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Maniraptora

Reptilia - Avetheropoda

Synonyms
Synonymy list
YearName and author
1981Palaeopteryx Jensen
1981Palaeopteryx thompsoni Jensen
1986Maniraptora Gauthier
1990Maniraptora Benton p. 19
1990Maniraptora Osmolska p. 149
1992Maniraptora Novas p. 148
1993Maniraptora Chatterjee p. 283
1995Maniraptora Holtz, Jr. p. 35A
1995Maniraptora Holtz, Jr. and Padian p. 35A
1996Maniraptora Holtz, Jr. p. 42A
1997Maniraptora Currie p. 733
1997Maniraptora Hutchinson and Padian p. 129
1997Maniraptora Sereno p. 444
1998Maniraptora Holtz, Jr. p. 40
1998Maniraptora Sereno p. 65
1999Maniraptora Padian et al. p. 71 fig. 1
1999Maniraptora Sereno p. 2139 fig. 2
2000Maniraptora Holtz, Jr. p. 30 fig. 5
2002Maniraptora Maryanska et al. p. 102 fig. 1
2002Maniraptora Sankey et al. p. 755
2003Maniraptora Rauhut p. 149
2004Maniraptora Novas and Agnolin p. 62
2004Maniraptora Senter et al. p. 2 fig. 2
2005Maniraptora Gao and Liu p. 313
2006Maniraptora Coria and Currie p. 108 fig. 35
2007Maniraptora Naish and Martill p. 503
2007Maniraptora Sánchez-Hernández et al. p. 193
2008Maniraptora Zhang et al. p. 1105
2010Maniraptora Xu et al. p. 2
2011Maniraptora Xu et al. p. 2
2012Maniraptora Makovicky et al. p. 90 fig. 9
2012Maniraptora Xu et al. p. 141
2015Maniraptora Lu and Brusatte
2016Maniraptora Azuma et al.
2017Maniraptora Foth and Rauhut
2017Maniraptora Lefèvre et al.
2017Maniraptora Pei et al.
2017Maniraptora Shen et al.
2017Maniraptora Shen et al.
2017Maniraptora Xu et al.
2017Maniraptora van der Reest and Currie
2018Maniraptora Hu et al.
2019Maniraptora Ely and Case
2019Maniraptora Hartman et al.
2019Maniraptora Rauhut et al.

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subphylumVertebrata
superclassGnathostomata
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda()
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
Batrachosauria()
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
Sauropsida
classReptilia
subclassEureptilia()
Romeriida
Diapsida()
RankNameAuthor
Eosuchia()
Neodiapsida
SauriaGauthier 1984
Archosauromorpha(Huene 1946)
Crocopoda
ArchosauriformesGauthier 1986
Eucrocopoda
Archosauria()
informalAvemetatarsalia
Ornithodira
Dinosauromorpha
Dinosauriformes
Dinosauria()
Saurischia()
Theropoda()
Neotheropoda
AverostraPaul 2002
Tetanurae
orderAvetheropoda
suborderCoelurosauria
Maniraptora
Maniraptora

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
No diagnoses are available
Measurements
No measurements are available
Composition: hydroxyapatiteo
Entire body: yeso
Adult length: 10 to < 100o
Adult width: 1.0 to < 10o
Adult height: 1.0 to < 10o
Maximum body mass: 1000 kgg
Minimum body mass: 1 kgg
Architecture: compact or denseo
Ontogeny: accretion, modification of partso
Grouping: solitaryo
Environment: terrestrialo
Locomotion: actively mobileo
Life habit: ground dwellingo
Diet: carnivoresubo
Reproduction: oviparouso
Dispersal: direct/internalo
Dispersal 2: mobileo
Created: 2009-01-03 20:39:15
Modified: 2009-01-03 22:39:15
Source: g = genus, subo = suborder, o = order
References: Benton 1983, Peczkis 1995, Marsh 1875

Age range

Maximum range based only on fossils: base of the Norian to the top of the Holocene or 228.00000 to 0.00000 Ma
Minimum age of oldest fossil (stem group age): 201.3 Ma

Collections (3613 total)

Oldest occurrences

Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Norian - Rhaetian228.0 - 201.3Lesotho (Mohale's Hoek) Trisauropodiscus superaviforma, Anomoepus sp. (56020)
Hettangian - Sinemurian201.3 - 190.8Lesotho (Mohale's Hoek) Trisauropodiscus phasianiforma, Trisauropodiscus levis, Trisauropodiscus popompoi, Anomoepus sp. (56010)
Hettangian - Sinemurian201.3 - 190.8Lesotho (Quthing) Trisauropodiscus superavipes (84072)
Middle Jurassic174.1 - 163.5Niger (Agadez) Paravipus didactyloides (201817)
Late/Upper Bathonian167.7 - 164.7United Kingdom (England) Theropoda indet. (39075)
Middle Bathonian167.7 - 164.7United Kingdom (England) Aves indet. (59357)
Late/Upper Bathonian - Early/Lower Kimmeridgian167.7 - 150.8China (Liaoning) Anchiornis huxleyi, Eosinopteryx brevipenna, Aurornis xui (106306) Anchiornis huxleyi, Xiaotingia zhengi (92421)
Callovian166.1 - 163.5China (Xinjiang) Paraves indet. (106181)
Callovian - Oxfordian166.1 - 157.3China (Hebei) Yi qi (168798)
Early/Lower Callovian164.7 - 161.2China (Nei Mongol) Epidendrosaurus ningchengensis, Pedopenna daohugouensis, Epidexipteryx hui (27891)
Oxfordian163.5 - 157.3China (Hebei) Caihong juji (194581)
Oxfordian163.5 - 157.3China (Liaoning) Anchiornis huxleyi, Serikornis sungei (91487)
Oxfordian - Kimmeridgian163.5 - 152.1Kazakhstan (Ongtüstik Qazaqstan) Praeornis sharovi (92136)
Late/Upper Jurassic163.5 - 145.0China (Hebei) Aquatilavipes sp. (52850)
Late/Upper Jurassic - Barremian163.5 - 125.0China (Hebei) Shenqiornis mengi (96195)
Late/Upper Jurassic - Early/Lower Cretaceous163.5 - 100.5Spain (Castilla y León) Archaeornithipus meijidei (68446)
Late/Upper Oxfordian - Late/Upper Kimmeridgian161.2 - 150.8Portugal (Estremdura) Dromaeosauridae indet. (38680)
Kimmeridgian157.3 - 152.1USA (Montana) Dromaeosauridae indet. (69890)
Kimmeridgian157.3 - 152.1USA (Colorado) Aves indet. (53021)
Kimmeridgian157.3 - 152.1Portugal (Leiria) Paronychodon sp., Troodontidae indet., Velociraptorinae indet., Richardoestesia sp., Dromaeosaurus sp., Archaeopteryx sp. (24563)