Basic info  Taxonomic history  Classification  Relationships 
Morphology  Ecology and taphonomy  External Literature Search  Age range and collections 
Ankylosauria
Reptilia 
Taxonomy
Ankylosauria was named by Osborn (1923) [Named in text without description.]. It was considered monophyletic by Vickaryous et al. (2004).
It was reranked as the order Ankylosauria by Bakker and Galton (1974); it was reranked as the unranked clade Ankylosauria by SánchezHernández et al. (2007), Butler et al. (2008), Han et al. (2012), Yang et al. (2013), Arbour et al. (2014), Leahey et al. (2015), Penkalski and Tumanova (2017), Brown et al. (2017), Arbour and Evans (2017) and Zheng et al. (2018).
It was assigned to Enoplosauria by Swinton (1970); to Ornithischia by Bakker and Galton (1974); to Orbitoscuta by Bakker (1986); to Ankylosauromorpha by Carpenter (2001); to Ornithischia by Romer (1956), Parsch (1963), Tatarinov (1964), Kuhn (1964), Ostrom (1965), Kuhn (1966), Romer (1966), Thulborn (1971), Krebs (1974), Bonaparte (1978), Benton (1979), Ostrom (1980), McIntosh (1981), Thurmond and Jones (1981), Russell (1984), Maryanska and Osmólska (1985), Carroll (1988), Dong (1993), Buffetaut (1995), Peng et al. (2001) and Chure et al. (2006); to Thyreophora by de Valais et al. (2003), Weishampel (2004), Parish and Barrett (2004) and Butler et al. (2008); to Ornithischia by Penkalski and Tumanova (2017) and Brown et al. (2017); to Thyreophora by SánchezHernández et al. (2007), Han et al. (2012), Yang et al. (2013), Arbour et al. (2014) and Arbour and Evans (2017); and to Eurypoda by Sereno (1986), Benton (1990), Sereno (1998), Sereno (1999), Vickaryous et al. (2004), Norman et al. (2004), Maidment et al. (2006), Maidment et al. (2008), Leahey et al. (2015) and Zheng et al. (2018).
It was reranked as the order Ankylosauria by Bakker and Galton (1974); it was reranked as the unranked clade Ankylosauria by SánchezHernández et al. (2007), Butler et al. (2008), Han et al. (2012), Yang et al. (2013), Arbour et al. (2014), Leahey et al. (2015), Penkalski and Tumanova (2017), Brown et al. (2017), Arbour and Evans (2017) and Zheng et al. (2018).
It was assigned to Enoplosauria by Swinton (1970); to Ornithischia by Bakker and Galton (1974); to Orbitoscuta by Bakker (1986); to Ankylosauromorpha by Carpenter (2001); to Ornithischia by Romer (1956), Parsch (1963), Tatarinov (1964), Kuhn (1964), Ostrom (1965), Kuhn (1966), Romer (1966), Thulborn (1971), Krebs (1974), Bonaparte (1978), Benton (1979), Ostrom (1980), McIntosh (1981), Thurmond and Jones (1981), Russell (1984), Maryanska and Osmólska (1985), Carroll (1988), Dong (1993), Buffetaut (1995), Peng et al. (2001) and Chure et al. (2006); to Thyreophora by de Valais et al. (2003), Weishampel (2004), Parish and Barrett (2004) and Butler et al. (2008); to Ornithischia by Penkalski and Tumanova (2017) and Brown et al. (2017); to Thyreophora by SánchezHernández et al. (2007), Han et al. (2012), Yang et al. (2013), Arbour et al. (2014) and Arbour and Evans (2017); and to Eurypoda by Sereno (1986), Benton (1990), Sereno (1998), Sereno (1999), Vickaryous et al. (2004), Norman et al. (2004), Maidment et al. (2006), Maidment et al. (2008), Leahey et al. (2015) and Zheng et al. (2018).
Subtaxa
Acanthopholis, Acanthopholis eucercus, Aletopelta, Amtosaurus, Ankylosauridae (syn. Syrmosauridae), Bissektipelta, Brachypodosaurus, Cryptodraco, Cryptosaurus, Dracopelta, Eucercosaurus, Hierosaurus, Kunbarrasaurus, Maleevus, Metatetrapous, Niobrarasaurus, Nodosauridae (syn. Hylaeosauridae, Acanthopholinae, Palaeoscincidae, Polacanthidae), Palaeoscincus, Palaeoscincus costatus, Peishansaurus, Polacanthoides, Priconodon, Priodontognathus, Qijiangpus, Rhadinosaurus, Rhodanosaurus, Sarcolestes, Sauroplites, Stegopelta, Stegosaurides, Stegosaurus madagascariensis, Syngonosaurus, Tianchiasaurus
Synonyms
Synonymy list
Year  Name and author 

1856  Palaeoscincus Leidy p. 72 
1856  Palaeoscincus costatus Leidy p. 72 
1857  Palaeoscincus costatus Leidy p. 90 
1860  Palaeoscincus Leidy p. 146 
1860  Palaeoscincus costatus Leidy p. 146 
1867  Acanthopholis horridus Etheridge p. 67 
1867  Acanthopholis horridus Huxley p. 65 
1867  Acanthopholis Huxley p. 67 figs. Pl. 5 
1867  Acanthopholis horridus Huxley p. 67 figs. Pl. 5 
1869  Palaeoscincus Cope p. 91 
1869  Palaeoscincus costatus Cope p. 99 
1869  Acanthopholis horridus Matheron p. 375 
1869  Acanthopholis Seeley p. xvii 
1869  Acanthopholis stereocercus Seeley p. xvii 
1870  Acanthopholis Huxley p. 34 
1871  Acanthopholis horridus Seeley p. 307 
1874  Palaeoscincus costatus Cope p. 26 
1875  Palaeoscincus costatus Cope p. 248 
1875  Cryptosaurus eumerus Seeley 
1875  Cryptosaurus Seeley p. 149 
1875  Cryptosaurus eumerus Seeley p. 151 figs. 14 
1875  Priodontognathus Seeley p. 439 figs. Pl. 20 
1877  Palaeoscincus Cope p. 572 
1877  Palaeoscincus costatus Cope p. 572 
1879  Acanthopholis horridus Prestwich p. 193 
1879  Acanthopholis eucercus Seeley 
1879  Eucercosaurus Seeley 
1879  Syngonosaurus Seeley 
1879  Acanthopholis horridus Seeley p. 596 figs. 23 
1879  Eucercosaurus Seeley p. 613 figs. 45 
1879  Eucercosaurus tanyspondylus Seeley p. 613 
1879  Syngonosaurus Seeley p. 621 figs. 68 
1879  Acanthopholis stereocercus Seeley pp. 628631 
1879  Acanthopholis eucercus Seeley p. 632 
1880  Acanthopholis Marsh 
1880  Cryptosaurus eumerus Sauvage p. 523 
1881  Rhadinosaurus Seeley p. 620 
1881  Rhadinosaurus alcimus Seeley p. 675 
1882  Acanthopholis Marsh 
1882  Acanthopholis eucercus Sauvage p. 30 
1882  Acanthopholis stereocercus Sauvage p. 30 
1882  Eucercosaurus tanyspondylus Sauvage p. 31 
1882  Acanthopholis Sauvage p. 35 
1882  Sygnosaurus Sauvage p. 36 
1882  Rhadinosaurus alcimus Sauvage p. 41 
1882  Acanthopholis Sauvage p. 1265 
1882  Sygmosaurus Sauvage p. 1265 
1884  Acanthopholis Dollo p. 298 
1884  Acanthopholis Marsh p. 68 
1885  Acanthopholis Marsh p. 764 
1888  Acanthopholis Lydekker p. 183 
1888  Acanthopholis horridus Lydekker p. 183 
1888  Priconodon crassus Marsh 
1888  Priconodon Marsh p. 93 figs. 79 
1888  Priconodon crassus Marsh p. 93 figs. 79 
1889  Acanthopholis Dollo p. 678 
1889  Syngonosaurus Lydekker pp. 4142 
1889  Cryptodraco Lydekker pp. 4546 
1889  Cryptodraco eumerus Lydekker p. 46 
1890  Acanthopholis eucercus Woodward and Sherborn p. 209 
1890  Acanthopholis horrida Woodward and Sherborn p. 209 
1890  Acanthopholis stereocercus Woodward and Sherborn p. 209 
1890  Cryptodraco eumerus Woodward and Sherborn p. 224 
1890  Eucercosaurus tanyspondylus Woodward and Sherborn p. 229 
1890  Acanthopholis Zittel p. 742 
1890  Eucercosaurus Zittel p. 742 
1890  Syngonosaurus Zittel p. 742 
1890  Priodontognathus Zittel p. 743 
1890  Palaeoscincus Zittel p. 748 
1890  Priconodon Zittel p. 748 
1890  Cryptodraco Zittel p. 756 
1892  Palaeoscincus Marsh 
1892  Palaeoscincus latus Marsh 
1893  Palaeoscincus Winkler p. 105 
1893  Priconodon Winkler p. 105 
1895  Palaeoscincus Marsh 
1895  Priconodon Marsh 
1896  Palaeoscincus latus Marsh figs. Pl. 75:3 
1896  Palaeoscincus costatus Marsh p. 225 
1896  Palaeoscincus Marsh p. 242 
1896  Priconodon Marsh p. 242 
1896  Acanthopholis Marsh p. 243 
1900  Acanthopholis Van Den Broeck p. 101 
1900  Priconodon Walcott p. 23 
1900  Priconodon crassus Walcott p. 23 
1902  Priconodon Hay p. 496 
1902  Priconodon crassus Hay p. 496 
1902  Palaeoscincus Hay p. 497 
1902  Palaeoscincus costatus Hay p. 497 
1902  Palaeoscincus latus Hay p. 497 
1902  Palaeoscincus Lambe p. 53 
1902  Palaeoscincus costatus Lambe p. 53 
1902  Acanthopholis Lucas p. 435 
1902  Palaeoscincus Nopcsa p. 101 
1902  Priodontognathus Nopcsa p. 101 
1902  Syngonosaurus Nopcsa p. 101 
1902  Acanthopholis Nopcsa p. 102 
1902  Acanthopholis eucercus Nopcsa p. 102 
1902  Acanthopholis horridus Nopcsa p. 102 
1902  Acanthopholis stereocercus Nopcsa p. 102 
1904  Acanthopholis Lydekker p. 60 
1904  Acanthopholis eucercus Lydekker p. 60 
1904  Acanthopholis horrida Lydekker p. 60 
1904  Acanthopholis stereocercus Lydekker p. 60 
1904  Eucercosaurus tanyspondylus Lydekker p. 61 
1904  Cryptodraco eumerus Lydekker p. 70 
1905  Palaeoscincus costatus Lambe p. 23 
1905  Palaeoscincus Lambe p. 48 
1906  Palaeoscincus latus Cannon p. 195 
1908  Palaeoscincus Brown 
1908  Palaeoscincus costatus Brown 
1909  Cryptosaurus Huene p. 16 
1909  Acanthopholis Huene p. 17 
1909  Eucercosaurus Huene p. 17 
1909  Palaeoscincus Huene p. 17 
1909  Priconodon Huene p. 17 
1909  Priodontognathus Huene p. 17 
1909  Syngonosaurus Huene p. 17 
1909  Rhadinosaurus Huene p. 18 
1909  Hierosaurus Wieland 
1909  Hierosaurus sternbergii Wieland 
1909  Hierosaurus Wieland p. 250 figs. 17 
1909  Hierosaurus sternbergii Wieland p. 250 figs. 17 
1911  Palaeoscincus Lambe p. 9 
1911  Priconodon crassus Lull p. 176 
1911  Priconodon Lull p. 177 
1911  Priconodon crassus Lull p. 207 figs. Pl. 20:56 
1911  Palaeoscincus costatus Lull p. 208 
1911  Hierosaurus Wieland p. 112 
1911  Hierosaurus sternbergii Wieland pp. 113118 figs. 13 
1911  Palaeoscincus Wieland p. 117 
1911  Cryptosaurus von Zittel p. 289 
1911  Acanthopholis von Zittel p. 294 
1911  Hierosaurus von Zittel p. 294 
1911  Palaeoscincus von Zittel p. 294 
1911  Priconodon von Zittel p. 294 
1911  Eucerosaurus von Zittel p. 295 
1911  Priodontognathus von Zittel p. 295 
1911  Syngonosaurus von Zittel p. 295 
1914  Palaeoscincus costatus Brown p. 378 
1914  Palaeoscincus magoder Hennig 
1915  Priconodon Hennig p. 11 
1915  Priconodon crassus Hennig p. 11 
1915  Acanthopholis Hennig p. 12 
1915  Acanthopholis horridus Hennig p. 12 
1915  Acanthopholis eucercus Hennig p. 13 
1915  Acanthopholis stereocercus Hennig p. 13 
1915  Palaeoscincus Hennig p. 13 
1915  Palaeoscincus costatus Hennig p. 13 
1915  Hierosaurus Hennig p. 14 
1915  Hierosaurus sternbergii Hennig p. 14 
1915  Palaeoscincus latus Hennig p. 14 
1915  Acanthopholis Nopcsa p. 13 
1918  Palaeoscincus costatus Sternberg p. 89 
1921  Palaeoscincus costatus Gilmore p. 588 
1921  Priconodon crassus Gilmore p. 588 
1921  Priconodon Gilmore p. 589 
1921  Hierosaurus Lull p. 123 
1921  Hierosaurus sternbergii Lull p. 124 
1923  Palaeoscincus costatus Gilmore p. 48 
1923  Ankylosauria Osborn p. 3 
1924  Palaeoscincus Lull p. 243 
1926  Stegosaurus madagascariensis Piveteau p. 35 
1927  Hierosaurus Huene p. 261 
1927  Hierosaurus sternbergii Huene p. 261 
1927  Palaeoscincus Huene p. 261 
1927  Palaeoscincus costatus Huene p. 261 
1927  Acanthopholis Huene p. 271 
1927  Acanthopholis eucerus Huene p. 271 
1927  Acanthopholis horrida Huene p. 271 
1927  Acanthopholis stereocercus Huene p. 271 
1927  Eucercosaurus Huene p. 271 
1927  Eucercosaurus tanyspondylus Huene p. 271 
1927  Priodontognathus Huene p. 271 
1927  Syngonosaurus Huene p. 271 
1928  Polacanthoides Nopcsa p. 58ff 
1928  Priodontognathus Nopcsa p. 184 
1928  Syngonosaurus Nopcsa p. 184 
1928  Acanthopholis Nopcsa p. 185 
1928  Hierosaurus Nopcsa p. 185 
1928  Palaeoscincus Nopcsa p. 185 
1928  Acanthopholis Nopsca p. 73 
1928  Hierosaurus Nopsca p. 73 
1928  Palaeoscincus Nopsca p. 73 
1928  Polacanthoides Nopsca p. 73 
1928  Palaeoscincus costatus Sternberg p. 102 
1929  Polacanthoides ponderosus Nopcsa 
1929  Rhodanosaurus Nopcsa p. 47 
1929  Rhodanosaurus ludgunensis Nopcsa p. 49 
1929  Acanthopholis Nopcsa p. 70 
1929  Hierosaurus Nopcsa p. 70 
1929  Palaeoscincus Nopcsa p. 70 
1929  Polacanthoides Nopcsa p. 70 
1929  Rhodanosaurus Nopcsa p. 70 
1930  Hierosaurus Russell p. 138 
1930  Hierosaurus sternbergii Russell p. 138 
1930  Palaeoscincus Russell p. 140 
1930  Palaeoscincus latus Russell p. 140 
1930  Palaeoscincus costatus Russell p. 143 
1931  Palaeoscincus latus Johnson p. 374 
1931  Acanthopholis Nopcsa p. 72 
1934  Brachypodosaurus Chakravarti p. 79 
1934  Brachypodosaurus gravis Chakravarti p. 79 figs. Pl. IX 
1934  Acanthopholis Stromer p. 66 
1934  Acanthopholis horridus Stromer p. 66 
1934  Syngonosaurus Stromer p. 66 
1935  Palaeoscincus Russell p. 117 
1935  Hierosaurus Young p. 24 
1935  Hierosaurus sternbergi Young p. 24 
1935  Palaeoscincus Young p. 24 
1936  Hierosaurus Mehl p. 20 
1936  Polacanthoides Swinton p. 218 
1936  Polacanthoides ponderosus Swinton p. 218 
1936  Priodontognathus Swinton p. 573 
1940  Palaeoscincus costatus Russell p. 3 
1940  Hierosaurus sternbergii Russell p. 23 
1940  Palaeoscincus Russell p. 27 
1940  Palaeoscincus latus Russell p. 27 
1947  Struthiosaurus lugdunensis Lapparent p. 33 
1948  Struthiosaurus lugdunensis Lapparent p. 1186 
1952  Syrmosaurus disparoserratus Maleev p. 134 
1953  Sauroplites Bohlin p. 19 
1953  Sauroplites scutiger Bohlin p. 19 
1953  Hierosaurus sternbergii Bohlin p. 30 
1953  Stegosaurides Bohlin p. 66 fig. 41 
1953  Stegosaurides excavatus Bohlin p. 66 fig. 41 
1953  Peishansaurus Bohlin p. 67 figs. 42; Pl. 1, 9 
1953  Peishansaurus philemys Bohlin p. 67 
1954  Palaeoscincus Maleev 
1954  Syrmosaurus disparoserratus Maleev pp. 162163 fig. 15 
1956  Hierosaurus Maleev 
1956  Palaeoscincus Maleev 
1956  Polacanthoides Maleev 
1956  Rhadinosaurus Romer p. 594 
1956  Cryptodraco Romer p. 629 
1956  Ankylosauria Romer p. 634 
1956  Priconodon Romer p. 634 
1956  Acanthopholis Romer p. 635 
1956  Brachypodosaurus Romer p. 635 
1956  Hierosaurus Romer p. 635 
1956  Rhodanosaurus Romer p. 635 
1956  Palaeoscincus Romer p. 636 
1956  Peishansaurus Romer p. 636 
1956  Polacanthoides Romer p. 636 
1956  Sauroplites Romer p. 636 
1956  Stegosaurides Romer p. 636 
1957  Stegosaurus madagascariensis Lapparent p. 110 
1957  Brachypodosaurus gravis Lapparent p. 112 
1958  Peishanosaurus Huene p. 206 
1958  Sauroplites Huene p. 206 
1958  Stegosaurides Huene p. 206 
1959  Peishansaurus Huene p. 122 
1959  Sauroplites Huene p. 122 
1959  Stegosaurides Huene p. 122 
1959  Stegosaurides Young p. 8 
1959  Stegosaurides excavatus Young p. 8 
1960  Cryptodraco Delair p. 85 
1960  Cryptodraco eumerus Delair p. 85 
1960  Struthiosaurus lugundensis Jeletzky p. 34 
1963  Stegosaurus madagascariensis Furon p. 362 
1963  Ankylosauria Parsch p. 4 
1963  Palaeoscincus Parsch p. 8 
1964  Cryptodraco Kuhn p. 10 
1964  Priconodon Kuhn p. 36 
1964  Priconodon crassus Kuhn p. 36 
1964  Ankylosauria Kuhn p. 39 
1964  Syrmosaurus disparoserrata Kuhn p. 39 
1964  Acanthopholis Kuhn p. 40 
1964  Acanthopholis eucercus Kuhn p. 40 
1964  Acanthopholis horridus Kuhn p. 40 
1964  Acanthopholis stereocercus Kuhn p. 40 
1964  Eucercosaurus Kuhn p. 40 
1964  Eucercosaurus tanyspondylus Kuhn p. 40 
1964  Sygmosaurus Kuhn p. 41 
1964  Struthiosaurus alcinus Kuhn p. 43 
1964  Struthiosaurus lugdunensis Kuhn p. 43 
1964  Brachypodosaurus Kuhn p. 46 
1964  Brachypodosaurus gravis Kuhn p. 46 
1964  Hierosaurus Kuhn p. 47 
1964  Hierosaurus sternbergii Kuhn p. 47 
1964  Palaeoscincus Kuhn p. 49 
1964  Palaeoscincus costatus Kuhn p. 49 
1964  Palaeoscincus latus Kuhn p. 49 
1964  Palaeoscincus magoder Kuhn p. 49 
1964  Peishansaurus Kuhn p. 50 
1964  Peishansaurus philemys Kuhn p. 50 
1964  Polacanthoides Kuhn p. 50 
1964  Polacanthoides ponderosus Kuhn p. 50 
1964  Sauroplites Kuhn p. 51 
1964  Sauroplites scutiger Kuhn p. 51 
1964  Stegosaurides Kuhn p. 52 
1964  Stegosaurides excavatus Kuhn p. 52 
1964  Palaeoscincus Russell p. 7 
1964  Palaeoscincus costatus Russell p. 10 
1964  Cryptodraco Tatarinov p. 559 
1964  Eucercosaurus Tatarinov p. 559 
1964  Priodontognathus Tatarinov p. 559 
1964  Syngonosaurus Tatarinov p. 559 
1964  Priconodon Tatarinov p. 573 
1964  Acanthopholis Tatarinov p. 574 
1964  Acanthopholis horridus Tatarinov p. 574 
1964  Ankylosauria Tatarinov p. 574 
1964  Rhodanosaurus Tatarinov p. 575 
1964  Palaeoscincus Tatarinov p. 576 
1964  Palaeoscincus costatus Tatarinov p. 576 
1964  Brachypodosaurus Tatarinov p. 577 
1964  Hierosaurus Tatarinov p. 577 
1964  Polacanthoides Tatarinov p. 577 
1964  Sauroplites Tatarinov p. 577 
1964  Stegosaurides Tatarinov p. 577 
1965  Ankylosauria Ostrom p. 39 
1965  Palaeoscincus Ostrom p. 39 
1965  Palaeoscincus latus Ostrom p. 39 
1965  Acanthopholis Simmons p. 70 
1965  Acanthopholis horridus Simmons p. 70 
1965  Palaeoscincus Simmons p. 70 
1966  Ankylosauria Kuhn p. 105 
1966  Acanthopholis Romer p. 370 
1966  Ankylosauria Romer p. 370 
1966  Brachypodosaurus Romer p. 370 
1966  Cryptodraco Romer p. 370 
1966  Hierosaurus Romer p. 370 
1966  Palaeoscincus Romer p. 370 
1966  Peishansaurus Romer p. 370 
1966  Polacanthoides Romer p. 370 
1966  Priconodon Romer p. 370 
1966  Rhodanosaurus Romer p. 370 
1966  Sauroplites Romer p. 370 
1966  Stegosaurides Romer p. 370 
1967  Struthiosaurus lugdunensis Lapparent p. 11 
1970  Hierosaurus sternabergii Bodily p. 37 
1970  Ankylosauria Swinton p. 117 
1970  Acanthopholis Swinton p. 244 
1970  Acanthopholis horridus Swinton p. 244 
1970  Hierosaurus Swinton p. 253 
1970  Cryptodraco Thulborn p. 430 
1971  Struthiosaurus lugdunensis Dinca et al. p. 90 
1971  Ankylosauria Thulborn pp. 7778 fig. 4 
1974  Ankylosauria Bakker and Galton p. 171 
1974  Ankylosauria Krebs p. 22 
1974  Syrmosaurus disparoserratus Rozhdestvensky p. 147 
1974  Cryptodraco Thulborn p. 172 
1977  Sauroplites Maryanska p. 98 
1977  Sauroplites scutiger Maryanska p. 98 
1977  Talarurus disparoserratus Maryanska pp. 100101 
1977  Syrmosaurus disparoserratus Rozhdestvensky p. 113 
1978  Ankylosauria Bonaparte p. 330 
1978  Stegosaurides Coombs 
1978  Acanthopholis Coombs p. 144 
1978  Brachypodosaurus Coombs p. 144 
1978  Peishansaurus Coombs p. 144 
1978  Priconodon Coombs p. 144 
1978  Sauroplites Coombs p. 144 
1978  Stegosaurides Coombs p. 144 
1978  Acanthopholis Coombs p. 643 
1979  Ankylosauria Benton p. 144 
1980  Cryptodraco Galton p. 79 
1980  Priodontognathus Galton p. 487 
1980  Cryptodraco Galton p. 831 
1980  Cryptodraco eumerus Galton p. 831 
1980  Priconodon Galton p. 831 
1980  Priodontognathus Galton p. 831 
1980  Brachypodosaurus gravis Molnar p. 82 
1980  Brachypodosaurus Molnar p. 139 
1980  Ankylosauria Ostrom p. 23 
1980  Palaeoscincus Wolberg p. 50 
1980  Palaeoscincus costatus Wolberg p. 50 
1981  Eucercosaurus Bartholomai and Molnar p. 343 
1981  Eucercosaurus tanyspondylus Bartholomai and Molnar p. 343 
1981  Acanthopholis Buffetaut et al. p. 279 
1981  Priodontognathus Galton p. 39 
1981  Ankylosauria McIntosh p. 38 
1981  Ankylosauria Thurmond and Jones p. 147 
1983  Cryptodraco eumerus Galton pp. 7, 16 
1983  Priconodon Galton p. 16 
1983  Priodontognathus Galton p. 16 
1983  Priconodon crassus Galton p. 24 
1983  Rhadinosaurus Weishampel and Weishampel p. 44 
1983  Rhadinosaurus alcinus Weishampel and Weishampel p. 44 
1984  Struthiosaurus lugdunensis Brinkmann p. 297 
1984  Cryptodraco Molnar p. 154 
1984  Palaeoscincus Russell p. 25 
1984  Ankylosauria Russell p. 29 
1985  Priodontognathus Galton p. 251 
1985  Ankylosauria Maryanska and Osmólska p. 139 fig. 1 
1986  Ankylosauria Bakker p. 461 
1986  Ankylosauria Sereno 
1987  Brachypodosaurus gravis Molnar and Frey p. 34 
1987  Acanthopholis Tumanova 
1987  Maleevus Tumanova 
1987  Maleevus disparoserratus Tumanova 
1987  Palaeoscincus Tumanova 
1988  Acanthopholis Carroll 
1988  Ankylosauria Carroll 
1988  Brachypodosaurus Carroll 
1988  Cryptodraco Carroll 
1988  Palaeoscincus Carroll 
1988  Priodontognathus Carroll 
1988  Sauroplites Carroll 
1988  Stegosaurides Carroll 
1989  Brachypodosaurus gravis Jain p. 101 
1990  Ankylosauria Benton p. 19 
1990  Palaeoscincus Coombs, Jr. p. 272 
1992  Struthiosaurus lugdunensis Buffetaut p. 131 
1992  Peishansaurus Dong p. 166 
1992  Sauroplites Dong p. 166 
1992  Stegosaurides Dong p. 166 
1993  Tianchiasaurus Dong 
1993  Ankylosauria Dong p. 259 
1993  Tianchiasaurus Dong p. 259 figs. 15 
1994  Stegosaurides excavatus Dong p. 2098 
1994  Sauroplites Eberth et al. p. 2103 
1994  Sauroplites scutiger Eberth et al. p. 2103 
1995  Ankylosauria Buffetaut 
1995  Hierosaurus Carpenter et al. p. 276 
1995  Hierosaurus sternbergii Carpenter et al. p. 276 
1996  Cryptodraco Coombs, Jr. and Deméré p. 319 
1996  Hierosaurus Coombs, Jr. and Deméré p. 319 
1996  Brachypodosaurus Gasparini et al. p. 591 
1996  Brachypodosaurus gravis Gasparini et al. p. 591 
1997  Maleevus Barsbold p. 450 
1997  Maleevus disparoserratus Barsbold p. 450 
1997  Acanthopholis Buffetaut p. 215 
1997  Acanthopholis horridus Buffetaut p. 215 
1997  Talarurus disparoserratus Coy p. 692 
1997  Peishansaurus philemys Mateer p. 662 
1997  Sauroplites scutiger Mateer p. 662 
1997  Acanthopholis Pereda Suberbiola and Galton p. 213 
1998  Priconodon Carpenter and Kirkland pp. 254255 
1998  Priconodon crassus Carpenter and Kirkland p. 254 
1998  Acanthopholis Knoll et al. p. 62 
1998  Acanthopholis horridus Knoll et al. p. 62 
1998  Priconodon Lipka 
1998  Priconodon crassus Lipka 
1998  Ankylosauria Sereno p. 61 
1999  Ankylosauria Sereno p. 2138 fig. 2 
2000  Polacanthoides Ford p. 174 
2000  Polacanthoides ponderosus Ford p. 174 
2000  Struthiosaurus lugdunensis Ford p. 175 
2000  Maleevus Ford p. 176 
2000  Maleevus disparoserratus Ford p. 176 
2000  Sauroplites Ford p. 176 
2000  Sauroplites scutiger Ford p. 176 
2000  Acanthopholis horrida Olshevsky p. 101 
2000  Maleevus Tumanova p. 521 
2000  Maleevus disparoserratus Tumanova pp. 521523 
2000  Tianchiasaurus Tumanova p. 530 
2001  Priodontognathus Barrett p. 44 
2001  Aletopelta Carpenter p. 457 
2001  Ankylosauria Carpenter p. 457 
2001  Priconodon Carpenter p. 457 
2001  Priconodon crassus Carpenter p. 457 
2001  Priconodon crassus Carpenter et al. p. 213 
2001  Aletopelta Ford and Kirkland pp. 240241 figs. 12.112.12 
2001  Brachypodosaurus gravis Mohabey p. 484 
2001  Ankylosauria Peng et al. p. 35 
2001  Acanthopholis Pereda Suberbiola and Galton p. 201 
2001  Cryptodraco Pereda Suberbiola and Galton p. 201 
2003  Tianchiasaurus Garcia and PeredaSuberbiola p. 161 
2003  Ankylosauria de Valais et al. p. 631 
2004  Ankylosauria Norman et al. p. 342 fig. 15.6 
2004  Ankylosauria Parish and Barrett p. 304 
2004  Ankylosauria Vickaryous et al. p. 364 
2004  Ankylosauria Weishampel p. 323 
2005  Brachypodosaurus gravis Mohabey p. 467 
2006  Ankylosauria Chure et al. p. 237 
2006  Ankylosauria Maidment et al. p. 951 fig. 8 
2007  Ankylosauria SánchezHernández et al. p. 206 
2008  Ankylosauria Butler et al. p. 20 figs. 24 
2008  Ankylosauria Maidment et al. p. 390 fig. 11 
2008  Cryptosaurus eumerus Naish and Martill p. 615 
2008  Priodontognathus Naish and Martill p. 615 
2009  Priconodon crassus Parsons and Parsons p. 734 
2011  Aletopelta RiveraSylva et al. p. 376 
2012  Ankylosauria Han et al. p. 1391 fig. 14 
2013  Priconodon Kirkland et al. p. 36 
2013  Priconodon crassus Kirkland et al. p. 36 
2013  Ankylosauria Yang et al. p. 268 
2014  Ankylosauria Arbour et al. 
2014  Priodontognathus Blows and Honeysett p. 835 
2015  Ankylosauria Leahey et al. 
2015  Priconodon crassus Weems and Bachman p. 214 
2017  Ankylosauria Arbour and Evans p. 7 
2017  Ankylosauria Brown et al. 
2017  Ankylosauria Penkalski and Tumanova 
2018  Ankylosauria Zheng et al. 
Is something missing? Join the Paleobiology Database and enter the data


If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.
Diagnosis
No diagnoses are available