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Jainosaurus septentrionalis

Reptilia -

Taxonomy
Antarctosaurus septentrionalis was named by Huene and Matley (1933). Its type specimen is GSI IM K27/497, a partial skeleton (braincase), and it is a 3D body fossil. Its type locality is Sauropod Bed, Bara Simla, which is in a Maastrichtian terrestrial claystone in the Lameta Formation of India.

It was synonymized subjectively with Titanosaurus indicus by Prasad and Sahni (1999); it was recombined as Jainosaurus septentrionalis by Hunt et al. (1995), Loyal et al. (1996), Upchurch et al. (2004), Curry Rogers (2005), Wilson and Mohabey (2006), Wilson et al. (2009), D'Emic et al. (2009), Prasad and Sahni (2009), Díez Díaz et al. (2011), Vila et al. (2012) and Mohabey et al. (2013).

Synonymy list
YearName and author
1933Antarctosaurus septentrionalis Huene and Matley p. 11 figs. 5-6
1947Antarctosaurus septentrionalis Swinton p. 114
1957Antarctosaurus septentrionalis Lapparent p. 112
1969Antarctosaurus septentrionalis Van Valen p. 624
1970Antarctosaurus septentrionalis Steel p. 75
1977Antarctosaurus septentrionalis Rozhdestvensky p. 113
1987Antarctosaurus septentrionalis Casanovas et al. p. 98
1989Antarctosaurus septentrionalis Jain p. 100
1995Jainosaurus septentrionalis Hunt et al. p. 266
1996Antarctosaurus septentrionalis Chatterjee and Rudra p. 514
1996Jainosaurus septentrionalis Loyal et al. p. 629
1996Antarctosaurus septentrionalis Mohabey p. 367
1996Antarctosaurus septentrionalis Mohabey and Udhoji p. 354
1997Antarctosaurus septentrionalis Sahni p. 365
1997Antarctosaurus septentrionalis Salgado and Calvo p. 37
2001Antarctosaurus septentrionalis Mohabey p. 482
2002Antarctosaurus septentrionalis Wilson p. 248
2004Jainosaurus septentrionalis Upchurch et al. p. 269
2005Jainosaurus septentrionalis Curry Rogers p. 66
2005Antarctosaurus septentrionalis Mohabey p. 469
2006Jainosaurus septentrionalis Wilson and Mohabey p. 475
2007Antarctosaurus septentrionalis Malkani
2009Jainosaurus septentrionalis D'Emic et al. p. 167
2009Jainosaurus septentrionalis Prasad and Sahni p. 372
2009Jainosaurus septentrionalis Wilson et al. pp. 19-20 figs. 2-8
2011Jainosaurus septentrionalis Díez Díaz et al. p. 522
2012Jainosaurus septentrionalis Vila et al. p. 29
2013Jainosaurus septentrionalis Mohabey et al. pp. 35-36

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
OlfactoresJefferies 1991
subphylumVertebrata
Gnathostomata()
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda()
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
Batrachosauria()
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
Sauropsida
classReptilia
subclassEureptilia()
Romeriida
Diapsida()
Eosuchia()
Neodiapsida
RankNameAuthor
SauriaGauthier 1984
Archosauromorpha(Huene 1946)
Crocopoda
ArchosauriformesGauthier 1986
Eucrocopoda
Archosauria()
informalAvemetatarsalia
Ornithodira
Dinosauromorpha
Dinosauriformes
Dinosauria()
Saurischia()
Eusaurischia
Sauropodomorpha(Huene 1932)
Massopoda
Sauropodiformes
Sauropoda()
Eusauropoda
Neosauropoda
Macronaria
Titanosauriformes
Somphospondyli
Titanosauria
genusJainosaurus
speciesseptentrionalis()

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
ReferenceDiagnosis
J. A. Wilson et al. 2009Jainosaurus septentrionalis is recognized as a derived member of Titanosauria based on the presence of a contact between quadrate and the basal tubera and a pendant, nonarticular ventral flange on the paroccipital processes (Wilson, 2002, 2005). Jainosaurus shares general similarities with the South American titanosaur Antarctosaurus wichmannianus, such as a tall nuchal crest on the supraoccipital, a sinuous parietal-supraoccipital contact, and broad basal tubera. It shares more specific similarities with “Malagasy Taxon B” (Curry Rogers, unpublished data) and the South American titanosaurs Pitekunsaurus (Fillippi and Garrido, 2008), Muyelensaurus (Calvo et al., 2007), and an unnamed braincase from Río Negro, Argentina (MML 194; García et al., 2008). These include the presence of a broad, shallow fossa between the basal tubera and basipterygoid processes oriented parallel to the plane of the occiput. Additionally, Jainosaurus shares with “Malagasy Taxon B” basal tubera with a small ventrolateral process set off by a notch (Curry Rogers, unpublished data). Jainosaurus septentrionalis is characterized by an elongate spur of the prootic that extends onto the basipterygoid process, a medially inset and obliquely oriented humeral deltopectoral crest, a proximolateral bulge on the deltopectoral crest (shared with other titanosaurs, see below), anteroposteriorly thin bone bounding the deltopectoral fossa on the humerus; and an anteriorly expanded radial condyle on the distal humerus. Jainosaurus can be distinguished Isisaurus by the orientation of the occipital condyle relative to the occiput, the shape of the basal tubera, differences in shape of the scapula and proximal humerus, and the robustness of the ulnar shaft.