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Magnoliophyta

Taxonomy
Magnoliophyta was named by Cronquist et al. [McLoughlin et al. 1995 ranked this as a division.]. It is extant.

It was assigned to Plantae by Hueber (1983); and to Cycadophytanae by Doweld (2001).

Synonymy list
YearName and author
1983Magnoliophyta Hueber p. 272
2001Magnoliophyta Doweld

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomPlantae
superphylumTracheophyta
Pteridobiotina
RankNameAuthor
superphylumCycadophytanae
phylumMagnoliophytaCronquist et al.
phylumMagnoliophytaCronquist et al.

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Ph. Magnoliophyta Cronquist et al.
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G. †Andreisporis Belsky et al. 1965
+
Andreisporis mariae Belsky et al. 1965
+
G. †Aquilapollenites Rouse 1957
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Aquilapollenites minimus Belsky et al. 1965
G. †Cranwellia Srivastava 1966
Unr. †Liliopsida Kenrick and Crane 1997
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Unr. †Alismatidae
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Invalid names: Hydrocharitales Dumort 1829 [empty], Triuridales [empty]
G. †Limnocarpus Reid 1898
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Limnocarpus cooperi Chandler 1961
Limnocarpus enormis Chandler 1961
Limnocarpus forbesi Heer 1862
Limnocarpus headonensis Gardner 1898
Limnocarpus magnus Chandler 1961
Invalid names: Liliophyceae Kenrick and Crane 1997 [replaced]
G. †Loranthacites Mtchedlishvili 1961
+
Loranthacites nataliae Salard-Cheboldaeff 1978
G. †Araripia Mohr and Eklund 2003
+
Araripia florifera Mohr and Eklund 2003
G. †Asteropollis Hedlund and Norris 1968
+
Asteropollis asteroides Hedlund and Norris 1968
Asteropollis transitorius Vallati 2006
Asteropollis vulgaris Singh 1983
G. †Auriculiidites Elsik 1964
+
Auriculiidites hourcqui Boltenhagen 1967
G. †Auriculopollenites Legoux et al. 1970
+
Auriculopollenites reticulatus Salard-Cheboldaeff 1978
G. †Bacumorphomonocolpites Sole de Porta 1971
+
Bacumorphomonocolpites tausae Sole de Porta 1971
G. †Balanopollis Salard-Cheboldaeff 1978
+
Balanopollis minutus Salard-Cheboldaeff 1978
G. †Bignonia Tournefort
+
Bignonia gigantifolia Engelhardt 1891
G. †Brenneripollis Juhász and Goczan 1985
+
Brenneripollis pellitusreticulatus Juhász and Goczan 1985
G. †Brevicolporites Anderson 1960
+
Brevicolporites guinetti Salard-Cheboldaeff 1978
Brevicolporites molinae Salard-Cheboldaeff 1978
G. †Ceratocarpus Velenovsky and Viniklar 1931
+
Ceratocarpus fendrychi Velenovsky and Viniklar 1931
G. †Constructipollenites van Hoeken-Klinkenberg 1964
+
Constructipollenites ineffectus van Hoeken-Klinkenberg 1964
G. †Cornetipollis Pocock and Vasanthy 1988
+
Cornetipollis herngreenii Deaf et al. 2014
G. †Crassitriapertites Herngreen 1972
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Crassitriapertites uesugii Herngreen 1972
G. †Crassitricolporites Herngreen 1972
+
G. †Cristaecolpites Schrank 1994
+
G. †Cristaeturites Schrank 1994
+
Cristaeturites cristatus Schrank 1994
G. †Crusafontites Sole de Porta 1971
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Crusafontites megagemmatus Jaramillo and Dilcher 2001
G. †Cupuliferoidaepollenites Potonié et al. 1950
+
+
Invalid names: Psilatricolpites parvulus Norris 1967 [synonym]
G. †Dettmannaepollenites Kedves 1999
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Dettmannaepollenites clavatus Schrank and Mahmoud 2000
G. †Dicolpopollis Pflanzl 1956
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Dicolpopollis malesianus Muller 1968
G. †Dryadopollis Srivastava 1977
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Dryadopollis argus Srivastava 1975
Dryadopollis minima Barreda 1997
G. †Echitricolpites Regali et al. 1974
G. †Foveomonocolpites Wijmstra 1971
+
G. †Foveotetradites Singh 1983
+
G. †Foveotricolpites Pierce 1961
+
Foveotricolpites genuinus González-Guzmán 1967
Foveotricolpites giganteus Du Chene 1978
Foveotricolpites perforatus Van der Hammen and Garcia de Mutis 1966
Foveotricolpites pomarius Van der Hammen and Garcia de Mutis 1966
Foveotricolpites prolatus Frederiksen 1973
Foveotricolpites santanderianus Van der Hammen and Garcia de Mutis 1966
G. †Fraxinoipollenites Potonié 1960
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Fraxinoipollenites variformis Norvick and Burger 1975
G. †Hammenia Ward 1986
G. †Hexacolpites Erdtman 1947
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Hexacolpites echinatus Salard-Cheboldaeff 1978
Hexacolpites indicus Ramanujam 1966
G. †Holkopollenites Stover 1966
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Holkopollenites chemardensis Stover et al. 1966
Holkopollenites forix Christopher and Prowell 2010
Holkopollenites irregularis Christopher and Prowell 2002
Holkopollenites propinquus Christopher and Prowell 2010
G. †Inaperturotetradites van Hoeken-Klinkenberg 1964
+
Inaperturotetradites lacunosus van Hoeken-Klinkenberg 1964
Inaperturotetradites reticulatus Salard-Cheboldaeff 1978
G. †Integritetradites Schrank and Mahmoud 2000
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Integritetradites porosus Schrank and Mahmoud 2000
G. †Intrareticulitis Kar 1985
+
G. †Jugella Mchedlishvili and Shakmundes 1973
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Jugella caichiguensis Schrank 2010
Jugella semistriata Schrank 2010
Jugella sibirica Mtchedlishvili and Shakmundes 1973
G. †Lethomasites Ward 1989
G. †Microfoveotriporites van Hoeken-Klinkenberg 1966
+
Microfoveotriporites cretaceus van Hoeken-Klinkenberg 1966
G. †Monocolpopollenites Pflug and Thomson 1953
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Monocolpopollenites ovatus Jaramillo and Dilcher 2001
Monocolpopollenites sphaeroidites Jardiné and Magloire 1965
Monocolpopollenites spheroidites Jardiné and Magloire 1965
G. †Multiporopollenites Pflug 1953
+
Multiporopollenites pauciporatus Jaramillo and Dilcher 2001
G. †Nigeripollis Srivastava 1975
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Nigeripollis gemmatus Salami 1985
G. †Nyssapollenites Thiergart 1937
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Nyssapollenites barooahii Sah and Dutta 1968
Nyssapollenites endobalteus Mildenhall and Pocknall 1989
Nyssapollenites incertus Dutta and Sah 1970
Nyssapollenites kutchensis Venkatachala and Kar 1969
Nyssapollenites lanosus Dettmann 1973
Nyssapollenites lehmanii Schrank 1994
Nyssapollenites pachyexinus Baldoni and Askin 1993
Nyssapollenites scabratus De Benedetti et al. 2023
Nyssapollenites squamosus Dettmann 1973
G. †Pediculisporis Belsky et al. 1965
+
Pediculisporis reticularis Belsky et al. 1965
Pediculisporis rnicrogranulatus Belsky et al. 1965
G. †Penetetrapites Hedlund and Norris 1968
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Penetetrapites incipiens de Lima 1989
Penetetrapites mollis Hedlund and Norris 1968
G. †Phimopollenites Dettmann 1973
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Phimopollenites pannosus Dettmann 1974
Phimopollenites pseudocheros Srivastava 1975
G. †Pleurospermaepollenites Kulkova 1973
G. †Polycolpopollenites Nakoman 1967
G. †Polyporotetradites Salard-Cheboldaeff 1978
+
Polyporotetradites laevigatus Salard-Cheboldaeff 1978
G. †Protrudodiporites van Hoeken-Klinkenberg 1966
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Protrudodiporites typicus van Hoeken-Klinkenberg 1966
G. †Psilabrevitricolpites van Hoeken-Klinkenberg 1966
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Psilabrevitricolpites flexibilis van Hoeken-Klinkenberg 1966
Psilabrevitricolpites rotundus van Hoeken-Klinkenberg 1966
G. †Psilabrevitricolporites Van der Kaars 1983
+
Psilabrevitricolporites triangularis Jaramillo and Dilcher 2001
G. †Psilamonocolpites Van der Hammen and Garcia de Mutis 1966
+
Psilamonocolpites grandis Van der Hammen 1954
Psilamonocolpites magnus Du Chene 1978
Psilamonocolpites medius Van der Hammen 1954
G. †Psilastephanocolpites Leidelmeyer 1966
+
Psilastephanocolpites adinos González-Guzmán 1967
Psilastephanocolpites marginatus González-Guzmán 1967
Psilastephanocolpites parvus Salard-Cheboldaeff 1978
Psilastephanocolpites verrucosus González-Guzmán 1967
G. †Psilastephanocolporites Leidelmeyer 1966
+
Psilastephanocolporites brevicolpatus Jaramillo and Dilcher 2001
Psilastephanocolporites globulus van Hoeken-Klinkenberg 1966
Psilastephanocolporites grandis Salard-Cheboldaeff 1978
Psilastephanocolporites laevigatus Salard-Cheboldaeff 1978
Psilastephanocolporites minor Salard-Cheboldaeff 1978
Psilastephanocolporites perforatus Salard-Cheboldaeff 1978
Psilastephanocolporites punctatus Salard-Cheboldaeff 1978
Psilastephanocolporites scabratus Salard-Cheboldaeff 1978
G. †Psilastephanoporites Regali et al. 1974
G. †Psilatricolpites Van der Hammen and Wijmstra 1964
+
Psilatricolpites acerbus González-Guzmán 1967
Psilatricolpites brevis González-Guzmán 1967
Psilatricolpites colpiconstrictus van Hoeken-Klinkenberg 1966
Psilatricolpites inargutus Archangelsky 1973
+
Invalid names: Tricolpites inargutus McIntyre 1968 [replaced]
Psilatricolpites minutus González-Guzmán 1967
Psilatricolpites palaeocenica Van der Hammen and Garcia de Mutis 1966
Psilatricolpites polaroides González-Guzmán 1967
Psilatricolpites psilascabratus Archangelsky 1973
+
Invalid names: Tricolpites psilascabratus Norton 1969 [replaced]
Psilatricolpites psilatus Potonié 1966
Psilatricolpites simplex Jaramillo and Dilcher 2001
Psilatricolpites tetradus Brenner 1968
Invalid names: Psilatricolpites rubini Van der Hammen and Wymstra 1964 [nomen nudum]
G. †Ranunculacidites Sah 1967
+
Ranunculacidites operculatus Jaramillo and Dilcher 2001
+
Psilatricolporites operculatus minutus González-Guzmán 1967
Invalid names: Psilatricolporites operculatus Van der Hammen and Wijmstra 1964 [synonym]
G. †Retibrevitricolpites van Hoeken-Klinkenberg 1966
+
Retibrevitricolpites catatumbus González-Guzmán 1967
Retibrevitricolpites distinctus van Hoeken-Klinkenberg 1966
Retibrevitricolpites grandis Jaramillo and Dilcher 2001
Retibrevitricolpites increatus González-Guzmán 1967
Retibrevitricolpites retibolus Leidelmeyer 1966
Retibrevitricolpites triangulatus van Hoeken-Klinkenberg 1966
G. †Retibrevitricolporites Legoux 1978
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Retibrevitricolporites grandis Jaramillo and Dilcher 2001
Retibrevitricolporites speciosus Jaramillo and Dilcher 2001
G. †Retipollenites González-Guzmán 1967
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Retipollenites confusus González-Guzmán 1967
G. †Retistephanocolpites Leidelmeyer 1966
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Retistephanocolpites angeli Leidelmeyer 1966
Retistephanocolpites finalis González-Guzmán 1967
Retistephanocolpites fossulatus Jaramillo and Dilcher 2001
Retistephanocolpites minutus González-Guzmán 1967
Retistephanocolpites regularis van Hoeken-Klinkenberg 1966
Retistephanocolpites williamsii Germeraad et al. 1968
G. †Retistephanoporites González-Guzmán 1967
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Retistephanoporites angelicus González-Guzmán 1967
Retistephanoporites crassiexinatus Jaramillo and Dilcher 2001
Retistephanoporites minutiporus Jaramillo and Dilcher 2001
G. †Retisyncolporites González-Guzmán 1967
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Retisyncolporites angularis González-Guzmán 1967
Retisyncolporites aureus González-Guzmán 1967
G. †Retitrescolpites Sah 1967
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Retitrescolpites assamicus Dutta and Sah 1970
Retitrescolpites baculatus Jaramillo and Dilcher 2001
Retitrescolpites irregularis Jaramillo and Dilcher 2001
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Invalid names: Retitricolporites irregularis Van der Hammen and Wijmstra 1964 [replaced]
Retitrescolpites magnus Jaramillo and Dilcher 2001
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Invalid names: Retitricolpites magnus González-Guzmán 1967 [replaced]
Retitrescolpites minor Dutta and Sah 1970
Retitrescolpites peculiaris Jaramillo and Dilcher 2001
Retitrescolpites saturum Jaramillo and Dilcher 2001
+
Invalid names: Retitricolpites saturum González-Guzmán 1967 [replaced]
G. †Retitricolpites Van der Hammen 1956
+
Retitricolpites absolutus Jaramillo and Dilcher 2001
Retitricolpites adeptus González-Guzmán 1967
Retitricolpites adultus González-Guzmán 1967
Retitricolpites amapaensis Regali et al. 1974
Retitricolpites americana Wymstra 1966
Retitricolpites antonii González-Guzmán 1967
Retitricolpites bonus González-Guzmán 1967
Retitricolpites clarensis González-Guzmán 1967
Retitricolpites conciliatus González-Guzmán 1967
Retitricolpites constrictus González-Guzmán 1967
Retitricolpites fragosus Hedlund and Norris 1968
Retitricolpites herrerae Van der Hammen and Garcia de Mutis 1966
Retitricolpites incisus González-Guzmán 1967
Retitricolpites jardinei Kedves 1999
Retitricolpites maledictus González-Guzmán 1967
Retitricolpites marginatus van Hoeken-Klinkenberg 1966
Retitricolpites maturus González-Guzmán 1967
Retitricolpites microreticulatus Van der Hammen 1954
Retitricolpites minutus Kedves 1999
Retitricolpites obtusus van Hoeken-Klinkenberg 1966
Retitricolpites operculatus Herngreen 1973
Retitricolpites perditus González-Guzmán 1967
Retitricolpites polaris Gonzalez 1966
Retitricolpites robustus Sah and Kar 1970
Retitricolpites salardae Kedves 1999
Retitricolpites simplex González-Guzmán 1967
Retitricolpites sitholeyii Ramanujam 1966
Retitricolpites virgeus Brenner 1962
Retitricolpites vulgaris Pierce 1961
G. †Scabratriporites Van der Hammen 1956
+
Scabratriporites annellus van Hoeken-Klinkenberg 1964
Scabratriporites moderatus González-Guzmán 1967
Scabratriporites redundans González-Guzmán 1967
Scabratriporites simpliformis van Hoeken-Klinkenberg 1966
G. †Schrankipollis Doyle et al. 1990
+
Schrankipollis kachaikensis Barreda and Archangelsky 2006
Schrankipollis mawhoubensis Doyle et al. 1990
Schrankipollis reticulatus Regali and Santos 1996
G. †Senectotetradites Dettmann 1973
+
G. †Stephanoporopollenites Thomson 1953
+
G. †Striatriporites van Hoeken-Klinkenberg 1966
+
Striatriporites nigeriensis van Hoeken-Klinkenberg 1966
G. †Translucentipollis Chlonova 1961
+
G. †Tricolporoidites Pacltova 1971
+
G. †Trifossapollenites Rouse 1957
+
Trifossapollenites constatus Dutta and Sah 1970
Trifossapollenites ivoirensis Jardiné and Magloire 1965
G. †Triporites Van der Hammen 1954
G. †Triporotetradites van Hoeken-Klinkenberg 1964
+
Triporotetradites hoekenii Salard-Cheboldaeff 1978
Triporotetradites letouzeyi Salard-Cheboldaeff 1978
Triporotetradites scabratus van Hoeken-Klinkenberg 1964
G. †Verrustephanocolporites Salard-Cheboldaeff 1978
+
Verrustephanocolporites complanatus Salard-Cheboldaeff 1978
G. †Verrutricolpites Pierce 1961
+
Verrutricolpites irregularis González-Guzmán 1967
Verrutricolpites triangulus Sah and Kar 1970
Verrutricolpites unicus González-Guzmán 1967
Diagnosis
No diagnoses are available
Measurements
No measurements are available
No ecological data are available

Age range

Maximum range based only on fossils: base of the Norian to the top of the Late/Upper Pleistocene or 228.00000 to 0.01170 Ma
Minimum age of oldest fossil (stem group age): 208.5 Ma

Collections (788 total)

Oldest occurrences

Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Norian228.0 - 208.5USA (North Carolina) Anthophyta indet. (55493)
Middle Jurassic - Late/Upper Cenomanian174.7 - 93.5Egypt (Western Desert) Nyssapollenites sp., Foveotricolpites gigantoreticulatus (139303)
Neocomian - Barremian145.0 - 125.0Sudan (South Kurdufan) Monocolpopollenites sp. (172845 172847 172849 172850 172851 172853 172859 172864 172866)
Early/Lower Cretaceous145.0 - 100.5Antarctica Psilatricolpites sp., Retitricolpites sp. (150877)
Valanginian - Barremian139.8 - 125.0Chile (Doceava Región) Asteropollis sp. (150021)
Late/Upper Hauterivian136.4 - 130.0United Kingdom (England) Bevhalstea pebja (119697)
Late/Upper Barremian - Early/Lower Aptian130.0 - 122.46Argentina (Neuquén) Asteropollis transitorius, Asteropollis asteroides (149818)
Barremian - Early/Lower Aptian129.4 - 122.46China (Nei Mongol) Asteropollis trichotomosulcatus (46976)
Barremian - Aptian129.4 - 113.0Senegal (Dakar) Trifossapollenites ivorensis (137358)
Barremian - Aptian129.4 - 113.0Sudan (West Kurdufan) Monocolpopollenites sp. (145173 145174 145176 145177)
Barremian - Albian129.4 - 100.5Israel (Southern Coastal Plain) Retitricolpites sp. (144170)
Barremian - Albian129.4 - 100.5China (Guizhou) Cupuliferoidaepollenites sp. (182652)
Aptian125.0 - 113.0Argentina (Santa Cruz) Lethomasites sp. (222996 223059 223077 223081)
Aptian125.0 - 113.0Egypt (Western Desert) Psilamonocolpites spp., Brenneripollis perorcticulatus, Schrankipollis mawhoubensis (142198 142199 142200) Schrankipollis mawhoubensis (142201)
Aptian125.0 - 113.0Colombia (Huila) Retipollenites finitus, Brenneripollis sp. (139394)
Aptian125.0 - 113.0Egypt (Matruh) Brenneripollis sp. (137370 137371)
Aptian - Early/Lower Albian125.0 - 109.0Argentina (Santa Cruz) Asteropollis asteroides (149850)
Aptian - Albian125.0 - 100.5Colombia (Huila) Asteropollis asteripolliformis (139371) Brenneripollis columellatus chiquis (139377) Brenneripollis sp. (139387) Psilamonocolpites sp. (139374 139375) Psilamonocolpites sp., Asteropollis asteripolliformis (139380) Psilatricolpites simplex, Retitricolpites spp., Retipollenites gigantoechinus, Brenneripollis sp. (139392) Retipollenites afropollinicus, Retipollenites spp., Schrankipollis mawhoubensis (139389) Retipollenites finitus, Retipollenites spp., Psilamonocolpites sp., Brenneripollis columellatus chiquis (139391) Retitricolpites spp. (139370 139372 139373) Schrankipollis microreticulatus (139388) Schrankipollis microreticulatus, Psilatricolpites simplex, Retitricolpites spp., Retipollenites afropollinicus, Retipollenites finitus, Retipollenites fossulatusmejiatus, Retipollenites gigantoechinus, Retipollenites grandis, Retipollenites spp., Psilamonocolpites sp., Asteropollis asteripolliformis, Brenneripollis columellatus chiquis, Brenneripollis columellatus grandis, Brenneripollis echinoafropollinicus, Brenneripollis sp., Phimopollenites pannosus, Phimopollenites pseudocheros, Schrankipollis mawhoubensis (139401)
Aptian - Albian125.0 - 100.5Sudan (South Kurdufan) Monocolpopollenites sp. (145154 145155 145156 145160)
Aptian - Albian125.0 - 100.5Sudan (West Kurdufan) Monocolpopollenites sp. (145162 145163 145166 145172)