas Mamay 1973
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Phasmatocycas kansana Mamay 1973
G. †Pleiotrichium Weyland and Greifeld 1953
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Pleiotrichium commelinoides Weyland and Greifeld 1953
G. †Sarmatiella Prynada 1956
+
Sarmatiella brevifolia Prynada 1956
G. †Stangerites Oldham and Morris 1863
G. †Sueria Menéndez 1965
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Sueria rectinervis Menéndez 1965
G. †Taeniopteris Brongniart 1828
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Taeniopteris acuminata McClelland 1850
Taeniopteris auriculata Fontaine 1889
Taeniopteris cheondaeriensis Kimura and Kim 1989
Taeniopteris crassinervis Feistmantel 1877
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Invalid names: Macrotaeniopteris misrai Agarwal 1972 [synonym], Taeniopteris buskoghatensis Bose and Banerji 1981 [synonym]
Taeniopteris densinervis Feistmantel 1876
Taeniopteris ensis Oldham 1863
Taeniopteris feddeni Feistmantel 1881
Taeniopteris glandulata Srivastava 1971
Taeniopteris haburensis Bose and Banerji 1981
Taeniopteris kashmirensis Hazra and Prasad 1957
Taeniopteris kelberi Kustatscher and Van Konijnenburg-van Cittert 2010
Taeniopteris kutchensis Bose and Banerji 1981
Taeniopteris major Lindley and Hutton 1833
Taeniopteris minensis Oishi 1932
Taeniopteris mungyeongensis Kimura and Kim 1989
Taeniopteris nabaensis Oishi 1932
Taeniopteris nervosa Fontaine 1889
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Invalid names: Angiopteridium densinerve Fontaine 1889 [synonym], Angiopteridium pachyphyllum Fontaine 1889 [synonym], Angiopteridium strictinerve Fontaine 1889 [synonym], Anomozamites angustifolius Fontaine 1889 [synonym], Anomozamites virginicus Fontaine 1889 [synonym]
Taeniopteris oldhamii Bose and Banerji 1981
Taeniopteris oregonensis Fontaine 1905
Taeniopteris orovillensis Fontaine 1896
Taeniopteris plumosa Dawson 1882
Taeniopteris shastensis Knowlton 1919
Taeniopteris spatulata McClelland 1850
Taeniopteris stenoneura Schenk 1867
Taeniopteris stenophylla Kryshtofovich 1910
Taeniopteris vittata Brongniart 1831
Taeniopteris yorkensis Fontaine 1900
Fm. Zamiaceae Horaninow 1834
+
G. †Bororoa Petriella 1972
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Bororoa andreisii Petriella 1972
Bororoa anzulovichii Petriella 1972
G. Bowenia Hooker and Hooker 1863
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Bowenia eocenica Hill 1978
Bowenia papillosa Hill 1978
G. †Brunoa Artabe et al. 2004
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Brunoa santarrosensis Artabe et al. 2004
G. Ceratozamia Brongniart 1846
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Subfm. Encephalartoideae Stevenson
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Tr. Encephalarteae Miquel 1861
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G. †Austrozamia Wilf et al. 2016
G. †Chamberlania Artabe et al. 2005
G. Lepidozamia Regel 1857
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Lepidozamia foveolata Hill 1980
G. Macrozamia Miquel 1842
G. †Pterostoma Hill 1980
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Pterostoma douglasii Hill and Pole 1994
Pterostoma hirsutus Hill and Pole 1994
Pterostoma zamioides Hill 1980
G. †Restrepophyllum Passalia et al. 2010
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Restrepophyllum chiguoides Passalia et al. 2010
G. †Worsdellia Artabe et al. 2004
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Worsdellia bonettiae Artabe et al. 2004
G. Zamia Linnaeus 1763
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Zamia macrophylla Lindley and Hutton 1834
Zamia mississippiensis Berry 1916
Zamia wilcoxensis Berry 1916
Invalid names: Crossozamiaceae Doweld 2001 [empty]
G. †Deltolepis Harris 1942
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Deltolepis credipota Harris 1942
Or. Dioales Doweld 2001
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Fm. Dioaceae Doweld 2001
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G. Dioon Lindley 1843
G. †Drepanozamites Harris 1932
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Drepanozamites nilssoni Harris 1932
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Invalid names: Rhacopteris gothani Sze 1933 [synonym]
Drepanozamites pani Sze 1956
Or. Gnetales Martius 1835
+
G. †Alaticolpites Regali et al. 1975 [elaterate]
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Alaticolpites limai Regali et al. 1975 [elaterate]
G. †Elaterocolpites Jardiné and Magloire 1965 [elaterate]
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Elaterocolpites africaensis Herngreen 1973
Elaterocolpites castelaini Jardiné and Magloire 1962
Elaterocolpites castelainii Jardiné and Magloire 1965
Elaterocolpites castelani Herngreen 1973 [elaterate]
Elaterocolpites pentarhetus Srivastava 1984 [elaterate]
G. †Elaterosporites Jardiné 1967 [elaterate]
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Elaterosporites acuminatus Jardiné 1967 [elaterate]
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Invalid names: Galeacornea acuminata Stover 1963 [synonym]
Elaterosporites castellaini Jardine and Magloire 1965
Elaterosporites klaszi Jardiné 1967 [elaterate]
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Invalid names: Galeacornea klaszi Jardiné and Magloire 1965 [objective synonym]
Elaterosporites klaszii Jardiné 1967
Elaterosporites protensus Jardiné 1967 [elaterate]
+
Invalid names: Galeacornea protensa Stover 1963 [objective synonym]
Elaterosporites verrucatus Jardiné 1967 [elaterate]
+
Invalid names: Galeacornea verrucata Jardiné and Magloire 1965 [objective synonym]
G. †Steevesipollenites Stover 1964
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Steevesipollenites cupuliformis Azema and Boltenhagen 1974
Steevesipollenites dajani Brenner 1968
Steevesipollenites dayani Brenner 1968
Steevesipollenites grambasti Azema and Boltenhagen 1974
Steevesipollenites pygmeus Azema and Boltenhagen 1974
Steevesipollenites sinuosus Azema and Boltenhagen 1974
Steevesipollenites stoverii Deaf et al. 2014
Invalid names: Gnetaceae Lindley 1834 [empty]
+
Invalid names: Buteoxylaceae [empty], Lagenostomaceae [empty]
G. †Manebachia Remy and Remy 1958
+
Manebachia polysporangiata Remy and Remy 1958
G. †Marantoidea Jaeger 1827
+
Marantoidea arenacea Jaeger 1827
G. †Orthogoniopteris Andrews 1875
+
Orthogoniopteris clara Andrews 1875
+
G. †Bosea Srivastava 1975
+
Bosea indica Srivastava 1975
G. †Chiropteris Kurr 1845
+
Chiropteris barrealensis Frenguelli 1942
Chiropteris coreanica Kimura and Kim 1988
Chiropteris cuneata Carruthers 1872
Chiropteris digitata Kurr 1858
Chiropteris kawasakii Kon'no 1938
Chiropteris manasiensis Gu and Hu 1979
Chiropteris reniformis Kawasaki 1925
Chiropteris williamsii Newberry 1891
Chiropteris yuani Sze 1956
G. †Concaryon Loubiere 1956
+
Concaryon renaulti Loubiere 1956
G. †Marhwaseaphyllum Srivastava 1984
+
Marhwaseaphyllum hastatum Srivastava 1984
G. †Rewaphyllum Srivastava 1984
+
Rewaphyllum nidpurensis Srivastava 1984
G. †Rugapites Pant and Basu 1977
+
Rugapites spherica Pant and Basu 1977
G. †Rugaspermum Pant and Basu 1977
+
Rugaspermum insigne Pant and Basu 1977
Rugaspermum media Pant and Basu 1977
Rugaspermum obscura Pant and Basu 1977
G. †Rugatheca Pant and Basu 1977
+
Rugatheca nidpurensis Pant and Basu 1977
G. †Thinnfeldia Ettingshausen 1852
+
Thinnfeldia amarjolensis Sharma et al. 1971
Thinnfeldia chunakhalensis Sah and Sukh-Dev 1958
Thinnfeldia dutoiti Jain and Delevoryas 1967
Thinnfeldia feistmanteli Johnston 1895
Thinnfeldia fontainei Berry 1903
+
Invalid names: Thinnfeldia variabilis Fontaine 1889 [replaced]
Thinnfeldia granulata Fontaine 1889
+
Invalid names: Acaciaephyllum longifolium Fontaine 1889 [synonym], Acaciaephyllum microphyllum Fontaine 1889 [synonym], Acaciaephyllum spatulatum Fontaine 1889 [synonym], Acaciaephyllum variabile Fontaine 1889 [synonym], Celastrophyllum proteoides Fontaine 1889 [synonym]
Thinnfeldia hughesi Feistmantel 1882
Thinnfeldia indica Feistmantel 1876
+
Invalid names: Pecopteris salicifolia Morris 1863 [synonym]
Thinnfeldia marylandica Fontaine 1905
Thinnfeldia nirmali Roy 1973
Thinnfeldia obtusifolia Johnston 1888
Thinnfeldia reticulata Fontaine 1900
Thinnfeldia rhomboidalis Ettingshausen 1927
Thinnfeldia rotundiloba Fontaine 1889
G. †Thuringia Remy 1953
+
G. †Strangerites Bornemann 1856
+
G. †Sarcospermum Deevers 1937
+
Sarcospermum ovale Deevers 1937
G. †Trigonocarpolithus Arnold 1948
+
Invalid names: Medullosales [replaced], Trigonocarpaceae [empty]
+
Fm. Welwitschiaceae Caruel
+
G. Welwitschia Hooker 1862
G. †Welwitschiapites Bolkhovitina
+
Welwitschiapites canaliculus Lele and Kulkarni 1969
Welwitschiapites extansus Bharadwaj and Salujha 1964
Welwitschiapites magnus Maithy 1965
Welwitschiapites minutus Maithy 1965
Welwitschiapites tenuis Bharadwaj and Salujha 1964
Invalid names: Boweniaceae Stevenson [empty], Stangeriaceae Johnson [empty]
Diagnosis
No diagnoses are available
Measurements
No measurements are available
No ecological data are available

Age range

Maximum range based only on fossils: base of the Missourian to the top of the Holocene or 305.90000 to 0.00000 Ma
Minimum age of oldest fossil (stem group age): 304.8 Ma

Collections (1663 total)

Oldest occurrences

Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Paleozoic - Triassic541.0 - 201.3Chile (Ovalle) Taeniopteris sp. (222433)
Carboniferous - Permian358.9 - 252.17USA (West Virginia) Taeniopteris lescuriana, Taeniopteris newberriana (13191)
Carboniferous - Permian358.9 - 252.17USA (Arizona) Taeniopteris T. newberriana, Taeniopteris sp. 1 (10750) Taeniopteris eckhardti, Taeniopteris angelica (11999)
Carboniferous - Permian358.9 - 252.17India (Jammu and Kashmir) Taeniopteris feddeni, Taeniopteris kashmirensis (225362)
Bashkirian - Gzhelian323.2 - 298.9USA (Kansas) Taeniopteris sp. (24649)
Pennsylvanian323.2 - 298.9Spain (Palencia) Taeniopteris sp. (27807)
Pennsylvanian323.2 - 298.9USA (Pennsylvania) Pteridospermales indet. (34027)
Podolskian - Noginian311.45 - 300.2USA (Ohio) Taeniopteris lescuriana, Taeniopteris newberriana (11187)
Missourian - Khamovnichean305.9 - 304.8USA (Kansas) Taeniopteris sp., Taeniopteris angelica (11212)
Gzhelian - Asselian303.7 - 295.5USA (New Mexico) Phasmatocycas sp. (11166)
Stephanian C303.4 - 301.2Portugal Taeniopteris multinervis (25373)
Stephanian C303.4 - 301.2Spain (Pirineo Catalan) Taeniopteris multinervis-abnormis, Taeniopteris spp. (25391)
Asselian298.9 - 295.5China (Ningxia) Taeniopteris sp. 1 (29965)
Asselian298.9 - 295.5Czech Republic (Krkonose) Taeniopteris abnormis (232614)
Autunian298.9 - 295.0Italy (Tuscany) Taeniopteris multinervis (25205)
Autunian298.9 - 295.0Portugal Taeniopteris multinervis (25207)
Autunian298.9 - 295.0Czech Republic (Bohemia) Taeniopteris multinervis (25206)
Autunian298.9 - 295.0Germany (Black Forest) Taeniopteris sp. (25204)
Autunian298.9 - 295.0Czech Republic (Moravia) Taeniopteris multinervis (25088)
Autunian298.9 - 295.0France Taeniopteris abnormis, Taeniopteris fallax, Taeniopteris multinervis (25090 25181 25182) Taeniopteris abnormis, Taeniopteris multinervis (25180) Taeniopteris fallax, Taeniopteris multinervis (25185) Taeniopteris multinervis (25186 25187 25188)