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Pareiasauria

Reptilia -

Taxonomy
Pareiasauria was named by Seeley (1888) [Whether this taxon is extinct or not depends on exlusion or inclusion of turtles, respectively.]. It is not extant. It was considered monophyletic by Lee (1995) and Laurin and Reisz (1995).

It was synonymized subjectively with Cotylosauria by Osborn (1904); it was reranked as the order Pareiasauria by Huene (1954); it was reranked as the infraorder Pareiasauria by Haughton and Brink (1954); it was reranked as the unranked clade Pareiasauria by Lee (1995) and Laurin and Reisz (1995).

It was assigned to Anomodontia by Seeley (1888); to Theromorpha by Zittel (1890); to Therosuchia by Seeley (1895); to Cotylosauria by Case (1911); to Cotylosauria by Broom (1913); to Diadecta by Olson (1947); to Diadectimorpha by Haughton and Brink (1954); to Reptiliomorphoidea by Huene (1954); to Anapsida by Olson (1966); to Parareptilia by Olson (1962) and Gauthier et al. (1988); to Amniota by Gauthier et al. (1989); to Procolophonia by Laurin and Reisz (1995); to Pareiasauroidea by Lee (1995); and to Reptilia by Lee (2000).

Synonyms
  • Pareiasaurus strubeni was named by Broom (1924). Its type specimen is AMNH, a skeleton, and it is a 3D body fossil.

    It was recombined as Nochelesaurus strubeni by Haughton and Boonstra (1929); it was considered a nomen dubium by Lee (1997).
  • Pareiasaurus acutirostris was named by Broom (1913). Its type specimen is AMG 3748, a partial skull, and it is a 3D body fossil.

    It was considered a nomen dubium by Lee (1997).
  • Pareiasaurus steenkampensis was named by Seeley (1908). Its type specimen is BMNH R3770, R3669, a set of postcrania (9 osteoderms and 1 caudal vertebra), and it is a 3D body fossil.

    It was considered a nomen dubium by Lee (1997).
  • Pareiasaurus bombidens was named by Owen (1876). Its type specimen is BMNH R1714 (formerly 53525), a mandible, and it is a 3D body fossil. Its type locality is Vers Fontein/Jan Willem Fontein, which is in a Capitanian floodplain sandstone/claystone in the Abrahamskraal Formation of South Africa.

    It was considered a nomen vanum by Lee (1997).
  • Pareiasaurus russouwi was named by Seeley (1892). Its type specimen is BMNH R1996, a partial skull (Right maxilla and part of right mandible), and it is a 3D body fossil.

    It was considered a nomen dubium by Lee (1997).
Synonymy list
YearName and author
1876Pareiasaurus bombidens Owen
1888Pareiasauria Seeley p. 106
1890Pareiosauria Zittel p. 449
1892Pareiasaurus russouwi Seeley
1895Pareiasauria Seeley
1908Pareiasaurus steenkampensis Seeley
1911Pareiasauria Case p. 9
1913Pareiasauria Broom
1913Pareiasaurus acutirostris Broom
1913Pareiasaurus bombidens Broom
1913Pareiasaurus russouwi Broom
1924Pareiasaurus strubeni Broom
1929Nochelesaurus strubeni Haughton and Boonstra p. 83
1947Pareiasauria Olson pp. 44, 45
1954Pareiasauria Haughton and Brink p. 3
1954Pareiasauria Huene p. 21
1962Pareiasauria Olson
1966Pareiasauria Olson p. 301
1988Pareiasauria Gauthier et al. p. 139 fig. 4.4
1989Pareiasauria Gauthier et al. p. 340
1995Pareiasauria Laurin and Reisz p. 172
1995Pareiasauria Lee pp. 508, 515 fig. 22
2000Pareiasauria Lee p. 71

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
OlfactoresJefferies 1991
subphylumVertebrata
Gnathostomata()
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda()
Reptiliomorpha
RankNameAuthor
Anthracosauria
Batrachosauria()
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
Sauropsida
classReptilia
subclassParareptilia
Procolophonomorpha()
Procolophonia()
Hallucicrania
superfamilyPareiasauroideaNopsca 1928
Pareiasauria()
Pareiasauria()

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
ReferenceDiagnosis
H. G. Seeley 1895Temporal vacuities of the skull roofed over as in Chelone; a large single (concave) occipital condyle; sphenoidal region short; transverse palatine processes directed out and forward. Teeth conical or with compressed cuspidate crowns, not divided into incisors, canines and molares. Ribs with the heads deep and occasionally divided.