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Scleractinia (stony coral)

Anthozoa - Scleractinia

Taxonomy
Scleractinia was named by Bourne (1900) [spelt "Scleractina" by Sepkoski]. It is extant.

It was assigned to Zoantharia by Squires (1984), Squires (1987) and Ezaki (2000); and to Anthozoa by Wells (1953) and Sepkoski (2002).

Subtaxa
Adekoheastrea, Agathiphylliidae, Amphiastraeina, Anisastraea, Annotocyathus, Anomopora, Apelismilia, Aplocyathus, Archaeocoeniina, Archaeofungiina, Archaeolasmogyra, Astraeoina, Astrocoeniina, Aulastraeoporidae, Bavarosmilia, Budiopsis, Calameastolia, Carantophyllum, Carcicocaenia, Caryophylliina, Chorisastraea, Clausastraeopsis, Clonosmilia, Coelomeandra, Cyclastraeidae, Cyclindrocyathus, Cyclismilia, Cylindrosmilia, Cynaria, Decaheliocoenia, Dendrophylliina, Desmocoenia, Dichotomosmilia, Diploastraeidae, Diplothecangia, Distichophylliina, Ebocotrochus, Eburneotrochus, Eckastraeidae, Edwardsomeandra, Epitrochus, Etalloniopsis, Eugyriopsis, Euphyllidae, Eupsammidae, Eusmiliopsis, Fasciatiphyllia, Fasciseris, Faviina, Favitopsis, Fungiina, Furcophyllia, Gallitellia, Gombertiphyllia, Haplareidae, Hedeliastraea, Heliostylina, Helladophyllia, Heterocoeniina, Houchangocyathus, Isastraeidae, Isphyllastrea, Karatchastraea, Kobycoenia, Lamellomeandra, Lepiconus, Lithodendron, Lupitschia, Mareastraea, Meandriina, Microsolenina, Miophora, Mioscapophyllia, Molukkia, Montastraeidae, Monticuliphyllia, Morchellastraea, Ondadiplocteniopsis, Pachysmilia, Pachythecaliina, Palaeophyllia, Palaeoseris, Palaeosmilia, Paracoryphyllia, Phylloseriopsis, Pleuropodia, Psammocyathus, Pyramisasteria, Reisocyathus, Reussiphyllia, Rhabdofavia, Rhipidogyrina, Rhopalophyllia, Saeptiphyllia, Sakalavastraeopsis, Saltastraea, Sclydolithus, Siderocoenia, Sinasteria, Siniastraea, Smilostyliidae, Solenocoeniidae, Streptocyathopsis, Streptocyathus, Stylinina, Stylophyllina, Thamnasteria cycloides, Thamnasteria komagataensis, Thamnasteria maxima, Thamnasteria protoserioides, Thamnasteria rikuzenica, Thamnasterites, Thecoseriopsis, Thigmastrea, Trachyphylliidae, Tropiastraea, Tropiastraeidae, Variabilifavia

View classification of included taxa

Synonyms
Synonymy list
YearName and author
1900Scleractinia Bourne
1951Thamnasteria cycloides Eguchi
1951Thamnasteria komagataensis Eguchi
1951Thamnasteria maxima Eguchi
1951Thamnasteria protoserioides Eguchi
1951Thamnasteria rikuzenica Eguchi
1952Cyclindrocyathus Alloiteau
1953Scleractinia Wells
1984Scleractinia Squires p. 14
1987Scleractinia Squires p. 19
1994Paracoryphyllia Dronov
2000Scleractinia Ezaki p. 202
2002Cyclindrocyathus Sepkoski, Jr.
2002Eusmiliopsis Sepkoski, Jr.
2002Saltastraea Sepkoski, Jr.
2002Scleractinia Sepkoski, Jr.
2002Thecoseriopsis Sepkoski, Jr.
2003Paracoryphyllia Kiessling

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Neuralia
phylumCnidariaHatschek 1888
classAnthozoaEhrenberg 1834
RankNameAuthor
subclassZoanthariade Blainville 1830
orderScleractiniaBourne 1900
orderScleractiniaBourne 1900

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
No diagnoses are available
Measurements
partNmeanminimummaximummedians.d.
height1167.652.4020.57.504.55

Composition: aragoniteo
Grouping: colonialo
Clonal: yeso
Environment: marineo
Locomotion: stationaryo
Attached: yeso
Life habit: intermediate-level epifaunalo
Diet: microcarnivoreo
Diet 2: photosymbiotico
Vision: blindc
Reproduction: alternatingo
Asexual: yeso
Dispersal: watero
Dispersal 2: planktonico
Comments: ECOSPACE CODE: 261o
Created: 2004-02-27 16:54:46
Modified: 2009-10-09 15:38:42
Source: o = order, c = class
Reference: Kiessling 2004

Age range

Maximum range based only on fossils: base of the Brigantian to the top of the Holocene or 336.00000 to 0.00000 Ma
Minimum age of oldest fossil (stem group age): 326.4 Ma

Collections (6778 total)

Oldest occurrences

Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Brigantian336.0 - 326.4China (Xinjiang) Palaeosmilia sp. (195847)
Wordian - Capitanian268.8 - 259.9China (Guizhou) Houchangocyathus wangi (47456)
Capitanian265.1 - 259.9China (Guizhou) Houchangocyathus wangi (107697) Houchangocyathus wangi, Houchangocyathus yaoi (47466 107696)
Wuchiapingian259.9 - 254.17United Kingdom Caryophillia quadrifida (130870)
Anisian247.2 - 242.0Greece Scleractinia indet. (73815)
Anisian247.2 - 242.0China (Guangxi) Distichophyllia sp., Radiophyllia astylatus, Radiophyllia stylatus, Proretiophyllia tianyangensis, Stylophyllopsis minisculus, Volzeia degeensis, Distichophyllia decora, Pinacophyllum spizzensis (81045)
Anisian247.2 - 242.0Slovenia Scleractinia indet. (36524)
Anisian247.2 - 242.0Spain Scleractinia indet. (73975)
Anisian247.2 - 242.0China (Guizhou) Cyathocoenia sp. A, Cyathocoenia sp. B, Margarophyllia sp., Montlivaltia sp. A, Retiophyllia sp. A, Retiophyllia sp. B, Retiophyllia sp. C, Retiophyllia sp. D, Retiophyllia sp. E, Stylophyllopsis sp. A, Thamnasteria sp. A, Thamnasteria sp. B, Thamnasteria sp. C, Procyclolitidae indet., Procyathophora fuerstenbergensis, Pamiroseris silesiaca, Semidistichophyllum guizhouensis, Radiophyllia pygmaeus, Stylophyllopsis ramosa, Margarophyllia vortica, Neoconophyllia leidapoensis (81047)
Anisian247.2 - 242.0Italy Margarosmilia sp. (49932) Retiophyllia sp. (49916 49929 49930)
Illyrian247.2 - 242.0Poland Cyathocoenia sp., Coelocoenia decipiens, Pamiroseris silesiaca, Silesiastraea weissermeli, Eckastraea prisca (34731) Pamiroseris sp. (34732)
Illyrian247.2 - 242.0Hungary (Baranya) Conophyllia recondita, Montlivaltia sp., Thamnasteria sp., Conophyllia clepsydrae, Conophyllia omphale, Margarosmilia confluens, Coccophyllum sp. (78645)
Pelsonian247.2 - 242.0China (Guizhou) Scleractinia indet. (31610)
Pelsonian247.2 - 242.0Italy (Vicentin) Thamnasteria silesica, Procyathophora sp. (87260)
Pelsonian247.2 - 242.0Italy Scleractinia indet., Pamiroseris sp., Retiophyllia sp. 2, Retiophyllia sp. 1, Zardinophyllum sp. (23570)
Pelsonian247.2 - 242.0Poland Pamiroseris silesiaca (25131) Volzeia szulci (25129)
Pelsonian - Illyrian247.2 - 242.0China (Guizhou) Margarophyllia vortica (31611 31616) Margarophyllia vortica, Neoconophyllia leidapoensis (31629) Neoconophyllia guiyangensis, Semidistichophyllum guizhouensis (31626) Neoconophyllia leidapoensis (31618 31622) Pamiroseris silesiaca, Neoconophyllia leidapoensis (31623) Procyathopora fuerstenbergensis, Promargarosmilia sp., Neoconophyllia guiyangensis, Semidistichophyllum guizhouensis, Margarophyllia vortica, Neoconophyllia leidapoensis (31628) Promargarosmilia sp. (31627) Promargarosmilia sp., Neoconophyllia leidapoensis (31619 31620) Promargarosmilia sp., Pamiroseris silesiaca, Margarophyllia vortica (31617) Promargarosmilia sp., Pamiroseris silesiaca, Semidistichophyllum guizhouensis, Neoconophyllia leidapoensis (31631) Promargarosmilia sp., Semidistichophyllum guizhouensis, Margarophyllia vortica (31624) Promargarosmilia sp., Semidistichophyllum guizhouensis, Margarophyllia vortica, Neoconophyllia leidapoensis (31632) Scleractinia indet., Margarophyllia vortica, Neoconophyllia leidapoensis (31612) Semidistichophyllum guizhouensis, Margarophyllia vortica, Neoconophyllia leidapoensis (31625) Semidistichophyllum guizhouensis, Neoconophyllia leidapoensis (31621)
Pelsonian - Illyrian247.2 - 242.0China (Yunnan) Pamiroseris silesiaca, Neoconophyllia guiyangensis, Semidistichophyllum guizhouensis, Procyathophora furstenbergensis, Margarophyllia vortica, Neoconophyllia leidapoensis (78655)
Pelsonian - Illyrian247.2 - 242.0Poland Stylophyllopsis sp., Pamiroseris silesiaca, Morycastraea opoliensis, Silesiastraea weissermeli, Volzeia szulci, Chevalieria tenuiseptata, Eckastraea prisca, Opolestraea exporrecta, Omphalophyllia triasina (34729) Volzeia szulci (34730)
Pelsonian - Illyrian247.2 - 242.0Hungary Thecosmilia subdichotoma, Protoheterastrea pseudocolumellaris, Pinacophyllum parallelum, Thecosmilia sp. (81050)