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Proceratosaurus bradleyi

Reptilia - Avetheropoda - Proceratosauridae

Taxonomy
Megalosaurus bradleyi was named by Woodward (1910). Its type specimen is BMNH 4860, a partial skull, and it is a 3D body fossil. Its type locality is Minchinhampton reservoir (BMNH R4860), which is in a Bathonian/Bathonian marine limestone in the White Limestone Formation of the United Kingdom. It is the type species of Proceratosaurus.

It was misspelled as Proceratosaurus bradlyi by Stromer (1934), Lapparent (1943), Swinton (1970) and Rioult (1978); it was recombined as Proceratosaurus bradleyi by Huene (1926), Huene (1926), Stromer (1931), Janensch (1933), Colbert and Russell (1969), Steel (1970), Paul (1988), Paul (1988), Rowe and Gauthier (1990), Holtz (1998), Rauhut (2003), Holtz et al. (2004), Yates (2005), Naish and Martill (2007), Rauhut et al. (2010), Carrano et al. (2012) and Carr et al. (2017).

Synonymy list
YearName and author
1910Megalosaurus bradleyi Woodward p. 114 figs. Pl. 13
1915Megalosaurus bradleyi Stromer p. 6
1926Proceratosaurus bradleyi Huene pp. 69-70
1931Proceratosaurus bradleyi Stromer p. 6
1933Proceratosaurus bradleyi Janensch p. 232
1934Proceratosaurus bradlyi Stromer p. 77
1943Megalosaurus bradleyi Lapparent p. 11
1969Proceratosaurus bradleyi Colbert and Russell pp. 37-38
1970Proceratosaurus bradleyi Steel pp. 36-37
1970Megalosaurus bradleyi Swinton pp. 139-140
1978Megalosaurus bradleyi Rioult p. 27
1988Proceratosaurus bradleyi Paul p. 5 fig. 1
1990Proceratosaurus bradleyi Rowe and Gauthier p. 165
1998Proceratosaurus bradleyi Holtz, Jr. p. 40
2003Proceratosaurus bradleyi Rauhut p. 20
2004Proceratosaurus bradleyi Holtz, Jr. et al. p. 76
2005Proceratosaurus bradleyi Yates p. 114
2007Proceratosaurus bradleyi Naish and Martill p. 503
2010Proceratosaurus bradleyi Rauhut et al. p. 157
2012Proceratosaurus bradleyi Carrano et al. p. 240
2017Proceratosaurus bradleyi Carr et al. p. 9s

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subphylumVertebrata
superclassGnathostomata
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda()
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
Batrachosauria()
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
Sauropsida
classReptilia
subclassEureptilia()
Romeriida
Diapsida()
Eosuchia()
RankNameAuthor
Neodiapsida
SauriaGauthier 1984
Archosauromorpha(Huene 1946)
Crocopoda
ArchosauriformesGauthier 1986
Eucrocopoda
Archosauria()
informalAvemetatarsalia
Ornithodira
Dinosauromorpha
Dinosauriformes
Dinosauria()
Saurischia()
Theropoda()
Neotheropoda
AverostraPaul 2002
Tetanurae
orderAvetheropoda
suborderCoelurosauria
superfamilyTyrannosauroidea
familyProceratosauridae
genusProceratosaurus
speciesbradleyi()

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
ReferenceDiagnosis
O. W. M. Rauhut et al. 2010Small to medium-sized theropod dinosaur (body length approximately 3 m) characterized by the following autapomorphies: anterior nasal process of the premaxilla inclined slightly anterodorsally, and nasal horn core overhanging the premaxillary internarial bar anteriorly; internarial bar of the premaxilla bifurcating posteriorly into a posteriorly directed ramus and a dorsally directed ramus; anterior end of the maxillary antorbital fossa placed considerably anterior and ventral to the promaxillary foramen; anteriormost dentary tooth curved anteriorly, and with the carinae oriented labiolingually. Furthermore, Proceratosaurus bradleyi can be distinguished from all other theropods by the following unique combination of characters: length of external nares more than 20% of skull length, and nares inclined posterodorsally; promaxillary foramen higher dorsoventrally than maxillary fenestra; presence of a midline crest on the nasals that begins at slightly less than one-third of the length of the external nares, from the anterior end; strongly expanded, sheet-like quadratojugal process of the squamosal; angular extends to the posterior end of the retroarticular process of the mandible; large, medially directed pendant process on the articular posterior to the jaw articulation; premaxillary teeth considerably smaller than maxillary teeth; premaxillary teeth with slight longitudinal striations; anteriormost teeth of the dentary procumbent; teeth with pronounced size difference between mesial and distal denticles.
M. T. Carrano et al. 2012Coelurosaurian with: (1) anterior nasal process of premaxilla inclined slightly anterodorsally, with nasal horn core overhanging premaxillary internarial bar anteriorly; (2) premaxillary internarial bar bifurcated posteriorly; (3) promaxillary foramen located posterodorsal to anterior end of antorbital fossa; and (4) anteriormost dentary tooth curved anteriorly, with carinae oriented labiolingually (all from Rauhut et al. 2010).
Measurements
No measurements are available
Composition: hydroxyapatiteo
Entire body: yeso
Adult length: 10 to < 100o
Adult width: 1.0 to < 10o
Adult height: 1.0 to < 10o
Architecture: compact or denseo
Ontogeny: accretion, modification of partso
Grouping: solitaryo
Environment: terrestrialo
Locomotion: actively mobileo
Life habit: ground dwellingo
Diet: carnivoresubo
Reproduction: oviparouso
Dispersal: direct/internalo
Dispersal 2: mobileo
Created: 2009-01-03 20:39:15
Modified: 2009-01-03 22:39:15
Source: subo = suborder, o = order
References: Kiessling 2004, Benton 1983, Marsh 1875

Age range: base of the Middle Bathonian to the top of the Late/Upper Bathonian or 167.70000 to 164.70000 Ma

Collections: one only


Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Middle Bathonian - Late/Upper Bathonian167.7 - 164.7United Kingdom (England) Megalosaurus bradleyi (type locality: 45883)