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Rapetosaurus krausei

Reptilia - Titanosauridae

Taxonomy
Rapetosaurus krausei was named by Curry Rogers and Forster (2001). Its type specimen is University of Antananarivo 8698 and is a 3D body fossil. Its type locality is MAD96-02 (SUNY), which is in a Maastrichtian channel sandstone in the Maevarano Formation of Madagascar.

Synonymy list
YearName and author
2001Rapetosaurus krausei Curry Rogers and Forster
2002Rapetosaurus krausei Wilson p. 275
2004Rapetosaurus krausei Upchurch et al. p. 270
2005Rapetosaurus krausei Apesteguía p. 336
2005Rapetosaurus krausei Curry Rogers p. 59
2005Rapetosaurus krausei Salgado and Coria p. 447
2006Rapetosaurus krausei Kellner et al. p. 2
2007Rapetosaurus krausei Castro et al. p. 199
2008Rapetosaurus krausei Allain and Aquesbi p. 400
2008Rapetosaurus krausei Filippi and Garrido p. 580
2009Rapetosaurus krausei González Riga et al. p. 141
2009Rapetosaurus krausei Salgado and Coria p. 12
2009Rapetosaurus krausei Wilson et al. pp. 35-36
2010Rapetosaurus krausei Alifanov and Bolotsky p. 89
2010Rapetosaurus krausei García and Cerda p. 48
2011Rapetosaurus krausei Díez Díaz et al. p. 521
2011Rapetosaurus krausei González Riga p. 283
2011Rapetosaurus krausei Grellet-Tinner et al. p. 625
2011Rapetosaurus krausi Taylor et al. p. 81 fig. 3
2012Rapetosaurus krausei Díez Díaz et al. p. 265
2012Rapetosaurus krausei Vila et al. p. 29
2014Rapetosaurus krausei Mocho et al.
2015Rapetosaurus krausei Gallina and Apesteguía p. 1
2016Rapetosaurus krausei Melstrom et al. p. 18

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subphylumVertebrata
superclassGnathostomata
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda()
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
Batrachosauria()
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
Sauropsida
classReptilia
subclassEureptilia()
Romeriida
Diapsida()
Eosuchia()
Neodiapsida
SauriaGauthier 1984
Archosauromorpha(Huene 1946)
RankNameAuthor
Crocopoda
ArchosauriformesGauthier 1986
Eucrocopoda
Archosauria()
informalAvemetatarsalia
Ornithodira
Dinosauromorpha
Dinosauriformes
Dinosauria()
Saurischia()
Eusaurischia
Sauropodomorpha(Huene 1932)
Massopoda
Sauropodiformes
Sauropoda()
Eusauropoda
Neosauropoda
Macronaria
Titanosauriformes
Somphospondyli
Titanosauria
familyTitanosauridae
EutitanosauriaSanz et al. 1999
Lithostrotia
genusRapetosaurus
specieskrausei

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
ReferenceDiagnosis
K. A. Curry Rogers and C. A. Forster 2001Rapetosaurus is characterized by the following autapomorphies: expanded antorbital fenestra extends over tooth row; preantorbital fenestra positioned posterior to antorbital fenestra; subnarial foramen anteriorly positioned and dorsoventrally elongate; jugal process of maxilla posterodorsally elongate and narrow; frontals with median dome; quadrate with V-shaped quadratojugal articulation; supraoccipital with two anteriorly directed median parietal processes; pterygoid with extremely shallow basipterygoid articulation and dorsoventrally expanded anterior process; basipterygoid processes diverge only at distal extremes; dentary with 11 alveoli that extend two-thirds the length of the element; gracile cylindrical teeth with high-angle planar wear facets; 16 cervical vertebrae with constricted neural canals and continuous pre- and postspinal coels devoid of pre- or postspinal laminae; cervical neural spines with proximal bifurcation and three pneumatized coels bounded by discrete laminae; 11 dorsal vertebrae with deep lateral pleurocoels; dorsal neural spines with strong pre- and postspinal laminae in deeply excavated anterior and posterior coels; dorsals with median interpre- and interpostzygapophyseal laminae; middle and posterior dorsals with divided spinodiapophyseal lamina; six sacral centra with deep lateral pleurocoels; all caudal centra procoelous with convex ventral margin lacking excavation; anterior caudal centra broad transversely and anteroposteriorly compressed; middle?posterior caudal centra with constant length:width ratio; anterior?middle caudal neural spines with spinoprezygapophyseal, prespinal and postspinal laminae on rectangular and anteriorly positioned neural arches; chevrons throughout 80% of tail; iliac peduncle of ischium comprises one-quarter of acetabulum; ischial peduncle of ilium low and poorly developed; pubis more than twice as long as ischium; scapula and coracoid with equal glenoid contribution; scapular blade not distally expanded; humerus/femur length quotient 0.80; radius and ulna with oblique interosseus ridges (Figs 1?3).