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Testudines (turtle)

Reptilia - Testudines

Taxonomy

View classification of included taxa

Synonyms
Synonymy list
YearName and author
1788Testudines Batsch
1800Chelonii Latreille
1842Chelone obovata Owen p. 170
1847Apholidemys Pomel
1854Chelonia Mantell p. 646
1861Chelonia Owen p. 314
1865Chelone sopita Leidy p. 104
1866Chelonia Haeckel p. CXXXVIII
1868Osteopygis sopita Cope p. 147
1870Propleura sopita Cope p. 140
1882Chelonii Quenstedt p. 145
1884Apholidemys Cope
1886Chelonia Günther p. 445
1895Podocnemis lata Ristori
1898Chelonia Gadow p. 20
1898Chelonia Woodward p. 141
1902Testudines Hay p. 434
1902Osteopygis sopitus Hay p. 441
1904Chelonia Case p. 60
1906Chelonia Andrews p. 275
1908Osteopygis sopitus Hay p. 149 figs. figs. 181-184
1908Chelonia Lambe
1909Platychelone Dollo p. 105
1909Platychelone emarginata Dollo p. 105
1913Chelonia Broom p. 364
1934Apertotemporalis Stromer
1934Apertotemporalis baharijensis Stromer
1934Chelonia Swinton p. 70
1947Chelonia Olson pp. 44, 45
1954Chelonia Haughton and Brink p. 3
1955Euclastochelys Bergounioux
1955Euclastochelys interrupta Bergounioux
1958Temnoclemmys cordiformis Bergounioux
1958Pleurosternum obovata Delair p. 49
1966Senonemys suemegensis Bohn
1966Testudines Kuhn p. 20
1973Trionyx tshelkarensis Chkhikvadze
1974Trionyx fuchienensis Yeh
1979Sokotochelys Halstead
1979Sokotochelys lawanbungudui Halstead
1979Sokotochelys umarumohammedi Halstead
1981Chelonia Thurmond and Jones p. 114
1982Chelonia Gardiner p. 228
1985Testudines Benton p. 153
1988Apertotemporalis Carroll
1988Chelonia Carroll
1988Sokotochelys Carroll
1988Padiochelys Carroll p. 616
1988Testudines Holman and Case p. 328
1989Testudines Gauthier et al. p. 343
1989Chelonia Gauthier et al. p. 344
1989Testudines Shoshani et al. p. 436
1993Chelonia Cvancara and Hoganson p. 15
1995Testudines Laurin and Reisz p. 172
1995Chelonia Lee pp. 508, 515 fig. 22
1996Testudines Frank and Ramus
2001Testudines Peng et al. p. 23
2001Testudines Weems and George p. 572
2002Testudines Pearson et al. p. 154
2002Chelonia Sepkoski, Jr.
2003Testudines Meyer and Zardoya
2007Testudines Joyce
2008Testudines Danilov and Parham
2008Testudines Li et al. p. 500
2008Testudines Sterli p. 286
2010Testudines Parham and Pyenson p. 232
2010Meiolania damelipi White et al. p. 1
2013Testudines Pérez-García and Murelaga
2014Testudines Perea et al.
2015Meiolania damelipi Rhodin et al.
2016Testudines Garcia et al.
2017Testudines Turvey et al.

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subphylumVertebrata
superclassGnathostomata
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
RankNameAuthor
Tetrapoda()
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
Batrachosauria()
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
Sauropsida
classReptilia
Testudinata(Oppel 1811)
orderTestudinesBatsch 1788
orderTestudinesBatsch 1788

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
ReferenceDiagnosis
R. Owen 1861 (Chelonia)Trunk-ribs broad, flat, suturally united, forming, with their vertebra, the sternum, and dermal bones, an expanded thoracic-abdominal case, into which the limbs, tail, and, usually, the head, can be withdrawn. No teeth: external nostril single.
Measurements
No measurements are available
Composition: phosphaticsubp
Environment: terrestrialuc
Locomotion: actively mobilec
Created: 2017-04-17 15:15:35
Modified: 2017-04-17 15:15:35
Source: c = class, subp = subphylum, uc = unranked clade
References: Carroll 1988, Hendy et al. 2009

Age range

Maximum range based only on fossils: base of the Olenekian to the top of the Holocene or 251.20000 to 0.00000 Ma
Minimum age of oldest fossil (stem group age): 247.2 Ma

Collections (4810 total)

Oldest occurrences

Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Spathian251.3 - 247.2USA (Wyoming) Chelonipus sp. (135635 135636 135637)
Olenekian - Anisian251.2 - 242.0Germany (Thuringia) Chelonipus cuneiformis, Chelonipus torquatus (182300)
Norian228.0 - 208.5Germany (Bayern) Reptilia indet. (48683)
Rhaetian208.5 - 201.3Italy (Lombardy) Emydidae indet. (38083)
Hettangian - Sinemurian201.3 - 190.8Lesotho (Quthing) Tetrapoda indet. (56026)
Jurassic201.3 - 145.0Germany (Barvaria) Acichelys approximata (137802)
Sinemurian199.3 - 190.8Germany (Bavaria) Thalassemydidae indet. (144689)
Sinemurian - Pliensbachian199.3 - 182.7USA (Arizona) Cryptodira indet. (51898) Testudines indet. (51895)
Sinemurian - Aalenian199.3 - 170.3India (Telangana) Testudines indet. (61857)
Middle Jurassic174.1 - 163.5China (Xinjiang) Xinjiangchelyidae indet. (38135)
Middle Jurassic174.1 - 163.5China (Yunnan) Chelonia indet. (49774) Plesiochelys oshanensis (49502) Testudines indet. (70438)
Late/Upper Bajocian - Early/Lower Bathonian171.6 - 164.7France Testudines indet. (58416)
Bathonian168.3 - 166.1Russian Federation (Krasnoyarsk) Testudines indet. 1, Testudines indet. 2, Testudines indet. 3, Annemys sp., Xinjiangchelys sp. (61891)
Bathonian168.3 - 166.1Madagascar (Mahajunga) Chelonia indet. (194795 194853 194861)
Bathonian - Callovian168.3 - 163.5China (Xingjiang) Xinjiangchelys wusu (154095)
Bathonian - Callovian168.3 - 163.5China (Xinjiang) Annemys sp. (135364)
Early/Lower Bathonian167.7 - 164.7United Kingdom (England) Testudines indet. (31054)
Early/Lower Bathonian - Middle Bathonian167.7 - 164.7United Kingdom (Scotland) Chelonia indet. (105872)
Late/Upper Bathonian167.7 - 164.7United Kingdom (England) Chelonia indet. (57139 166423) Chelonia indet., Cryptodira indet. (57125) Chelonia indet., Cryptodira indet., Pleurosternidae indet. (57124) Cryptodira histomorph II, Cryptodira indet. (39075)
Middle Bathonian167.7 - 164.7United Kingdom (England) Testudines indet. (57120)