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Tyrannosauridae (tyrannosaurid)

Reptilia - Avetheropoda - Tyrannosauridae

Taxonomy
Tyrannosauridae was named by Osborn (1906).

It was synonymized subjectively with Deinodontidae by Matthew and Brown (1922), Tatarinov (1964) and Maleev (1968).

It was assigned to Therophagi by Jaekel (1914); to Megalosauria by Nopcsa (1923); to Carnosauria by Parsch (1963); to Dinoaves by Bakker (1986); to Allosauria by Paul (1988); to Carnosauria by Romer (1956), Lapparent (1960), Estes (1964), Colbert (1964), Romer (1966), Miller (1967), Colbert and Russell (1969), Reig (1970), Steel (1970), Barsbold (1976), Barsbold (1977), Bonaparte (1978), Baird and Horner (1979), Dong (1979), Bonaparte (1980), Ostrom (1980), Barsbold (1983), Russell (1984), Mader and Bradley (1989), Kurzanov (1989) and Dong (1992); to Carnosauria by Gauthier (1986), Molnar et al. (1990) and Russell and Dong (1994); to Arctometatarsalia by Holtz (1994), Holtz (1995), Holtz (1996), Hutchinson and Padian (1997), Holtz (1998) and Holtz (2000); to Theropoda by Eberth et al. (2001); to Theropoda by Osborn (1906), Rozhdestvensky (1977), Carroll (1988), Carpenter (1992) and Peng et al. (2001); to Theropoda by Langston (1974), Coulton (1976), McIntosh (1981), Thulborn (1984) and Chure et al. (2006); to Coelurosauria by Novas (1992), Sereno et al. (1994), Currie (1995), Sereno (1997), Zinke (1998) and Coria and Currie (2006); to Coelurosauria by Currie (1997) and Hendrickx and Mateus (2014); and to Tyrannosauroidea by Walker (1964), Bonaparte et al. (1990), Sereno (1998), Rauhut (2003), Holtz (2004), Carr et al. (2005), Xu et al. (2006), Li et al. (2009), Rauhut et al. (2010), Benson et al. (2010), Carr et al. (2011), Loewen et al. (2013), Lu et al. (2014), Williamson and Brusatte (2014), Carr et al. (2017) and Yun (2017).

Synonyms
Synonymy list
YearName and author
1890Ornithomimus grandis Cannon p. 253
1890Ornithomimus grandis Marsh p. 85
1890Ornithomimus grandis Zittel p. 767
1896Ornithomimus grandis Marsh p. 206
1902Ornithomimus grandis Hay p. 494
1904Ornithomimus grandis Lambe p. 33
1906Tyrannosauridae Osborn p. 283
1914Tyrannosauridae Jaekel p. 197
1920Deinodon grandis Gilmore p. 122
1923Tyrannosauridae Nopcsa p. 126
1927Ornithomimus grandis Huene p. 260
1934Ornithomimus grandis Huene p. 19
1956Tyrannosauridae Romer p. 616
1960Tyrannosauridae Lapparent p. 27
1963Tyrannosauridae Parsch p. 4
1964Tyrannosauridae Colbert pp. 21-22 fig. 6
1964Tyrannosauridae Estes p. 144
1964Tyrannosauridae Walker p. 105
1966Tyrannosauridae Romer p. 369
1967Tyrannosauridae Miller p. 232
1969Tyrannosauridae Colbert and Russell p. 45
1970Tyrannosauridae Reig p. 279
1970Ornithomimus grandis Steel p. 19
1970Tyrannosauridae Steel p. 38
1970Ornithomimus grandis Swinton p. 130
1974Tyrannosauridae Langston p. 82
1976Tyrannosauridae Barsbold p. 74
1976Tyrannosauridae Coulton p. 177
1977Tyrannosauridae Barsbold p. 50
1977Tyrannosauridae Rozhdestvensky p. 112
1978Tyrannosauridae Bonaparte p. 323
1979Tyrannosauridae Baird and Horner p. 6
1979Tyrannosauridae Dong
1980Tyrannosauridae Bonaparte p. 82
1980Tyrannosauridae Ostrom p. 22
1981Tyrannosauridae McIntosh p. 8
1983Tyrannosauridae Barsbold p. 95
1984Tyrannosauridae Russell p. 28
1984Tyrannosauridae Thulborn p. 133
1986Tyrannosauridae Bakker p. 460
1986Tyrannosauridae Gauthier p. 10
1988Tyrannosauridae Carroll
1988Tyrannosauridae Paul p. 323
1989Ornithomimus grandis Horner p. 154
1989Tyrannosauridae Kurzanov p. 5
1989Tyrannosauridae Mader and Bradley p. 43
1990Tyrannosauridae Bonaparte et al. p. 40
1990Tyrannosauridae Molnar et al. p. 189
1992Tyrannosauridae Carpenter p. 253
1992Tyrannosauridae Dong pp. 164-165
1992Tyrannosauridae Novas p. 147
1994Tyrannosauridae Holtz, Jr.
1994Tyrannosauridae Russell and Dong p. 2125
1994Tyrannosauridae Sereno et al. p. 270
1995Tyrannosauridae Currie p. 25A
1995Tyrannosauridae Holtz, Jr. p. 35A
1996Tyrannosauridae Holtz, Jr. p. 42A
1997Tyrannosauridae Currie p. 733
1997Tyrannosauridae Hutchinson and Padian p. 129
1997Tyrannosauridae Sereno p. 457
1998Tyrannosauridae Holtz, Jr. p. 40
1998Tyrannosauridae Sereno p. 65
1998Tyrannosauridae Zinke p. 183
2000Tyrannosauridae Holtz, Jr. p. 13 fig. 5
2001Tyrannosauridae Eberth et al. p. 56
2001Tyrannosauridae Peng et al. p. 40
2003Tyrannosauridae Rauhut p. 153
2004Tyrannosauridae Holtz, Jr. p. 112
2005Tyrannosauridae Carr et al. p. 140 fig. 21
2006Tyrannosauridae Chure et al. p. 236
2006Tyrannosauridae Coria and Currie p. 108 fig. 35
2006Tyrannosauridae Xu et al. p. 717 fig. 3
2009Tyrannosauridae Li et al.
2010Tyrannosauridae Benson et al. p. 1613
2010Tyrannosauridae Rauhut et al. p. 183 fig. 23
2011Tyrannosauridae Carr et al.
2013Tyrannosauridae Loewen et al. p. 2
2014Tyrannosauridae Hendrickx and Mateus
2014Tyrannosauridae Lu et al.
2014Tyrannosauridae Williamson and Brusatte p. 7
2017Tyrannosauridae Carr et al. p. 9s
2017Tyrannosauridae Yun p. 11

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
OlfactoresJefferies 1991
subphylumVertebrata
Gnathostomata()
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda()
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
Batrachosauria()
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
Sauropsida
classReptilia
subclassEureptilia()
Romeriida
Diapsida()
RankNameAuthor
Eosuchia()
Neodiapsida
SauriaGauthier 1984
Archosauromorpha(Huene 1946)
Crocopoda
ArchosauriformesGauthier 1986
Eucrocopoda
Archosauria()
informalAvemetatarsalia
Ornithodira
Dinosauromorpha
Dinosauriformes
Dinosauria()
Saurischia()
Theropoda()
Neotheropoda
AverostraPaul 2002
Tetanurae
orderAvetheropoda
suborderCoelurosauria
superfamilyTyrannosauroidea
familyTyrannosauridae
familyTyrannosauridae

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
ReferenceDiagnosis
H. F. Osborn 19061. Skull abbreviated, with two large antorbital openings, and a third smaller opening between the maxillaries and premaxillaries. Squamosal sending off a horizontal anterior bar.
2. Teeth, thirteen in the maxillaries and twelve to thirteen in the dentaries. A pair of reduced anterior cutting teeth in the dentaries, Teeth very broadly oval in section, transverse exceeding antero-
posterior diameters, with serrate edges.
3. Dental alveoli in the maxillaries and dentaries expanded into triangular slipporting plates on the inner side of the jaws.
4. Actual number of presacral vertebrae unknown, probably twenty-three; cervicals probably nine with broad neural spines; sacrals five, with coalesced spines forming a continuous plate.
5. Atlas and axis complex, apparently consisting of six separate elements, namely: atlas hypocentrum, two neurapophyses, and pleurocentrum (odontoid); axis hypocentrum and centrum.
6. Shoulder girdle with greatly reduced scapula and humerus.
7. Complete system of median and paired abdominal ribs resembling those of Hatteria.
8. Pelvic girdle consisting of elongate, compressed ilium, with elongate horizontal plate extending from anterior portion; pubes firmly coalesced in median portion, also at distal peduncle; ischia reduced in contact distally.
9. All known limb bones and longer girdle bones hollow.
10. Hind limbs greatly elongated, with large hollow cavities, femur longer than tibia. Three chief metatarsals partly coalesced, and reduced hallux.
K. Carpenter 1992(General) Head large relative to bodu size; neck, trunk and forelimbs are short. (Cranial) Nasals very rugose, often fused along the midline, and constricted between the lacrymals; frontals excluded from the orbits by the lacrymals; jugal pierced by large foramen; premaxillary teeth D-shaped in cross-section, with carinae along the posteromedial and posterolateral margins; vomer with diamond-shaped process between the maxillae; ectopterygoid with large ventral opening; surangular foramen large. (Postcranial) Cervical centra slightly opsithocoelous, anteroposteriorly compressed, and broad; scapula long and slender; humerus with weakly- to moderately-well developed deltopectoral crest; manus reduced to two functional digits (II and III), with digit IV reduced to a splint; pubis with well developed anterior foot; distal end of the ischium not expanded; ascending ramus of astragalus broad and tall.