Basic info Taxonomic history Classification Included Taxa
Morphology Ecology and taphonomy External Literature Search Age range and collections

Threskiornithidae (ibis)

Reptilia - Pelecaniformes - Threskiornithidae

Synonymy list
YearName and author
1917Threskiornithidae Richmond
1933Threskiornithidae Lambrecht p. 331
1940Threskiornithidae Wetmore p. 18
1956Threskiornithidae Wetmore p. 22
1976Threskiornithidae Harrison and Walker p. 329
2005Threskiornithidae Mayr p. 318
2007Threskiornithidae Livezey and Zusi p. 91
2011Threskiornithidae Mayr p. 73 figs. Figure 5
2013Threskiornithidae Smith et al.
2014Threskiornithidae del Hoyo et al.
2017Threskiornithidae Clements et al.
2020Threskiornithidae Worthy and Nguyen p. 90
2022Threskiornithidae Mayr p. 119 figs. Fig. 7.1
2023Threskiornithidae Mayr and Kitchener p. 427
2023Threskiornithidae Tambussi et al. p. 272

Is something missing? Join the Paleobiology Database and enter the data

RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Bilateria
EubilateriaAx 1987
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1874
subphylumVertebrata
superclassGnathostomata
Osteichthyes()
subclassSarcopterygii()
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
subclassAmphibiosauriaKuhn 1967
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
Sauropsida
classReptilia
subclassEureptilia()
Romeriida
Diapsida()
Archosauromorpha(Huene 1946)
Crocopoda
RankNameAuthor
ArchosauriformesGauthier 1986
Eucrocopoda
Archosauria()
informalAvemetatarsalia
Ornithodira
Dinosauromorpha
Dinosauriformes
Dinosauria()
Theropoda()
Neotheropoda
AverostraPaul 2002
Tetanurae
Coelurosauria()
Maniraptora
Paraves
classAves
subclassNeornithesGadow 1893
Aequornithes
Feraequornithes
superorderPelecanimorphaeHuxley 1867
orderPelecaniformesSharpe 1891
familyThreskiornithidaeRichmond 1917
familyThreskiornithidaeRichmond 1917

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Fm. Threskiornithidae Richmond 1917 [ibis]
show all | hide all
G. Bostrychia Gray 1847
+
G. Cercibis Wagler 1825
+
G. Eudocimus Wagler 1832
+
Eudocimus albus Linnaeus 1758 [White ibis]
Eudocimus leiseyi Emslie 1995
Eudocimus peruvianus Campbell 1979 [ibis]
Eudocimus ruber Linnaeus 1758 [Scarlet ibis]
Invalid names: Guara Reichenbach 1852 [synonym]
G. Geronticus Wagler 1832 [bald ibis]
+
Geronticus eremita Linnaeus 1758 [northern bald ibis]
Geronticus perplexus Milne-Edwards 1871
G. Lophotibis Reichebach 1853
+
Lophotibis cristata Boddaert 1783 [Madagascar ibis]
G. Mesembrinibis Peters 1930
+
G. †Milnea Lydekker 1891
+
Milnea gracilis Lydekker 1891
G. Nipponia Reichenbach 1850 [Asian crested ibis]
+
Nipponia nippon Temminck 1835 [Asian crested ibis]
G. Phimosus Wagler 1832
+
Phimosus infuscatus Lichtenstein 1823
G. Platalea Linnaeus 1758 [spoonbills]
+
Platalea ajaja Linnaeus 1758 [roseate spoonbill]
+
Invalid names: Platea rosea Brisson 1760 [synonym]
Platalea alba Scopoli 1786 [African spoonbill]
+
Invalid names: Platalea tenuirostris Temminck 1820 [synonym]
Platalea flavipes Gould 1838 [yellow-billed spoonbill]
Platalea leucorodia Linnaeus 1758 [Eurasian spoonbill]
Platalea minor Temminck and Schlegel 1849 [Black-faced spoonbill]
Platalea regia Gould 1838 [Royal spoonbill]
Platalea subtenuis De Vis 1892
Invalid names: Ajaja Reichenbach 1853 [synonym], Platibis Bonaparte 1856 [synonym]
G. Plegadis Kaup 1829
+
Plegadis autumnalis Hasselqvist 1762
Plegadis chihi Vieillot 1817 [white-faced ibis]
Plegadis falcinellus Linnaeus 1766 [glossy ibis]
Plegadis paganus Milne-Edwards 1868
Plegadis pharangites Olson 1981
+
Invalid names: Plegadis gracilis Miller and Bowman 1956 [replaced]
G. †Protibis Ameghino 1891
+
Protibis cnemialis Ameghino 1891
G. Pseudibis Hodgson 1844
+
Pseudibis ibis Temminck 1824
Subfm. †Rhynchaeitinae Mayr 2002
+
G. †Rhynchaeites Wittich 1898
+
Rhynchaeites litoralis Mayr and Kitchener 2023
Rhynchaeites messelensis Wittich 1898
Invalid names: Plumumida Hoch 1980 [synonym]
G. Thaumatibis Elliot 1877
+
Thaumatibis gigantea Oustalet 1877
G. Threskiornis Gray 1842
+
Threskiornis aethiopicus Latham 1790 [sacred ibis]
Threskiornis bernieri Bonaparte 1855 [Madagascar sacred ibis]
Threskiornis melanocephalus Latham 1790 [Black-headed ibis]
Threskiornis molucca Cuvier 1829 [Australian ibis]
Threskiornis solitarius Selys-Longchamps 1848 [Réunion ibis]
+
Invalid names: Borbonibis latipes Mourer-Chauviré and Moutou 1987 [synonym]
Threskiornis spinicollis Jameson 1835 [Straw-necked ibis]
Invalid names: Apterornis Selys-Longchamps 1848 [synonym], Borbonibis Mourer-Chauviré and Moutou 1987 [synonym]
Subfm. Threskiornithinae Richmond 1917 [ibis]
+
G. Theristicus Wagler 1832 [ibis]
+
Theristicus wetmorei Campbell 1979 [ibis]
G. †Vadaravis Smith et al. 2013
+
Vadaravis brownae Smith et al. 2013
G. †Xenicibis Olson and Steadman 1977
+
Xenicibis xympithecus Olson and Steadman 1977
Invalid names: Plataleinae Bonaparte 1838 [empty]
Diagnosis
No diagnoses are available
Measurements
No measurements are available
Composition: hydroxyapatiteo
Entire body: yeso
Adult length: 10 to < 100o
Adult width: 1.0 to < 10o
Adult height: 1.0 to < 10o
Architecture: compact or denseo
Ontogeny: accretion, modification of partso
Grouping: solitaryo
Environment: terrestrialf
Locomotion: actively mobileo
Life habit: volantf
Diet: carnivoref
Reproduction: oviparouso
Dispersal: direct/internalo
Dispersal 2: mobileo
Created: 2009-01-03 17:09:47
Modified: 2009-01-03 19:09:47
Source: f = family, o = order
References: Marsh 1875, Terborgh et al. 1990

Age range

Maximum range based only on fossils: base of the Wasatchian to the top of the Holocene or 55.80000 to 0.00000 Ma
Minimum age of oldest fossil (stem group age): 50.3 Ma

Collections (73 total)


Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Ypresian56.0 - 47.8United Kingdom (England) Rhynchaeites sp., Rhynchaeites litoralis (227361)
Wasatchian55.8 - 50.3USA (Wyoming) Vadaravis brownae (74617)
MP 1148.6 - 40.4Germany (Hessen) Rhynchaeites messelensis (22701)
Bartonian41.3 - 38.0Myanmar Threskiornithidae indet. (41393)
Aquitanian23.03 - 20.44France (Auvergne) Plegadis paganus (125333)
Burdigalian20.44 - 15.97Saudi Arabia Threskiornithidae indet. (47069)
Santacrucian17.5 - 16.3Argentina (Santa Cruz) Protibis cnemialis (27313)
Late/Upper Clarendonian12.5 - 9.4USA (Florida) Threskiornithinae indet. (18554)
Zanclean5.333 - 3.6Australia (Queensland) Threskiornis molucca (182159)
Zanclean5.333 - 3.6USA (North Carolina) Eudocimus sp. (52582)
Zanclean5.333 - 3.6South Africa Geronticus apelex (22222)
Blancan4.9 - 1.8USA (Kansas) Plegadis sp. (19922)
Blancan4.9 - 1.8USA (Florida) Eudocimus sp. (19753 19764 176340)
Gelasian2.588 - 1.806USA (Florida) Eudocimus albus (20384)
Pleistocene2.588 - 0.0117Egypt (Kom Ombo Plain) Platalea leucorodia (22512 22545)
Pleistocene2.588 - 0.0117Egypt Platalea leucorodia (21886 21888 21892)
Pleistocene - Holocene2.588 - 0.0Egypt (Kom Ombo Plain) Platalea leucorodia (22534)
Calabrian1.8 - 0.774Spain (Murcia) Geronticus eremita (34128)
Calabrian1.8 - 0.774Italy Geronticus eremita (197789)
Irvingtonian1.8 - 0.3USA (Florida) Eudocimus leiseyi (20334) Eudocimus leiseyi, Ajaia chione (20400)
Lujanian0.781 - 0.012Argentina (Buenos Aires) Plegadis chihi (202096)
Middle Pleistocene0.774 - 0.129Italy (Siracusa) Geronticus eremita (175900)
Middle Pleistocene0.774 - 0.129Greece Plegadis falcinellus (199939)
Middle Pleistocene0.774 - 0.129USA (Florida) Eudocimus albus (195048)
Middle Pleistocene0.774 - 0.129Italy Platalea leucorodia, Plegadis falcinellus (197786)
Rancholabrean0.3 - 0.012Mexico (Sonora) Plegadis sp. (20495)
Rancholabrean - Holocene0.3 - 0.0USA (California) Plegadis chihi (84904)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.129 - 0.0117Bahamas (Great Abaco Island) Eudocimus albus (144663)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.129 - 0.0117Madagascar Platalea tenuirostris (195021)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.129 - 0.0117USA (Florida) Eudocimus albus (154773) Guara alba (154922)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.129 - 0.0117USA (California) Ajaia ajaja (190077) Plegadis chihi (125236)
Late/Upper Pleistocene (interglacial)0.129 - 0.0117USA (Florida) Ajaia ajaja (20636)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.129 - 0.0117Egypt Plegadis falcinellus (208788)
Late/Upper Pleistocene (glacial)0.129 - 0.0117USA (Florida) Plegadis sp., Guara alba (154771)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.129 - 0.0117Peru Theristicus wetmorei, Eudocimus peruvianus, Eudocimus albus, Ajaia ajaja (71346)
Late/Upper Pleistocene (late glacial)0.129 - 0.0117USA (Florida) Eudocimus albus (154722)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.129 - 0.0117Australia (South Australia) Threskiornis molucca (181314)
Late/Upper Pleistocene - Holocene0.129 - 0.0Madagascar Lophotibis cristata (195018)
Late/Upper Pleistocene - Holocene0.129 - 0.0Romania Plegadis falcinellus (197949)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0Bahamas Guara alba (145366)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0Cambodia Thaumatibis gigantea (215425)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0Madagascar (Beanka) Lophotibis cristata (205190 205193)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0Madagascar Lophotibis cristata, Threskiornis aethiopicus, Platalea alba (195019)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0Cayman Islands (Cayman Brac) Eudocimus albus (210541)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0Puerto Rico Guara alba, Plegadis falcinellus (194583)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0Cayman Islands (Grand Cayman) Eudocimus sp., Eudocimus albus (144134)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0Bahamas (Great Abaco Island) Eudocimus albus (144662)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0Reunion Borbonibis latipes (193992) Threskiornis solitarius (193994 193996)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0China Nipponia nippon (215426)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0Uruguay Theristicus caerulescens (215437)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0Australia (South Australia) Platibis flavipes (194979)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0Bolivia (Chuquisaca) Platalea sp., Ajaja rosea (70705)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0Jamaica Xenicibis xympithecus (194072)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0France Geronticus eremita (195041)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0Venezuela Ajaja ajaja (197931 197932) Cercibis oxycerca (215438)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0India Pseudibis papilosa (215423)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0Vanuatu (Efate) Threskiornis molucca (185434)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0Ethiopia Bostrychia carunculata (215427)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0Brazil Mesembrinibis cayennensis (215439) Phimosus infuscatus (215440)