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Mamenchisaurus hochuanensis

Reptilia - Mamenchisauridae

Taxonomy
Mamenchisaurus hochuanensis was named by Chao (1965). Its type specimen is IVPP, a partial skeleton, and it is a 3D body fossil. Its type locality is Hochuan, which is in an Oxfordian fluvial siliciclastic in the Shangshaximiao Formation of China.

Synonymy list
YearName and author
1965Mamenchisaurus hochuanensis Anonymous p. 27
1965Mamenchisaurus hochuanensis Chao p. 36 figs. 1-12, Pl. 1-15
1966Mamenchisaurus hochuanensis Voichin p. 94
1972Mamenchisaurus hochuanensis Young and Chao
1977Mamenchisaurus hochuanensis Rozhdestvensky p. 113
1978Mamenchisaurus hochuanensis Dong et al.
1981Mamenchisaurus hochuanensis Anonymous
1981Mamenchisaurus hochuanensis Olshevsky p. 36
1983Mamenchisaurus hochuanensis Dong et al. pp. 63-65
1984Mamenchisaurus hochuanensis He p. 61
1985Mamenchisaurus hochuanensis Zhao p. 347
1990Mamenchisaurus hochuanensis McIntosh p. 394
1992Mamenchisaurus hochuanensis Dong p. 78
1994Mamenchisaurus hochuanensis Russell and Zheng p. 2089
1996Mamenchisaurus hochuanensis He et al.
1996Mamenchisaurus hochuanensis Zhang and Chen
1997Mamenchisaurus hechuanensis Dong p. 118
1998Mamenchisaurus hochuanensis Dong p. 82
1999Mamenchisaurus hochuanensis Martin-Rolland pp. 306-307 fig. 19
2002Mamenchisaurus hochuanensis Ouyang and Ye pp. 98-99
2004Mamenchisaurus hochuanensis Upchurch et al. p. 262
2008Mamenchisaurus hochuanensis Lü et al. p. 18
2009Mamenchisaurus hochuanensis Xing et al. p. 1391
2011Mamenchisaurus hochuanensis Taylor et al. p. 81 fig. 3

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
OlfactoresJefferies 1991
subphylumVertebrata
Gnathostomata()
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda()
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
Batrachosauria()
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
Sauropsida
classReptilia
subclassEureptilia()
Romeriida
Diapsida()
RankNameAuthor
Eosuchia()
Neodiapsida
SauriaGauthier 1984
Archosauromorpha(Huene 1946)
Crocopoda
ArchosauriformesGauthier 1986
Eucrocopoda
Archosauria()
informalAvemetatarsalia
Ornithodira
Dinosauromorpha
Dinosauriformes
Dinosauria()
Saurischia()
Eusaurischia
Sauropodomorpha(Huene 1932)
Massopoda
Sauropodiformes
Sauropoda()
Eusauropoda
familyMamenchisauridae
genusMamenchisaurus
specieshochuanensis

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
ReferenceDiagnosis
C.-C. Young and H. C. Chao 1972Relatively few dorsals and caudals, but number of cervicals exceeds that in other known species (cervicals 19, dorsals 12, sacrals 4, and caudals 35+). Cervicals are weakly opisthocoelus and constitute nearly half the total body length. Dorsals near the sacral region are distinctly opisthocoelus, 16 anterior caudals are amphicoelus, but the posterior caudals are platycoelus. Cervical neural spines are low and flat, those on the anterior four dorsals are bifid, but those on the five dorsals posterior to these are single with robust terminal ends. Neural spines on the three anterior sacrals are fused, and on the fourth sacral and first caudal are anteriorly convex and posteriorly concave. Caudal haemal spines become anteroposteriorly bifurcated beginning on the ninth caudal. Ilium is robust with a pubic peduncle located centrally. The ischium is gracile. Tibia and fibula are thin and flat, nearly equivalent in length, and the tibia displays a well developed proximal end. Astragalus is relatively well developed with deeply concave articular facets for the tibia/fibula causing the fibular keel to be extremely pronounced. Metatarsals are relatively short and small although the ungual phalanx (claw) of digit I is particularly well developed.
Z. Dong et al. 1983Vertebral count is cervical: 19, dorsal: 12, sacral: 4, and caudal: 35+?. Cervical count exceeds any other species of sauropod and their length constitutes nearly one-half the length of the entire body with centra that are extremely weakly opisthocoelous while centra in the sacral region are distinctly opisthocoelous. The 16 anterior caudals are procoelous, but posterior to this they become amphiplatyan. Cervical neural spines are low and planar, the four anterior dorsal spines are bifid, the three anterior sacral spines are fused, while the fourth sacral spine and anterior caudal spines are spoon-shaped (anteriorly convex and posteriorly concave). Haemal arches initiate bifurcation at the ninth caudal. The ilium is robust with a pubic peduncle located beneath the center of the blade, and the ischial peduncle is slender and gracile. Tibia and fibula are thin and flat, nearly equivalent in length, and the proximal tibia is well developed. The astragalus is relatively well developed with a deep depression and an extremely high medial process for articulation with the tibia and fibula. Metatarsals are relatively short and small, and the ungual on digit I is extremely robust.