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Gastropoda - Murchisoniina

Synonymy list
YearName and author
1889Loxonematacea Koken
1960Loxonematacea Knight et al. p. 311
1975Loxonematoidea Golikov and Starobogatov p. 214
1988Loxonematoidea Ponder and Warén p. 292
1997Loxonematoidea Frýda and Bandel
1997Stylogastropoda Frýda and Bandel
1999Loxonematoidea Heidelberger and Bandel p. 138
1999Loxonematoidea Wagner p. 82
2003Loxonematoidea Jeffery
2005Loxonematoidea Bouchet et al. p. 242
2020Loxonematoidea Wagner p. H232

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EubilateriaAx 1987
classGastropodaCuvier 1797
superfamilyLoxonematoidea(Koken 1889)
superfamilyLoxonematoidea(Koken 1889)

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

No diagnoses are available
No measurements are available
Composition: aragonitec
Locomotion: facultatively mobilesuperf
Life habit: epifaunalsuperf
Diet: suspension feedersuperf
Vision: limitedc
Created: 2009-09-21 10:39:28
Modified: 2009-09-21 12:39:28
Source: superf = superfamily, c = class
References: Kiessling 2004, Bambach et al. 2007

Age range: base of the Tremadoc to the top of the Lutetian or 485.40000 to 41.30000 Ma

Collections (1400 total)

Oldest occurrences

Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Tremadoc - Floian485.4 - 470.0USA (Utah) Loxonema sp. (154882)
Middle Ordovician - Late/Upper Ordovician470.0 - 443.4Canada (Nunavut) Loxonema sp. (24241)
Costonian - Harnagian460.9 - 455.8China (ShanXi) Loxonema sp. (8009)
Keila - Oandu460.9 - 452.0Sweden (Dalarna) Loxonema dalecarlicum (155566)
Berounian460.9 - 449.5Czech Republic Loxonema parvula (154463)
Blackriveran460.9 - 449.5Canada (Quebec) Hormotoma trentonensis, Loxonema murrayana, Omospira alexandra (63816)
Blackriveran460.9 - 449.5USA (Illinois, Iowa) Omospira laticincta (23612)
Blackriveran460.9 - 449.5USA (Minnesota) Omospira laticincta (23555)
Caradocian460.9 - 449.5USA (Virginia) Omospira laticincta (34214 34215 34216 34217 34218 34277 34279 34281 34324 34326 34327 34328)
Caradocian460.9 - 449.5Canada (Ontario) Hormotoma trentonensis, Omospira alexandra (26276)

Youngest occurrences

Time interval Ma Country or state PBDB collection number
Late/Upper Callovian - Oxfordian164.7 - 157.3New Zealand Zygopleura sp. (51934)
Kimmeridgian157.3 - 152.1Portugal Diatrypesis guerreri (68212) Zygopleura sp. (67941 67958)
Early/Lower Cretaceous145.0 - 100.5USA (California) Abyssochrysos giganteum (151976)
Valanginian139.8 - 132.9Poland Diatrypesis kurushini (63065)
Early/Lower Hauterivian136.4 - 130.0France Humptulipsia macsotayi (205202)
Early/Lower Hauterivian136.4 - 130.0France (Drome) Humptulipsia macsotayi (205237)
Early/Lower Albian112.03 - 109.0Madagascar (Mahajanga) Zardinistylus cretaceus (60072)
Santonian86.3 - 83.6Austria Loxonematacea indet. (74489)
Thanetian - Ypresian59.2 - 47.8Turkey Turritella hybrida (99608)
Lutetian47.8 - 41.3USA (Washington) Abyssochrysos raui, Humptulipsia raui (172001)