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Tyrannosaurus rex (tyrant lizard king)

Reptilia - Avetheropoda - Tyrannosauridae

Taxonomy
Tyrannosaurus rex was named by Osborn (1905). Its type specimen is NMC 9380 =AMNH 973, a partial skeleton (scapula), and it is a 3D body fossil. Its type locality is Sheba Mountain, Sieber Ranch (AMNH), which is in a Maastrichtian terrestrial sandstone in the Lance Formation of Montana.

Synonyms
Synonymy list
YearName and author
1892Manospondylus gigas Cope p. 757
1902Manospondylus gigas Hay p. 500
1905Tyrannosaurus rex Osborn p. 259
1905Dynamosaurus imperiosus Osborn pp. 263-4 fig. 2
1906Tyrannosaurus rex Anonymous p. 15
1906Tyrannosaurus rex Krull p. 350
1906Tyrannosaurus rex Osborn p. 284
1907Tyrannosaurus rex Brown p. 841
1908Tyrannosaurus rex Abel p. 211
1912Tyrannosaurus rex Fraas p. 9
1914Tyrannosaurus rex Brown p. 358
1914Tyrannosaurus rex Huene p. 578
1915Tyrannosaurus rex Huene p. 22 fig. 14
1915Tyrannosaurus rex Stromer p. 7
1919Tyrannosaurus rex Holland p. 38–39
1920Tyrannosaurus rex Pompeckj p. 119
1922Tyrannosaurus rex Matthew and Brown pp. 377-378
1927Tyrannosaurus rex Huene p. 260
1930Tyrannosaurus rex Russell p. 140
1931Tyrannosaurus rex Stromer p. 9
1934Tyrannosaurus rex Stromer p. 35
1934Tyrannosaurus rex Swinton p. 30
1935Tyrannosaurus rex Parks p. 195
1935Tyrannosaurus rex Young
1936Tyrannosaurus rex Stromer p. 83
1940Tyrannosaurus rex Brown and Schlaikjer p. 5 fig. 5
1941Tyrannosaurus rex Avinoff p. 29
1942Tyrannosaurus rex Avinoff p. 29
1942Tyrannosaurus rex Kay p. 201
1942Tyrannosaurus rex Knight p. 165
1943Tyrannosaurus rex Stovall p. 70
1946Tyrannosaurus rex Gilmore p. 16
1949Tyrannosaurus rex Anonymous p. 255
1951Tyrannosaurus rex Kay p. 165
1954Tyrannosaurus rex Lavocat p. 68
1960Tyrannosaurus rex Jeletzky p. 35
1963Tyrannosaurus rex Anonymous p. 340
1964Tyrannosaurus rex Estes p. 144
1964Manospondylus gigas Kuhn p. 23
1964Tyrannosaurus rex Russell p. 17
1964Tyrannosaurus rex Tatarinov p. 539
1964Tyrannosaurus imperiosus Walker p. 117
1965Tyrannosaurus rex Ostrom p. 39
1965Tyrannosaurus rex Rozhdestvensky
1966Tyrannosaurus rex Russell p. 13
1970Tyrannosaurus rex Russell p. 18
1970Tyrannosaurus rex Steel pp. 42-43
1970Tyrannosaurus rex Swinton p. 151
1970Tyrannosaurus imperiosus Swinton p. 152
1970Tyrannosaurus rex Tabrum p. 6
1972Tyrannosaurus rex Osmólska et al. p. 136
1974Tyrannosaurus rex Anonymous p. 159
1974Tyrannosaurus rex Molnar p. 1011
1976Tyrannosaurus rex Kurzanov
1976Tyrannosaurus rex Lawson p. 159
1976Tyrannosaurus rex Sloan p. 145
1978Tyrannosaurus rex Molnar p. 73
1980Tyrannosaurus rex Chao
1980Tyrannosaurus rex Gabriel and Lupton p. 25
1980Tyrannosaurus rex Lisak p. 68
1980Tyrannosaurus rex Molnar p. 102
1981Tyrannosaurus rex McIntosh p. 8
1982Tyrannosaurus rex Anonymous p. 12
1984Tyrannosaurus rex Kielan-Jaworowska p. 96
1985Tyrannosaurus rex Breithaupt p. 169
1986Tyrannosaurus rex Gauthier p. 9
1986Tyrannosaurus rex Gillette et al. p. 235
1986Tyrannosaurus rex Zhao p. 71
1987Tyrannosaurus rex Lehman p. 208
1988Aublysodon molnaris Paul p. 324
1988Albertosaurus megagracilis Paul pp. 333-334
1988Tyrannosaurus rex Paul p. 343
1990Tyrannosaurus rex Molnar et al. p. 190
1991Tyrannosaurus rex Molnar p. 139
1991Albertosaurus megagracilis Molnar p. 170
1991Tyrannosaurus rex Weishampel et al. p. 209
1992Tyrannosaurus rex Bakker et al. p. 3
1992Tyrannosaurus rex Buffetaut p. 135 fig. 2
1992Tyrannosaurus rex Carpenter p. 254
1992Tyrannosaurus rex Currie p. 247
1994Tyrannosaurus rex Molnar and Wiffen p. 693
1995Tyrannosaurus rex Lockley and Hunt p. 235
1995Dinotyrannus megagracilis Olshevsky
1995Stygivenator molnari Olshevsky
1996Tyrannosaurus rex Buffetaut et al. p. 690
1997Tyrannosaurus rex Breithaupt p. 395
1997Tyrannosaurus rex Currie and Padian p. 369
1997Tyrannosaurus rex Eberth p. 202
1997Tyrannosaurus rex Novas p. 684
1997Tyrannosaurus rex Ryan and Vickaryous p. 170
1997Tyrannosaurus rex Schweitzer p. 459
1998Tyrannosaurus rex Makovicky and Norell p. 13
1999Tyrannosaurus rex Carr p. 498
1999Tyrannosaurus rex Knoll et al. p. 106
2000Tyrannosaurus rex Foster and Chure p. 8
2000Stygivenator molnari Olshevsky p. 154
2000Dinotyrannus megagracilis Olshevsky p. 156
2001Tyrannosaurus rex Carpenter and Smith p. 93
2001Tyrannosaurus rex Eberth et al. p. 66
2001Aublysodon molnaris Holtz, Jr. p. 68 fig. 7.2
2001Tyrannosaurus rex Holtz, Jr. pp. 71-72 fig. 7.2
2003Tyrannosaurus rex Currie p. 58
2003Tyrannosaurus rex Currie et al. p. 10
2003Tyrannosaurus rex Currie et al. p. 231
2003Aublysodon molnari Rauhut p. 43
2003Tyrannosaurus rex Rauhut p. 43
2003Tyrannosaurus rex Williamson et al. p. 110A
2004Tyrannosaurus rex Carr and Williamson p. 481
2004Tyrannosaurus rex Holtz, Jr. p. 113
2005Tyrannosaurus rex Carr et al. p. 140 fig. 21
2006Tyrannosaurus rex Fowler and Sullivan p. 127
2006Tyranosaurus rex Malkani p. 8
2006Tyrannosaurus rex Urban and Lamanna p. 234
2007Tyrannosaurus rex Averianov p. 538
2007Tyrannosaurus rex Sampson and Witmer p. 38
2007Tyrannosaurus rex Saveliev and Alifanov p. 282
2007Tyrannosaurus rex Turner et al. p. 20 fig. 12
2008Tyrannosaurus rex Cooper et al.
2008Tyrannosaurus rex Irmis and Knoll p. 121
2008Tyrannosaurus rex Longrich p. 136
2008Tyrannosaurus rex Manning et al. p. 645
2009Tyrannosaurus rex Benson and Barrett p. 139
2009Tyrannosaurus rex Li et al.
2009Tyrannosaurus rex Norell et al. p. 49
2010Tyrannosaurus rex Paulina Carabajal and Canale p. 249
2011Tyrannosaurus rex Carr et al.
2011Tyrannosaurus rex Hone et al. p. 495
2011Tyrannosaurus rex Kellner et al. p. 104
2012Tyrannosaurus rex Cau et al. p. 664
2012Tyrannosaurus rex Galton and Molnar p. 21
2013Tyrannosaurus rex Dalman p. 242
2013Tyrannosaurus rex Ibiricu et al. p. 8
2013Tyrannosaurus rex Stein and Triebold p. 56
2014Tyrannosaurus rex Williamson and Brusatte p. 7
2015Tyrannosaurus rex DePalma et al. p. 12
2015Tyrannosaurus rex Torices et al. p. 615
2015Tyrannosaurus rex White et al. p. 3
2016Tyrannosaurus rex Claessens and Loewen p. 10
2016Tyrannosaurus rex Coria and Currie p. 2
2017Tyrannosaurus rex Carr et al. p. 7

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
OlfactoresJefferies 1991
subphylumVertebrata
Gnathostomata()
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda()
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
Batrachosauria()
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
Sauropsida
classReptilia
subclassEureptilia()
Romeriida
Diapsida()
Eosuchia()
RankNameAuthor
Neodiapsida
SauriaGauthier 1984
Archosauromorpha(Huene 1946)
Crocopoda
ArchosauriformesGauthier 1986
Eucrocopoda
Archosauria()
informalAvemetatarsalia
Ornithodira
Dinosauromorpha
Dinosauriformes
Dinosauria()
Saurischia()
Theropoda()
Neotheropoda
AverostraPaul 2002
Tetanurae
orderAvetheropoda
suborderCoelurosauria
superfamilyTyrannosauroidea
familyTyrannosauridae
subfamilyTyrannosaurinae
genusTyrannosaurus
speciesrex

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
ReferenceDiagnosis
H. F. Osborn 1905Carnivorous Dinosaurs attaining very large size. Humerus believed to be oL large size and elongate (Brown). No evidence of bony dermal plates (Brown).
H. F. Osborn 1905 (Dynamosaurus imperiosus)Twelve to thirteen mandibular teeth.
K. Carpenter 1992Angular terminates posterior to the surangular fenestra. Surangular fenestra much larger than in Tyrannosaurus baatar. Maxilla terminates below the lacrymal.