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Ornithopoda (bird foot dinosaur)

Reptilia -

Taxonomy
Ornithopoda was named by Marsh (1881). It was considered monophyletic by Butler et al. (2008) and Butler and Sullivan (2009) and unknown by Zheng et al. (2012).

It was reranked as the order Ornithopoda by Dollo (1882), Dollo (1885), Bakker and Galton (1974), Cooper (1985) and Bakker (1986); it was reranked as the infraorder Ornithopoda by Baur (1887), Gadow (1897) and Huene (1927); it was reranked as the superfamily Ornithopoda by Zittel (1890); it was synonymized subjectively with Iguanodontoidea by Hay (1902); it was reranked as the unranked clade Ornithopoda by Sereno (1986), Sereno (1997), Sereno (1998), Sereno (1999), Rauhut (2003), Weishampel (2004), Sánchez-Hernández et al. (2007), Butler et al. (2007), Butler et al. (2008), Butler and Sullivan (2009), Cruzado-Caballero et al. (2010), Campione and Evans (2011), Shibata et al. (2011), Han et al. (2012), Zheng et al. (2012), Escaso et al. (2014), Freedman Fowler and Horner (2015), Gasulla et al. (2015), Zhang et al. (2017), Wang et al. (2017), Madzia et al. (2018), Xu et al. (2018) and Herne et al. (2018).

It was assigned to Dinosauria by Dollo (1882), Meunier (1883), Marsh (1884) and Dollo (1885); to Predentata by Marsh (1894), Marsh (1895), Marsh (1896) and Hatcher (1901); to Dinosauria by Marsh (1881), Marsh (1882), Dollo (1884), Marsh (1885), Lydekker (1888), Sauvage (1896), Gegenbaur (1898), Woodward (1898), Sauvage (1900), Mansel-Pleydell (1902) and Sauvage (1914); to Orthopoda by Nopcsa (1923); to Ornithosuchia by Haughton and Brink (1954); to Orthopoda by Baur (1887), Zittel (1890), Gadow (1897), Huene (1908), Lull (1912), Huene (1927) and Lapparent (1960); to Ornithischia by Bakker and Galton (1974); to Ornithischia by Cooper (1985); to Euornithopoda by Sereno (1986); to Predentata by Bakker (1986); to Neornithischia by Sereno (1997), Sereno (1998) and Sereno (1999); to Ornithischia by Arldt (1909), Huene (1909), Huene (1914), Matthew (1915), Lull (1924), Swinton (1936), Roxo (1937), Kuhn (1946), Lapparent (1947), Huene (1948), Sternberg (1953), Huene (1954), Sternberg (1954), Romer (1956), Huene (1958), Delair (1960), Parsch (1963), Tatarinov (1964), Estes (1964), Kuhn (1964), Ostrom (1965), Simmons (1965), Romer (1966), Miller (1967), Swinton (1970), Haubold (1971), Krebs (1974), Thulborn (1977), Bonaparte (1978), Anderson and Cruickshank (1978), Baird and Horner (1979), Benton (1979), Ostrom (1980), McIntosh (1981), Thurmond and Jones (1981), Weishampel and Weishampel (1983), Dong et al. (1983), Zhao (1983), Norman (1984), Russell (1984), Maryanska and Osmólska (1985), Battail (1986), Buscalioni and Sanz (1987), Carroll (1988), Dong (1989), Godefroit et al. (1998), Peng et al. (2001) and Chure et al. (2006); to Genasauria by Sánchez-Hernández et al. (2007); to Cerapoda by Benton (1990), Weishampel (2004), Butler et al. (2007), Butler et al. (2008), Butler and Sullivan (2009), Han et al. (2012), Zheng et al. (2012) and Herne et al. (2018); to Ornithischia by Swinton (1934), Rauhut (2003), Cruzado-Caballero et al. (2010), Campione and Evans (2011), Shibata et al. (2011), Escaso et al. (2014), Freedman Fowler and Horner (2015), Gasulla et al. (2015), Zhang et al. (2017), Wang et al. (2017) and Xu et al. (2018); and to Neornithischia by Madzia et al. (2018).

Synonyms
Synonymy list
YearName and author
1878Laosaurus celer King p. 346
1878Laosaurus Marsh
1878Laosaurus celer Marsh
1878Laosaurus Marsh p. 244
1878Laosaurus celer Marsh p. 244
1878Laosaurus Williston p. 45
1879Laosaurus Marsh p. 501
1880Laosaurus aler Sauvage p. 523
1881Laosaurus Marsh
1881Ornithopoda Marsh
1882Laosaurus Dollo
1882Ornithopoda Dollo
1882Laosaurus Marsh
1882Ornithopoda Marsh
1882Laosaurus Sauvage p. 35
1883Ornithopeda Meunier p. 338
1884Laosaurus Dollo p. 298
1884Ornithopoda Dollo p. 298
1884Laosaurus Marsh p. 68
1884Ornithopoda Marsh p. 68
1885Ornithopoda Dollo p. 35
1885Laosaurus Marsh p. 764
1885Ornithopoda Marsh p. 764
1887Ornithopoda Baur p. 101
1888Ornithopoda Lydekker p. 175
1890Ornithopoda Zittel pp. 450, 754–755
1890Laosaurus Zittel p. 755
1894Laosaurus Marsh
1894Laosaurus celer Marsh
1894Ornithopoda Marsh
1895Laosaurus Marsh
1895Ornithopoda Marsh
1896Laosaurus celer Marsh p. 199
1896Laosaurus Marsh pp. 243-244
1896Ornithopoda Marsh p. 243
1896Ornithopoda Sauvage p. 48
1897Laosaurus Gadow p. 205
1897Ornithopoda Gadow p. 205
1898Ornithopoda Gegenbaur p. 532
1898Ornithopoda Woodward p. 141
1900Ornithopoda Sauvage p. 417
1901Ornithopoda Hatcher p. 129
1902Laosaurus Hay p. 501
1902Laosaurus celer Hay p. 501
1902Ornithopoda Mansel-Pleydell p. lxxv
1902Laosaurus Nopcsa p. 153
1902Laosaurus celer Nopcsa p. 153
1908Ornithopoda Huene p. 307
1909Ornithopoda Arldt p. 263
1909Laosaurus Huene p. 16
1909Ornithopoda Huene p. 16
1911Laosaurus von Zittel p. 289
1912Ornithopoda Lull p. 210
1914Ornithopoda Huene p. 38
1914Laosaurus Huene p. 41
1914Ornithopoda Sauvage p. 255
1915Ornithopoda Matthew p. 32
1923Ornithopoda Nopcsa p. 126
1923Laosaurus Osborn
1924Laosaurus minimus Gilmore p. 1 figs. Pl. 1-2
1924Laosaurus celer Gilmore p. 5
1924Ornithopoda Lull p. 237
1924Laosaurus Lull p. 239
1925Laosaurus celer Gilmore p. 403
1925Laosaurus Gilmore p. 407
1927Ornithopoda Huene p. 259
1928Laosaurus Nopcsa p. 184
1934Laosaurus Huene p. 17
1934Ornithopoda Swinton p. 40
1936Ornithopoda Swinton p. 212
1936Laosaurus Swinton p. 574
1937Ornithopoda Roxo p. 44
1946Ornithopoda Kuhn p. 66
1947Ornithopoda Lapparent pp. 17-18
1948Ornithopoda Huene p. 93
1953Ornithopoda Sternberg p. 11
1954Ornithopoda Haughton and Brink p. 4
1954Ornithopoda Huene p. 49
1954Ornithopoda Sternberg p. 383
1956Ornithopoda Romer p. 627
1956Laosaurus Romer p. 628
1958Ornithopoda Huene p. 206
1960Ornithopoda Delair p. 84
1960Ornithopoda Lapparent p. 42
1963Ornithopoda Parsch p. 4
1963Laosaurus Parsch p. 8
1964Ornithopoda Estes p. 144
1964Ornithopoda Kuhn p. 5
1964Laosaurus Kuhn p. 7
1964Laosaurus celer Kuhn p. 7
1964Laosaurus minimus Kuhn p. 7
1964Ornithopoda Tatarinov p. 553
1964Laosaurus Tatarinov p. 555
1964Laosaurus seler Tatarinov p. 555
1965Ornithopoda Ostrom p. 39
1965Ornithopoda Simmons p. 65
1966Laosaurus Romer p. 370
1966Ornithopoda Romer p. 370
1967Ornithopoda Miller p. 233
1970Ornithopoda Swinton p. 117
1971Ornithopoda Haubold p. 86
1971Laosaurus Thulborn p. 77
1972Laosaurus Galton p. 465
1973Laosaurus Galton p. 17
1973Laosaurus Galton and Jensen p. 156
1974Ornithopoda Bakker and Galton p. 171
1974Laosaurus Galton p. 1064
1974Ornithopoda Krebs p. 22
1974Laosaurus Thulborn p. 171
1975Phyllodon Thulborn p. 110 figs. 17-20
1975Phyllodon henkeli Thulborn p. 110 figs. 17-20
1975Laosaurus Thulborn p. 123
1977Othnielia Galton p. 230
1977Ornithopoda Thulborn p. 727
1978Ornithopoda Anderson and Cruickshank p. 31
1978Ornitophoda Bonaparte p. 330
1979Ornithopoda Baird and Horner p. 16
1979Ornithopoda Benton p. 143
1979Hypsilophodon wielandi Galton and Jensen p. 1 fig. 1
1980Phyllodon Galton p. 85
1980Ornithopoda Ostrom p. 22
1981Laosaurus Colbert p. 50
1981Ornithopoda McIntosh p. 30
1981Ornithopoda Thurmond and Jones p. 145
1983Ornithopoda Dong et al.
1983Othnielia Galton p. 233
1983Phyllodon Galton p. 233
1983Phyllodon henkeli Galton p. 233
1983Hypsilophodon wielandi Weishampel and Weishampel p. 44
1983Ornithopoda Weishampel and Weishampel p. 44
1983Othnielia Weishampel and Weishampel p. 44
1983Phyllodon Weishampel and Weishampel p. 44
1983Phyllodon henkeli Weishampel and Weishampel p. 44
1983Ornithopoda Zhao p. 299
1984Ornithopoda Norman pp. 160-161 fig. 2
1984Othnielia Russell p. 23
1984Ornithopoda Russell p. 29
1985Ornithopoda Cooper p. 285
1985Othnielia Cooper p. 314
1985Ornithopoda Maryanska and Osmólska p. 142 fig. 1
1986Ornithopoda Bakker p. 461
1986Ornithopoda Battail p. 49
1986Ornithopoda Sereno
1986Othnielia Sereno
1987Ornithopoda Buscalioni and Sanz p. 66
1988Ornithopoda Carroll
1988Othnielia Carroll
1988Phyllodon Carroll
1989Ornithopoda Dong
1990Ornithopoda Benton p. 19
1990Othnielia Benton p. 26
1990Othnielia Sues and Norman p. 500
1991Shiraminesauropus Azuma and Takeyama p. 37
1991Shiraminesauropus reini Azuma and Takeyama pp. 37-38 figs. 6-7; Pl. 1:1
1991Shiraminesauropus hayashidaniensis Azuma and Takeyama p. 39 figs. 8-9; Pl. 1:2
1991Gigantoshiraminesauropus Azuma and Takeyama p. 40
1991Gigantoshiraminesauropus matsuoi Azuma and Takeyama p. 40 figs. 10-11; Pl. 1:3
1991Phyllodon Galton p. 300
1991Phyllodon henkeli Galton p. 300
1991Othnielia Miller et al. p. 40
1992Othnielia Weishampel and Heinrich p. 163
1994Othnielia Carpenter p. 290
1994Othnielia Chure et al. p. 304
1995Gilmoreosaurus arkhangelskyi Nessov p. 49
1997Othnielia Dodson p. 12
1997Siluosaurus Dong pp. 24-26 fig. 1
1997Siluosaurus zhangqiani Dong pp. 24-26 fig. 1
1997Gilmoreosaurus arkhangelskyi Ryan p. 443
1997Ornithopoda Sereno p. 443
1997Othnielia Sues p. 357
1998Ornithopoda Godefroit et al. p. 7
1998Ornithopoda Sereno p. 61
1999Ornithopoda Sereno p. 2138 fig. 2
2000Othnielia minima Olshevsky p. 86
2001Ornithopoda Peng et al. p. 33
2003Ornithopoda Rauhut p. 16
2003Othnielia Ruiz-Omeñaca and Canudo p. 293
2004Othnielia Norman et al. p. 395
2004Ornithopoda Weishampel p. 323
2006Ornithopoda Chure et al. p. 237
2006Othnielia Chure et al. p. 237
2006Laosaurus celer Mateus p. 231
2006Phyllodon henkeli Mateus p. 231
2007Ornithopoda Butler et al. p. 2044
2007Phyllodon henkeli Galton p. 34
2007Phyllodon henkeli Ruiz-Omeñaca et al. p. 83
2007Ornithopoda Sánchez-Hernández et al. p. 202
2008Ornithopoda Butler et al. pp. 20-21 figs. 2-4
2008Othnielia Butler et al. p. 20 figs. 2-4
2008Gigantoshiraminesauropus Fujita p. 33
2008Gigantoshiraminesauropus matsuoi Fujita p. 33
2008Shiraminesauropus Fujita p. 33
2008Shiraminesauropus hayashidaniensis Fujita p. 33
2008Shiraminesauropus reini Fujita p. 33
2009Ornithopoda Butler and Sullivan p. 22
2010Ornithopoda Cruzado-Caballero et al.
2010Phyllodon Mateus and Milàn p. 254
2010Phyllodon henkeli Mateus and Milàn p. 254
2011Ornithopoda Campione and Evans p. 7
2011Ornithopoda Shibata et al. p. 970
2012Ornithopoda Han et al. p. 1391 fig. 14
2012Ornithopoda Zheng et al. p. 210
2014Ornithopoda Escaso et al. p. 1103
2015Ornithopoda Freedman Fowler and Horner
2015Ornithopoda Gasulla et al.
2017Ornithopoda Wang et al.
2017Ornithopoda Zhang et al.
2018Ornithopoda Herne et al.
2018Ornithopoda Madzia et al.
2018Ornithopoda Xu et al.

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subphylumVertebrata
superclassGnathostomata
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda()
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
Batrachosauria()
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
Sauropsida
classReptilia
subclassEureptilia()
RankNameAuthor
Romeriida
Diapsida()
Eosuchia()
Neodiapsida
SauriaGauthier 1984
Archosauromorpha(Huene 1946)
Crocopoda
ArchosauriformesGauthier 1986
Eucrocopoda
Archosauria()
informalAvemetatarsalia
Ornithodira
Dinosauromorpha
Dinosauriformes
Dinosauria()
Ornithischia()
Neornithischia()
Ornithopoda()
Ornithopoda()

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
ReferenceDiagnosis
L. Dollo 1882Hoofed, digitigrade pes; five functional digits in the manus, and three to four in the pes. Pubis projected freely forwards; postpubis present. Solid vertebrae. Forelimbs reduced; limb bones hollow. Edentulous premaxillae, at least distally.
K. A. v. Zittel 1890Halswirbel, zuweilen auch Rückenwirbel opisthocöl. Extremitätenknochen hohl. Vorderbeine viel kürzer als Hinter
beine. Füsse digitigrad, die Zehen mit spitzen Krallen. Postpubislang, schlank, dem Ischium parallel. Hautskeletfehlt.
R. S. Lull 1924Bipedal, unarmored dinosaurs, with small head borne at right angles to neck; prernaxilla as a rule toothless, the leaf-shaped maxillary and mandibular teeth having midrib-like keel and sharp, generally serrated, cutting border; dorsal vertebra: opisthoccelous : fore limbs much shorter than hind; feet digitigrade, with depressed claw or hoof-like unguals; pelvis with long, slender postpubis : dermal skeleton as a rule absent.
F. v. Huene 1948Bipedal; without dermal armour; enamel on one side of teeth, only one dental row in use.