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Brachiosaurus altithorax

Reptilia - Brachiosauridae

Taxonomy
Brachiosaurus altithorax was named by Riggs (1903). Its type specimen is FMNH P25107, a set of postcrania, and it is a 3D body fossil. Its type locality is Riggs Quarry 13, Fruita (FMNH), which is in a Kimmeridgian/Tithonian channel siltstone/sandstone in the Morrison Formation of Colorado.

It was recombined as Astrodon altithorax by Kingham (1962).

Synonymy list
YearName and author
1903Brachiosaurus altithorax Riggs
1904Brachiosaurus altithorax Riggs
1905Brachiosaurus altithorax Osborn p. 566
1915Brachiosaurus altithorax Lull p. 329
1920Brachiosaurus altithorax Wieland p. 530
1927Brachiosaurus altithorax Huene p. 457
1928Brachiosaurus altithorax Haughton p. 74
1937Brachiosaurus altithorax Janensch p. 550
1938Brachiosaurus altithorax Janensch p. 132
1959Brachiosaurus altithorax Anonymous p. 447
1962Astrodon altithorax Kingham p. 40
1964Brachiosaurus altithorax Tatarinov p. 547
1970Brachiosaurus altithorax Steel p. 68
1970Brachiosaurus altithorax Swinton p. 172
1982Brachiosaurus altithorax Santafé et al. p. 92
1990Brachiosaurus altithorax McIntosh p. 65
1991Brachiosaurus altithorax Goodknight et al. p. 73
1997Brachiosaurus altithorax Salgado and Calvo p. 42
1998Brachiosaurus altithorax Wilson and Sereno p. 21
1999Brachiosaurus altithorax Bonaparte pp. 149-150
2004Brachiosaurus altithorax Upchurch et al. p. 267
2005Brachiosaurus altithorax Apesteguía p. 250
2005Brachiosaurus altithorax Tidwell and Wilhite p. 194
2005Brachiosaurus altithorax Wilhite p. 270
2006Brachiosaurus altithorax Chure et al. p. 236
2006Brachiosaurus altithorax Mateus p. 227
2009Brachiosaurus altithorax Taylor p. 798
2011Brachiosaurus altithorax D'Emic et al. p. 1076
2012Brachiosaurus altithorax Carballido et al. p. 576
2012Brachiosaurus altithorax D'Emic
2014Brachiosaurus altithorax Royo-Torres et al. p. 645
2016Brachiosaurus altithorax Foster et al. p. 50
2016Brachiosaurus altithorax Salisbury et al. p. 125

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
OlfactoresJefferies 1991
subphylumVertebrata
Gnathostomata()
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda()
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
Batrachosauria()
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
Sauropsida
classReptilia
subclassEureptilia()
Romeriida
Diapsida()
Eosuchia()
Neodiapsida
RankNameAuthor
SauriaGauthier 1984
Archosauromorpha(Huene 1946)
Crocopoda
ArchosauriformesGauthier 1986
Eucrocopoda
Archosauria()
informalAvemetatarsalia
Ornithodira
Dinosauromorpha
Dinosauriformes
Dinosauria()
Saurischia()
Eusaurischia
Sauropodomorpha(Huene 1932)
Massopoda
Sauropodiformes
Sauropoda()
Eusauropoda
Neosauropoda
Macronaria
Titanosauriformes
familyBrachiosauridae
genusBrachiosaurus
speciesaltithorax

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
ReferenceDiagnosis
M. P. Taylor 2009Postspinal lamina absent from dorsal vertebrae (character 130); distal ends of transverse processes of dorsal vertebrae transition smoothly onto dorsal surfaces of transverse processes (character 142); spinodiapophyseal and spinopostzygapophyseal laminae on middle and posterior dorsal vertebrae contact each other (character 146); posterior dorsal centra subcircular in cross-section (character 151); posterior dorsal neural spines progressively expand mediolaterally through most of their length (“petal” or “paddle” shaped) (character 155); mid-dorsals about one third longer than posterior dorsals (see Paul, 1988:7); mid-dorsals only about 20% taller than posterior dorsals (see Paul, 1988:8); dorsal centra long (Janensch, 1950a:72) so that dorsal column is over twice humerus length (Paul, 1988:8); transverse processes of dorsal vertebrae oriented horizontally (Paul, 1988:8); dorsal neural spines oriented close to vertical in lateral view; dorsal neural spines triangular in lateral view, diminishing smoothly in anteroposterior width from wide base upwards; deep inverted triangular ligament rugosities on anterior and posterior faces of neural spines; hyposphenes present on anterior caudal vertebrae (character 178); anterior caudal vertebrae have transversely widened neurapophyses (Janensch, 1950a:76); anterior caudal vertebrae lack lateral fossae (Janensch, 1950a:76); glenoid articular surface of coracoid oriented somewhat laterally; glenoid articular surface of coracoid mediolaterally broad, extending laterally onto thick buttress; humerus relatively robust (GI = 7.5); lateral margin of humerus with low bulge one fifth of the way down; projected line connecting articular surfaces of ischiadic and pubic processes of ilium passes ventral to ventral margin of postacetabular lobe (character 264); subtle posterior notch between ischiadic peduncle and postacetabular lobe of ilium; tubercle present on dorsal margin of postacetabular lobe of ilium; distal tip of fourth trochanter lies at femoral midshaft height (character 282); lateral margin of femoral shaft in anterior or posterior view straight (character 285); femur relatively robust (GI = 5.5); tibial and fibular condyles of femur equal in width.