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Phytosauria
Reptilia 
Taxonomy
Phytosauria was named by Jaeger (1828). It is not extant. It was considered monophyletic by Stocker (2010) and Nesbitt (2011).
It was reranked as the order Phytosauria by Osborn (1903) and Osborn (1903); it was synonymized subjectively with Parasuchia by Kuhn (1946), Kuhn (1964) and Kuhn (1966); it was reranked as the unranked clade Phytosauria by Hungerbühler (2002), Stocker (2010), Nesbitt (2011) and Ezcurra (2016).
It was assigned to Diapsida by Osborn (1903) and Osborn (1903); to Parasuchia by Osborn (1904), Lull (1915), Lull (1917) and Roxo (1937); to Thecodontia by Baird (1957) and Carroll (1988); to Suchia by Weinbaum and Hungerbühler (2007); to Archosauria by Stocker (2010); to Crurotarsi by Hungerbühler (2002) and Nesbitt (2011); and to Pseudosuchia by Ezcurra (2016).
It was reranked as the order Phytosauria by Osborn (1903) and Osborn (1903); it was synonymized subjectively with Parasuchia by Kuhn (1946), Kuhn (1964) and Kuhn (1966); it was reranked as the unranked clade Phytosauria by Hungerbühler (2002), Stocker (2010), Nesbitt (2011) and Ezcurra (2016).
It was assigned to Diapsida by Osborn (1903) and Osborn (1903); to Parasuchia by Osborn (1904), Lull (1915), Lull (1917) and Roxo (1937); to Thecodontia by Baird (1957) and Carroll (1988); to Suchia by Weinbaum and Hungerbühler (2007); to Archosauria by Stocker (2010); to Crurotarsi by Hungerbühler (2002) and Nesbitt (2011); and to Pseudosuchia by Ezcurra (2016).
Subtaxa
Angistorhinopsis, Angistorhinopsis ruetimeyeri, Angistorhinus gracilis, Apatopodidae, Belodon, Belodon ingens, Belodon lepturus, Belodon plieningeri, Belodon scolopax, Belodon superciliosus, Belodon validus, Brachysuchus maleriensis, Centemodon, Centemodon sulcatus, Clepsysaurus, Clepsysaurus leai, Clepsysaurus pennsylvanicus, Clepsysaurus veatleianus, Coburgosuchus, Compsosaurus, Compsosaurus priscus, Diandongosuchus, Dicynodon rosmarus, Eurydorus, Eurydorus serridens, Francosuchus, Francosuchus broilii, Francosuchus latus, Heterodontichnites, Heterodontosuchus, Heterodontosuchus ganei, Leptosuchus imperfecta, Mesorhinosuchidae, Mystriosuchidae, Omosaurus, Omosaurus perplexus, Palaeoctonus, Palaeoctonus appalachianus, Palaeoctonus aulacodus, Palaeoctonus dumblianus, Palaeoctonus orthodon, Palaeosaurus, Palaeosaurus fraserianus, Palaeosaurus platyodon, Palaeosaurus stricklandi, Parasuchidae, Pelycosimia, Phytosaurus, Phytosaurus cubicodon, Phytosaurus cylindricodon, Promystriosuchus, Rhytidodon rostratus, Rileya bristolensis, Rutiodon manhattanensis, Rutiodontidae, Suchoprion, Suchoprion cyphodon, Suchoprion sulcidens, Termatosaurus albertii
Synonyms

Synonymy list
Year  Name and author 

1828  Phytosauria Jaeger 
1828  Phytosaurus Jaeger p. 22–23 
1828  Phytosaurus cylindricodon Jaeger p. 23 
1828  Phytosaurus cubicodon Jaeger p. 33 
1836  Palaeosaurus Riley and Stutchbury p. 398 
1836  Palaeosaurus cylindricum Riley and Stutchbury p. 398 
1836  Palaeosaurus platyodon Riley and Stutchbury p. 398 
1837  Palaeosaurus cylindricum Riley and Stutchbury 
1840  Palaeosaurus Riley and Stutchbury p. 352 
1840  Palaeosaurus cylindrodon Riley and Stutchbury p. 352 
1840  Palaeosaurus platyodon Riley and Stutchbury p. 352 
1841  Palaeosaurus Owen p. 267 
1841  Palaeosaurus cylindrodon Owen p. 267 
1841  Palaeosaurus platyodon Owen p. 268 
1842  Phytosaurus cylindricodon Owen p. 118 
1842  Palaeosaurus Owen p. 154 
1842  Palaeosaurus cylindrodon Owen p. 154 
1842  Palaeosaurus platyodon Owen p. 154 
1844  Belodon Meyer 
1844  Belodon plieningeri Meyer 
1844  Termatosaurus albertii Meyer and Plieninger 
1844  Phytosaurus cubicodon Meyer and Plieninger p. 92 
1844  Phytosaurus cylindricodon Meyer and Plieninger p. 92 
1845  Belodon Meyer p. 282 
1845  Palaeosaurus Meyer p. 282 
1846  Palaeosaurus cylindricodon Plieninger p. 151 
1846  Palaeosaurus platyodon Plieninger p. 151 
1849  Phytosaurus d'Orbigny p. 206 
1849  Palaeosaurus d'Orbigny p. 208 
1850  Palaeosaurus platyodon King p. 239 
1850  Palaeosaurus cylindrodon King p. 240 
1851  Clepsysaurus pennsylvanicus Lea p. 172 
1851  Clepsysaurus Lea p. 205 
1851  Clepsysaurus pennsylvanicus Lea p. 205 
1852  Palaeosaurus Quenstedt p. 109 
1852  Belodon Quenstedt p. 110 
1852  Belodon plieningeri Quenstedt p. 110 
1855  Belodon plieningeri Meyer p. 149 
1855  Palaeosaurus cylindrodon Meyer p. 158 
1855  Palaeosaurus platyodon Meyer p. 158 
1856  Clepsisaurus Emmons 
1856  Clepsisaurus pennsylvanius Emmons p. 300 
1856  Clepsisaurus leai Emmons p. 313 
1856  Palaeosaurus platyodon Emmons p. 315 
1856  Centemodon Lea 
1856  Centemodon sulcatus Lea 
1856  Omosaurus Leidy 
1856  Compsosaurus Leidy p. 165 figs. not figured 
1856  Compsosaurus priscus Leidy p. 165 figs. not figured 
1856  Omosaurus perplexus Leidy p. 256 
1856  Palaeosaurus Roemer p. 788 
1856  Palaeosaurus platyodon Roemer p. 788 
1857  Omosaurus perplexus Emmons p. 67 
1857  Clepsisaurus pennsylvanicus Emmons p. 73 
1857  Clepsisaurus leai Emmons p. 79 
1857  Compsosaurus priscus Emmons p. 87 
1857  Palaeosaurus platyodon Emmons p. 87 
1857  Belodon plieningeri Rütimeyer p. 152 
1858  Termatosaurus albertii Quenstedt p. 33 
1859  Eurydorus Leidy 
1859  Eurydorus serridens Leidy 
1861  Palaeosaurus Owen p. 276 
1861  Palaeosaurus cylindrodon Owen p. 276 
1861  Palaeosaurus platyodon Owen p. 276 
1861  Belodon Owen p. 278 
1861  Belodon plieningeri Owen p. 278 
1861  Belodon plieningeri Quenstedt p. 512 
1866  Belodon plieningeri Haeckel p. CXXXIV 
1866  Palaeosaurus Haeckel p. CXXXIV 
1866  Palaeosaurus cylindrodon Haeckel p. CXXXIV 
1866  Palaeosaurus platyodon Haeckel p. CXXXIV 
1867  Palaeosaurus Quenstedt p. 139 
1869  Belodon lepturus Cope p. 22 
1869  Clepsysaurus Cope p. 733 
1869  Clepsysaurus pennsylvanicus Cope p. 733 
1870  Belodon Cope 
1870  Belodon lepturus Cope 
1870  Clepsysaurus Cope 
1870  Clepsysaurus pennsylvanicus Cope pp. 122A 
1870  Dicynodon rosmarus Cope p. 232 
1870  Clepsysaurus Cope p. 444 
1870  Palaeosaurus Huxley p. 34 
1870  Clepsysaurus Huxley p. 49 
1875  Parasuchia Cope p. 14 
1875  Belodon priscus Cope p. 34 
1875  Clepsysaurus leai Cope p. 36 
1875  Clepsysaurus Cope p. 39 
1875  Clepsysaurus pennsylvanicus Cope p. 39 
1876  Termatosaurus alberti Henry p. 404 figs. Pl 1, figs 5,5.1 
1877  Palaeoctonus Cope pp. 182183 
1877  Palaeoctonus appalachianus Cope pp. 182183 
1877  Clepsysaurus veatleianus Cope p. 184 
1877  Palaeoctonus aulacodus Cope p. 184 
1877  Suchoprion Cope p. 185 
1877  Suchoprion cyphodon Cope p. 185 
1878  Palaeosaurus fraserianus Cope 
1878  Suchoprion sulcidens Cope 
1878  Palaeosaurus fraserianus Cope p. 58 
1879  Clepsysaurus pennsylvanicus Miller p. 152 
1881  Belodon scolopax Cope p. 922 
1881  Palaeosaurus stricklandi Davis p. 421 
1882  Clepsysaurus Marsh 
1882  Palaeosaurus Marsh 
1882  Palaeosaurus Quenstedt p. 189 
1882  Clepsysaurus Sauvage pp. 3536 
1882  Palaeosaurus Sauvage p. 36 
1883  Parasuchia Dollo p. 310 
1883  Belodon Dollo p. 311 
1883  Palaeosaurus cylindrodon Sauvage p. 39 
1883  Palaeosaurus stricklandi Sauvage p. 39 
1884  Clepsysaurus Dollo p. 298 
1884  Palaeosaurus Dollo p. 298 
1884  Clepsysaurus Marsh p. 69 
1884  Palaeosaurus Marsh p. 69 
1884  Clepsysaurus Marsh p. 338 
1884  Palaeosaurus Marsh p. 338 
1884  Clepsysaurus Vetter p. 363 
1884  Palaeosaurus Vetter p. 363 
1885  Clepsysaurus Marsh p. 765 
1885  Palaeosaurus Marsh p. 765 
1887  Belodon scolopax Cope p. 221 
1890  Palaeosaurus cylindrodon Woodward and Sherborn p. 261 
1890  Palaeosaurus stricklandi Woodward and Sherborn p. 261 
1890  Thecodontosaurus platyodon Woodward and Sherborn p. 291 
1890  Parasuchia Zittel p. 450 
1890  Palaeosaurus Zittel p. 722 
1890  Palaeosaurus cylindrodon Zittel p. 722 
1890  Palaeosaurus platyodon Zittel p. 722 
1890  Clepsysaurus Zittel p. 731 
1893  Belodon superciliosus Cope p. 12 
1893  Palaeoctonus orthodon Cope p. 15 
1893  Palaeoctonus dumblianus Cope p. 16 
1893  Belodon validus Marsh p. 170 
1894  Belodon priscus Lyman p. 207 
1895  Clepsysaurus Marsh 
1895  Palaeosaurus Marsh 
1895  Palaeosaurus cylindrodon Seeley p. 145 
1895  Palaeosaurus platyodon Seeley p. 145 
1896  Belodon ingens Fraas 
1896  Rhytidodon rostratus Marsh 
1896  Clepsysaurus pennsylvanicus Marsh p. 147 
1896  Clepsysaurus Marsh p. 240 
1896  Palaeosaurus Marsh p. 240 
1898  Parasuchia Gadow p. 19 
1898  Heterodontosuchus Lucas 
1898  Heterodontosuchus ganei Lucas 
1898  Belodon ingens Spangenberg p. 408 
1898  Parasuchia Woodward p. 141 
1902  Dicynodon rosmarus Hay p. 430 
1902  Palaeoctonus Hay p. 490 
1902  Palaeoctonus appalachianus Hay p. 490 
1902  Palaeoctonus dumblianus Hay p. 490 
1902  Palaeoctonus orthodon Hay p. 490 
1902  Suchoprion Hay p. 490 
1902  Suchoprion aulacodus Hay p. 490 
1902  Suchoprion cyphodon Hay p. 490 
1902  Suchoprion sulcidens Hay p. 490 
1902  Clepsysaurus Hay p. 492 
1902  Clepsysaurus pennsylvanicus Hay p. 492 
1902  Clepsysaurus veatleianus Hay p. 492 
1902  Thecodontosaurus fraserianus Hay p. 492 
1902  Parasuchia Hay p. 509 
1902  Phytosaurus Hay p. 509 
1902  Phytosaurus cylindricodon Hay p. 509 
1902  Phytosaurus leaii Hay p. 510 
1902  Phytosaurus lepturus Hay p. 510 
1902  Phytosaurus priscus Hay p. 510 
1902  Phytosaurus rostratus Hay p. 510 
1902  Phytosaurus scolopax Hay p. 510 
1902  Phytosaurus serridens Hay p. 510 
1902  Phytosaurus superciliosus Hay p. 510 
1902  Phytosaurus validus Hay p. 510 
1902  Heterodontosuchus Hay p. 515 
1902  Heterodontosuchus ganei Hay p. 515 
1902  Palaeoctonus Huene 
1902  Palaeosaurus Huene 
1902  Suchoprion Huene 
1902  Rileya bristolensis Huene pp. 6263 
1902  Omosaurus Lucas p. 435 
1902  Omosaurus perplexus Lucas p. 435 
1903  Phytosauria Osborn p. 276 
1904  Phytosauria Osborn p. 100 
1904  Parasuchia Osborn p. 112 
1905  Thecodontosaurus cylindrodon Huene p. 349 
1905  Palaeosaurus cylindrodon Newton p. 284 
1907  Palaeosaurus stricklandi Sauvage p. 14 
1907  Clepsysaurus Sauvage p. 15 
1908  Termatosaurus albertii Amthor p. 94 figs. Pl 2, figs 1,2 
1908  Thecodontosaurus cylindrodon Huene p. 13 
1908  Rileya bristolensis Huene p. 16 
1908  Rileya platyodon Huene p. 16 
1908  Rileya bristolensis Huene p. 99 
1908  Rileya platyodon Huene p. 99 
1908  Thecodontosaurus cylindrodon Huene p. 99 
1908  Rileya platyodon Huene p. 228 
1909  Thecodontosaurus cylindrodon Allen p. 276 
1911  Mystriosuchus ruetimeyeri Huene p. 31 
1913  Rutiodon manhattanensis Huene p. 277 
1914  Thecodontosaurus cylindrodon Huene p. 12 
1914  Palaeosaurus Huene p. 146 
1915  Parasuchia Lull p. 98 
1915  Belodon validus Lull pp. 109110 
1915  Phytosauria Lull p. 109 
1915  Rutiodon manhattanensis Lull p. 113 
1915  Clepsysaurus Lull p. 119 
1915  Palaeosaurus Lull p. 119 
1915  Angistorhinus gracilis Mehl p. 146 
1917  Phytosauria Lull p. 110 
1917  Rutiodon validus Lull p. 110 
1917  Parasuchia Lull p. 113 
1917  Phytosaurus Watson p. 179 
1920  Thecodontosaurus cylindrodon Van Hoepen p. 91 
1921  Palaeoctonus Huene p. 561 
1921  Palaeoctonus appalachianus Huene p. 561 
1921  Palaeoctonus aulacodus Huene p. 563 
1921  Suchoprion Huene p. 564 
1921  Clepsysaurus Huene p. 565 
1921  Clepsysaurus pennsylvanicus Huene p. 565 
1921  Suchoprion cyphodon Huene p. 565 
1921  Clepsysaurus veatleianus Huene p. 567 
1922  Leptosuchus imperfecta Case p. 68 
1922  Parasuchia Huene p. 22 
1922  Angistorhinopsis Huene p. 23 
1922  Phytosaurus Huene p. 23 
1923  Angistorhinopsis Huene 
1923  Angistorhinopsis ruetimeyeri Huene 
1930  Clepsysaurus Camp p. ix 
1932  Francosuchus Kuhn 
1932  Francosuchus broilii Kuhn p. 123 
1932  Francosuchus latus Kuhn p. 123 
1934  Thecodontosaurus platyodon Swinton p. 31 
1937  Parasuchia Roxo p. 44 
1937  Phytosauria Roxo p. 44 
1938  Palaeosaurus Berckhemer p. 196 
1940  Brachysuchus maleriensis Huene p. 21 
1940  Phytosaurus plieningeri Huene p. 23 
1944  Clepsysaurus Rapp p. 287 
1944  Clepsysaurus pennsylvanicus Rapp p. 287 
1946  Parasuchia Kuhn p. 64 
1953  Clepsysaurus Lull p. 89 
1954  Parasuchia Huene p. 44 
1956  Palaeosaurus Romer p. 614 
1957  Phytosauria Baird p. 486 
1957  Palaeosaurus cylindrodon Robinson p. 262 
1957  Thecodontosaurus platyodon Robinson p. 262 
1958  Phytosaurus maleriensis Colbert p. 75 
1958  Parasuchia Huene p. 205 
1961  Rileyasuchus bristolensis Kuhn 
1962  Clepsysaurus pennsylvanicus Gregory p. 4 
1962  Mystriosuchus plieningeri Gregory p. 12 
1963  Termatosaurus alberti Persson pp. 2122 
1964  Parasuchia Kuhn p. 317 
1964  Palaeosauriscus cylindrodon Kuhn p. 319 
1964  Phytosaurus Kuhn p. 319 
1964  Rileyasuchus bristolensis Kuhn p. 319 
1964  Francosuchus Kuhn p. 324 
1966  Parasuchia Kuhn p. 77 
1966  Belodon Kuhn p. 81 
1966  Francosuchus Kuhn p. 81 
1966  Phytosaurus Kuhn p. 81 
1970  Palaeosauriscus cylindrodon Steel p. 25 
1970  Palaeosauriscus platyodon Steel p. 25 
1970  Palaeosauriscus fraserianus Steel p. 26 
1970  Palaeosauriscus stricklandi Steel p. 26 
1985  Parasuchia Galton 
1985  Parasuchia Gauthier and Padian pp. 187189 fig. 1 
1988  Belodon Carroll 
1988  Phytosauria Carroll 
1990  Parasuchia Sereno and Arcucci p. 39 fig. 7 
1991  Parasuchia Sereno p. 27 
1993  Parasuchia Parrish p. 290 fig. 1 
1995  Parasuchia Long and Murry 
2002  Phytosauria Hungerbühler p. 380 
2005  Parasuchia Irmis pp. 7172 
2007  Phytosauria Weinbaum and Hungerbühler p. 141 
2010  Phytosauria Stocker 
2011  Phytosauria Nesbitt p. 193 fig. 51 
2016  Phytosauria Ezcurra 
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If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.
Diagnosis
Reference  Diagnosis  

M. R. Stocker 2010  A stembased group that is the most inclusive clade containing Rutiodon carolinensis (Emmons 1856) but not Aetosaurus ferratus (Fraas 1877), Rauisuchus tiradentes (Huene 1942), Prestosuchus chiniquensis (Huene 1942), Ornithosuchus woodwardi (Newton 1894) or Crocodylus niloticus (Laurenti 1768).  
S. J. Nesbitt 2011  The most inclusive clade containing Rutiodon carolinensis(Emmons, 1856) but not Aetosaurus ferratus Fraas, 1877, Rauisuchus tiradentes Huene, 1942, Prestosuchus chiniquensis Huene, 1942, Ornithosuchus longidens Huxley, 1877, and Crocodylus niloticus Laurenti, 1768 (sensu Sereno, 2005). 