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Cephalaspidea

Gastropoda - Opisthobranchia

Synonymy list
YearName and author
1883Cephalaspidea Fischer
1964Cephalaspidea Sohl p. 384
1984Cephalaspidea Squires p. 39
1987Cephalaspidea Squires p. 53
1987Cephalaspidea Ward and Blackwelder p. 132
1988Cephalaspidea Squires p. 17
1990Cephalaspidea Beu et al. p. 421
1998Cephalaspidea Beesley p. 942
2001Cephalaspidea Todd
2002Cephalaspida Sepkoski
2007Cephalaspidea Harzhauser p. 112
2017Cephalaspidea Bouchet et al. p. 356
2023Cephalaspidea Wagner

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Bilateria
EubilateriaAx 1987
Protostomia
Spiralia
superphylumLophotrochozoa
RankNameAuthor
phylumMollusca
classGastropoda
orderOpisthobranchia(Milne-Edwards 1848)
orderCephalaspideaFischer 1883
orderCephalaspideaFischer 1883

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Or. Cephalaspidea Fischer 1883
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Superfm. †Bulloidea Lamarck 1801
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Fm. Bullidae Lamarck 1801
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G. Bulla Linnaeus 1758
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Subg. Bulla (Bulla) Linnaeus 1758
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Subg. †Bulla (Tornatina) Adams 1850
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Tornatina camaronesia Ihering 1907
Tornatina evoluta Waring 1917
Tornatina munieri Loriol and Lambert 1893
Bulla ampulla Linnaeaus 1758
Bulla arenasia Ihering 1907
Bulla argosensis Harzhauser 2007
Bulla assimilata Cooper 1894
Bulla cantuaensis Anderson and Martin 1914
Bulla clathrata Defrance 1817
Bulla coclis Ponzi 1876
Bulla conica Deshayes 1824
Bulla conulus Deshayes 1824
Bulla coronata Lamarck 1804
Bulla crassiplica Conrad 1848
Bulla cylindrica Bruguière 1792
Bulla cylindroides Deshayes 1824
Bulla globulus Deshayes 1824
Bulla gouldiana Pilsbry 1895
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Invalid names: Bulla nebulosa Adams 1850 [synonym]
Bulla infundibulum Ponzi 1876
Bulla laevis Defrance 1817
Bulla lignaria Linnaeus 1758
Bulla macfadyeni Cox 1935
Bulla minuta Deshayes 1824
Bulla ovulata Lamarck 1804
Bulla plicata Deshayes 1824
Bulla punctulata Adams 1850
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Invalid names: Bulla adamsi Menke 1850 [synonym], Bulla aspera Adams 1850 [synonym], Bulla panamensis Philippi 1849 [replaced], Bulla quoyana Dall 1919 [synonym]
Bulla reussi Martin 1879
Bulla semistriata Deshayes 1824
Bulla stampinensis Cossmann 1879
Bulla striata Bruguiére 1792
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Invalid names: Bullaria occidentalis Adams 1850 [synonym]
Bulla striatella Lamarck 1804
Bulla subampulla d'Orbigny 1852
Bulla vernicosa Gould 1859
Bulla verrucosa Linnaeus 1758
Bulla volva Linnaeus 1758
G. †Bullinella Newton
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Bullinella convoluta Brocchi 1800
Bullinella jacksonensis Harris 1894
G. †Bullopsis Conrad 1858
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Bullopsis cretacea Conrad 1858
Bullopsis demersus Sohl 1964
Superfm. †Cylindrobulloidea Thiele 1931
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Invalid names: Cylindrobullidae Thiele 1926 [empty]
Superfm. †Haminoeoidea Pilsbry 1895
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Fm. Haminoeidae Pilsbry 1895
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Subfm. Atydinae Thiele 1925
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G. Aliculastrum Pilsbry 1896
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Aliculastrum protocylindrica Vredenburg 1925
Atys (Aliculastrum) dalli Woodring 1928
G. Atys Montfort 1810
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Subg. Atys (Atys) Montfort 1810
Subg. Atys (Weinkauffia) Adams 1858
Atys aedemata Dall 1895
Atys cylindricus Helbling 1779
Atys doliolum Maury 1917
Atys hyalina Watson 1886
Atys multistriatus Schepman 1913
Atys naucum Linnaeus 1758
Atys obscuratus Dall 1896
G. Haminoea Turton and Kingston 1830
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Subg. Haminaea (Haminaea) Turton and Kingston 1930
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Haminea grandis Aldrich 1886
Haminea postangulata Clark and Woodford 1927
Haminoea crocata Pease 1860
Haminoea vesicula Gould 1855
Haminoea virescens Sowerby 1833
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Invalid names: Haminoea dalli Bartsch in Oldroyd 1925 [synonym]
G. Roxania Leach In Gray 1847
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Subg. Roxania (Roxania) Leach In Gray 1847
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Sabatia callifera Boettger 1906
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Invalid names: Bulla utriculus Hörnes 1814 [synonym]
Roxania chipolana Dall 1895
Roxania mediolaevigata Traub 1938
Roxania modesta Traub 1938
Roxania ventricosa Traub 1938
Invalid names: Atydidae Thiele 1929 [empty], Bullactidae Thiele 1926 [empty], Smaragdinellidae Adams 1848 [empty]
Superfm. Philinoidea Gray 1850
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Fm. Cylichnidae Adams 1850
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G. †Abderospira Dall 1896
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Abderospira aldrichi Langdon 1886
Abderospira hornii Gabb 1864
Abderospira leblanci Harris and Palmer 1947
Abderospira meyeri Palmer 1937
Abderospira oviformis Meyer 1886
Abderospira sabina Palmer 1937
Abderospira stewarti Palmer 1937
G. Acteocina Gray 1847 [barrel-bubble]
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Acteocina anetaspira Woodring 1928
Acteocina bidentata d'Orbigny 1841
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Invalid names: Cylichnella mareana Weisbord 1962 [synonym]
Acteocina bullata Kiener 1834
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Invalid names: Acteocina subbullata Pilsbry and Johnson 1917 [synonym]
Acteocina candei d'Orbigny 1841
Acteocina cederstromi Richards 1947
Acteocina cerealis Gould 1853
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Invalid names: Tornatina eximia Baird 1863 [synonym]
Acteocina chowanensis Richards 1947
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Invalid names: Acteocina pedroensis Oldroyd 1925 [synonym]
Acteocina harpa Dall 1871
Acteocina inculta Gould 1855
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Invalid names: Acteocina smirna Dall 1919 [synonym], Coelophysis carinata Carpenter 1857 [synonym]
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Invalid names: Acteocina anomala Willett 1945 [synonym], Acteocina magdalenensis Dall 1919 [synonym], Tornatina tumida Olrdoyd 1921 [synonym]
Acteocina kirkwoodiana Richards and Harbison 1944
Acteocina lajonkaireana Basterot 1825
Acteocina lepta Woodring 1928
Acteocina puruha Pilsbry and Olsson 1941
Acteocina recta d'Orbigny 1845
Acteocina sandwicensis Pease 1860
G. Bullaria Rafinesque 1815
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Bullaria granosa Sowerby 1849
Bullaria jolla Hanna 1927
Bullaria paupercula Sowerby 1849
Bullaria tumida Packard 1922
G. †Bullichna Nordsieck 1972
G. Cylichna Lovén 1846
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Subg. Cylichna (Acrostemma) Cossmann 1889
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Subg. Cylichna (Cylichna) Lovén 1846
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Subg. †Cylichna (Cylichnopsis) Cossmann 1904
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Cylichna alba Brown 1827
Cylichna andersoni Murphy and Rodda 1960
Cylichna angustata Cossman and Cossman 1897
Cylichna angystoma Deshayes 1824
Cylichna attonsa Carpenter 1864
Cylichna aula Woodring 1928
Cylichna calvertensis Martin 1904
Cylichna discus Watson 1883
Cylichna elliptica Sowerby 1824
Cylichna faba Kner 1869
Cylichna fantasma Baker and Hanna 1927
Cylichna greensboroensis Martin 1904
Cylichna incisa Stephenson 1941
Cylichna intermissia Sohl 1964
Cylichna jacksonensis Meyer 1886
Cylichna loismartinae Keen 1943
Cylichna makanjuolai Adegoke 1977
Cylichna occulta Mighels and Adams 1842
Cylichna paupercula Nagao 1928
Cylichna pessumata Sohl 1964
Cylichna ramonensis Clark 1918
Cylichna salbriacensis Peyrot 1932
Cylichna secalina Shumard 1861
Cylichna solivaga Maury 1912
Cylichna subalpina Guembel 1861
Cylichna temblorensis Keen 1943
Cylichna tenuis Reuss 1845
Cylichna venusta Clark 1895
G. †Cylichnania Marwick 1931
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Cylichnania impar Finlay and Marwick 1937
G. Cylichnella Gabb 1873
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Cylichnella atacata Woodring 1928
Cylichnella bitruncata Meyer 1886
Cylichnella duqmensis Harzhauser 2007
Cylichnella stibara Woodring 1970
G. Philine Ascanius 1772
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Philine aquila Van Der Linden and Janssen 1996
G. Scaphander Monfort 1810
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Subg. †Scaphander (Mirascapha) Stewart 1927
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Subg. †Scaphander (Scaphander) Montfort 1810
Scaphander brevicula Philippi 1887
Scaphander impunctatus Hickman 1980
Scaphander jacksonensis Harris and Palmer 1947
Scaphander javanus Martin 1879
Scaphander jugularis Conrad 1855
Scaphander nannus Woodring 1928
Scaphander polysarcus Cossmann and Pissarro 1913
Scaphander radii Abbass 1967
Scaphander rarus Wade 1926
Scaphander remondi Philippi 1887
Scaphander stewarti Durham 1944
G. †Suwannescapha Petuch 1997
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Suwannescapha lindae Petuch 1997
G. †Taita Laws 1948
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Taita callosa Laws 1948
Taita lawsi Maxwell 1988
Fm. †Philinidae Gray 1850
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G. †Megistostoma Gabb 1864
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Megistostoma gabbianum Stoliczka 1868
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Invalid names: Megistostoma caminoensis Hanna 1927 [synonym], Megistostoma striata Gabb 1864 [replaced]
Fm. Retusidae Thiele 1925
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G. Retusa Brown 1827
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Subg. Retusa (Coleophysis) Fischer 1883
Subg. Retusa (Cylichnina) Monterasato 1884
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Cylichnina coelata Deshayes 1862
Cylichnina tantilla Anderson and Hanna 1925
Cylichnina turneri Effinger 1938
Retusa (Cylichnina) conutus Deshayes 1824
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Invalid names: Cylichna sthillairii Lea 1833 [synonym]
Retusa bizona Adams 1850
Retusa claibornensis Aldrich 1911
Retusa obtusa Montagu 1808
Retusa recta Eames 1952
Retusa truncatula Bruguiere 1792
Retusa yaquensis Maury 1917
G. Rhizorus Montfort 1810
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Rhizorus pakistanicus Eames 1952
G. Sulcoretusa Burch 1945
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Sulcoretusa israelskyi Addicott 1970
Sulcoretusa sulcata d'Orbigny 1841
Sulcoretusa sulcata lipara Woodring 1928
G. Volvulella Newton 1891
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Subg. Volvulella (Volvulella) Newton 1891
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Volvulella (Volvulella) micratracta Brown and Pilsbry 1913
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Invalid names: Volvula cercadensis Van Winkle 1921 [synonym], Volvula cylindrica Gabb 1873 [synonym]
Volvulella cannada Ihering 1907
Volvulella cylindrica Carpenter 1865
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Invalid names: Volvulella cooperi Dall 1919 [synonym]
Volvulella gluma Keen 1943
Volvulella joaquinensis Addicott 1970
Volvulella meyer Cossman 1893
Volvulella oxyacrum Cossmann 1889
Fm. Scaphandridae Sars 1878
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G. †Ellipsoscapha Stephenson 1941
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Ellipsoscapha cylindrica Gardner 1916
Ellipsoscapha mortoni Forbes 1845
Ellipsoscapha nortonensis Anderson 1958
Ellipsoscapha sohli Marincovich, Jr. 1993
Ellipsoscapha striatella Shumard 1861
G. †Micromelo Pilsbry 1895
G. Mnestia Adams and A. 1854
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Mnestia meyeri Cossmann 1893
Mnestia turgidula Sandberger 1859
Invalid names: Aglajidae Pilsbry 1895 [empty], Gastropteridae Swainson 1840 [empty], Philinacea [objective synonym], Philinoglossidae Hertling 1932 [empty]
Superfm. †Runcinoidea Adams and A. 1854
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Invalid names: Ilbiidae Burn 1963 [empty], Runcinidae Adams and A. 1854 [empty]
Invalid names: Acteonoida d'Orbigny 1842 [empty], Cylichnoidea Adams 1850 [empty], Notodiaphanidae Thiele 1931 [empty], Ringiculoidea Philippi 1853 [empty]
Diagnosis
No diagnoses are available
Measurements
No measurements are available
Composition: aragonitec
Locomotion: actively mobilec
Life habit: epifaunalc
Diet: omnivoreo
Vision: limitedc
Comments: Among opisthobranch gastropods the Cephalaspidea show the greatest diversity of feeding strategies, ranging from herbivory (browsing species, ..o
Created: 2009-05-20 09:39:36
Modified: 2009-05-20 11:39:36
Source: o = order, c = class
Reference: Kiessling 2004

Age range

Maximum range based only on fossils: base of the Bathonian to the top of the Holocene or 168.30000 to 0.00000 Ma
Minimum age of oldest fossil (stem group age): 166.1 Ma

Collections (1719 total)

Oldest occurrences

Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Bathonian168.3 - 166.1Saudi Arabia Cylichna sp. (48447)
Callovian166.1 - 163.5Germany Retusa microconcha (58203)
Callovian166.1 - 163.5Yemen (Wadi Hajar) Bulla sp. (2600)
Callovian - Oxfordian166.1 - 157.3Somalia Bulla macfadyeni (93020)
Early/Lower Callovian - Middle Callovian164.7 - 161.2Poland Retusa microconcha (58264)
Middle Callovian164.7 - 161.2Israel Retusa plicifer (99129 99130 99131)
Kimmeridgian157.3 - 152.1Portugal Tornatina cylindrella (8521)
Early/Lower Valanginian140.2 - 136.4Switzerland Bulla avellana, Bulla dactylus, Bulla jaccardi (2225)
Valanginian139.8 - 132.9France Bulla etalloni (2220) Bulla jaccardi (2222)
Valanginian139.8 - 132.9Switzerland Bulla jaccardi (2221 2247)
Late/Upper Barremian130.0 - 125.45France (Drôme) Acteocina tenuistriata, Cylichna urgonensis (177726)
Early/Lower Aptian125.45 - 122.46Switzerland Bulla tombeckiana (2232)
Aptian125.0 - 113.0Switzerland Bulla urgonensis (2188)
Aptian125.0 - 113.0France Bulla urgonensis (2186)
Late/Upper Albian105.3 - 99.6United Kingdom (England) Cylichna urgonensis (6280)
Cenomanian100.5 - 93.9USA (California) Cylichnina sp. (185726) Scaphander sp. (167602)
Cenomanian100.5 - 93.9USA (Texas) Cylichna sp. (2120 6595)
Early/Lower Cenomanian99.6 - 93.5USA (California) Cylichna andersoni (1794 1804) Cylichnina sp. (167599)
Late/Upper Cenomanian99.6 - 93.5USA (Utah) Cylichna sp. (3325)
Late/Upper Cenomanian99.6 - 93.5USA (Arizona) Cylichna sp. (54165)