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Bilateria is an unranked clade.

It was synonymized subjectively with Triploblastica by Zrzavy et al. (1998).

It was assigned to Metazoa by Edgecombe et al. (2011); to Triploblastica by Nielsen (2012); and to Animalia by Ruggiero et al. (2015).

Sister taxa
Acoelomorpha, Dickinsoniomorpha, Eubilateria

Synonymy list
YearName and author
2011Bilateria Edgecombe et al. p. 153 figs. Fig. 1
2012Bilateria Nielsen p. 62 figs. Fig. 4.2
2015Bilateria Ruggiero et al. p. 40

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If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Unr. †Bilateria
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Unr. Acoelomorpha Ehlers 1985
Invalid names: Mastigocystia [synonym]
Invalid names: Acoela [empty], Nemertodermatida [empty]
Unr. †Dickinsoniomorpha Erwin et al. 2011
G. †Andiva Fedonkin 2002
Andiva ivantsovi Fedonkin 2002
G. †Dickinsonia Sprigg 1947
Dickinsonia brachina Wade 1972
Dickinsonia costata Sprigg 1947
Dickinsonia elongata Glaessner and Wade 1966
Dickinsonia lissa Wade 1972
Dickinsonia minima Sprigg 1949
Dickinsonia rex Jenkins 1992
Dickinsonia spriggi Harrington and Moore 1955
Dickinsonia tenuis Glaessner and Wade 1966
G. †Epibaion Ivantsov and Malakhovskaya 2002
Epibaion axiferus Ivantsov and Malakhovskaya 2002
Windermeria aitkeni Narbonne 1994
Unr. Eubilateria Ax 1987
Unr. Deuterostomia Grobben 1908
Unr. †Ambulacraria
Unr. †Cambroernids Caron et al. 2010
G. †Cheungkongella Shu et al. 2001
Fm. †Eldoniidae Walcott 1911
G. †Herpetogaster Caron et al. 2010
Ph. Echinodermata Klein 1754
G. †Argonevis Kozur and Mostler 1972
G. †Aspidocrinites Kozur and Mostler 1992
Subph. †Blastozoa Sprinkle 1973
Cl. †Cincta Jaekel 1918
G. †Corneotuba Krainer and Mostler 1997
G. †Cornuvacites Kozur and Mostler 1972
Cl. †Ctenocystoidea Robison and Sprinkle 1969
G. †Ctenoimbricata Zamora et al. 2012
Cl. †Cyclocystoidea Miller and Gurley 1895
G. Echinosphaera Angelin 1878
Cl. †Edrioasteroidea Billings 1858
Subph. Eleutherozoa Bell 1891
G. †Erinea Kozur and Mostler 1972
G. †Fanerocoelia Kozur and Mostler 1972
Fm. †Helicocystitidae Smith and Zamora 2013
Cl. †Helicoplacoidea Durham and Caster 1963
Subph. †Homalozoa Whitehouse 1941
G. †Iheringiana Berg 1898
G. †Limolepis Kozur and Mostler 1972
G. †Nemotapis Kozur and Mostler 1972
Fm. †Pediculacaudinidae Kozur and Mostler 1989
Subph. †Pelmatozoa Leuckart 1848
G. †Radimonis Kozur and Mostler 1972
G. †Scoteinocystis Ubaghs 1999
Cl. †Stylophora Gill and Caster 1960
Fm. †Tubocaudinidae Kozur and Mostler 1989
G. †Venerella Kozur and Mostler 1972
Invalid names: Carpoidea Jaekel 1900 [empty], Crinozoa Matsumoto 1929 [empty], Paracrinozoa Parsley and Mintz 1975 [empty], Scutellidae Angas 1871 [empty], Scutellinidae Dall 1889 [empty]
Ph. Hemichordata Bateson 1885 [acorn worm]
Cl. Pterobranchia Lankester 1877 [pterobranch]
Unr. †Vetulocystida Shu et al. 2002
Fm. †Vetulocystidae Shu et al. 2002
Ph. Chordata Haeckel 1874
Subph. Cephalochordata Haeckel 1866 [lancelet]
G. †Cathaymyrus Shu et al. 1996
Cl. Leptocardii Müller 1845
Subph. †Conodontophorida Eichenberg 1930
G. †Angulodus
G. †Axiothea
Cl. †Conodonta [conodont]
G. †Declinognathodus Dunn 1966
Superfm. †Distacodontacea Bassler 1925
G. †Elsonella
G. †Eocarniodus Orchard 1980
G. †Evencodus
G. †Exochognathus Pollock et al. 1970
Superfm. †Hibbardellacea Mueller 1956
G. †Huddlella
G. †Istorinus Knüpfer 1967
Fm. †Mestognathidae Austin and Rhodes 1981
G. †Oligodus
G. †Ozarcodina Walliser
Superfm. †Panderodontacea Lindstrom 1970
G. †Paraprionodus Ethington and Clark 1982
G. †Playfordia Glenister and Klapper 1966
G. †Polygnathellus Branson and Mehl 1933
G. †Roundya
G. †Tuxekania
G. †Volgelgnathus Norby and Rexroad 1985
Invalid names: Chirognathacea Branson and Mehl 1944 [empty], Fryxellodontacea Miller 1981 [empty], Proconodontacea Miller 1981 [empty]
Subph. Craniata Linnaeus 1758
Supercl. †Pteraspidomorphi Goodrich 1909 [jawless fish]
Supercl. †Thelodontida
Invalid names: Coluber arcuatus von Meyer 1845 [nomen dubium], Conodontomorpha [empty]
G. †Metaspriggina Simonetta and Insom 1993
Metaspriggina walcotti Simonetta and Insom 1993
Subph. Tunicata Lamarck 1816 [tunicate]
Cl. Ascidiacea Nielsen 1995 [sea squirt]
G. †Megasiphon Nanglu et al. 2023
Invalid names: Urochordata Lankester 1877 [synonym]
G. †Undichna Anderson 1976
Undichna brittanica Higgs 1988
Undichna unisulca de Gibert et al. 1999
Subph. Vertebrata Lamarck 1801 [vertebrate]
Cl. Agnatha Cope 1889 [jawless fish]
G. †Ammopus Lull 1915
Supercl. †Anaspidomorphi
G. †Anatolepis Brockelie and Fortey 1976
G. †Apedolepis Young 1997
G. †Artenolepis Janvier 1974
G. †Auchenaspis Egerton 1857
Subph. Craniota
Unr. †Cyclostomi Duméril 1806
G. †Eosaurus Marsh 1862
Cl. †Galeaspida Liu 1965
Supercl. Gnathostomata Gegenbauer 1874 [jawed fish]
G. †Hoplichnus Hitchcock 1848
G. Hypichthyes Huxley 1880
G. †Lepidotosaurus Hancock and Howse 1870
Subph. Pachycardia Haeckel 1866
G. †Palaeoxyris Brongniart 1828
Invalid names: Cephalaspidomorphi Moy-Thomas and Mile 1971 [synonym]
Supercl. †Thelodontomorphi Jackel 1911
G. †Toxichnus Hitchcock 1865
G. †Zamponiopteron Janvier and Riglos 1986
Invalid names: Acrania Haeckel [empty], Cephalaspidomorpha [empty], Eotetrapoda Jaekel 1911 [empty], Herpetichthyes Huxley 1880 [empty], Mannodon Ameghino 1893 [nomen vanum], Myzichthyes Huxley 1880 [empty], Ophis Goldfuss 1831 [nomen nudum], Osteostracomorphii [empty], Ostracophori [empty], Petromyzontomorphi [empty], Pituriaspida Young 1991 [empty], Protetrapoda Jaekel 1911 [empty], Saurornia Seeley 1866 [empty], Thoracophis Troschel 1854 [nomen nudum], Tidaeus Ameghino 1890 [nomen vanum]
Invalid names: Olfactores Jefferies 1991 [empty]
Unr. †Saccorhytida Han et al. 2017
Fm. †Saccorhytidae Han et al. 2017
G. †Saccorhytus Han et al. 2017
Ph. †Vetulicolia Shu 2001
Cl. †Banffozoa Caron 2006
Invalid names: Banffiidae Caron 2006 [empty]
G. †Shenzianyuloma McMenamin 2019
Shenzianyuloma yunnanense McMenamin 2019
Cl. †Vetulicolida Chen and Zhou 1997
G. †Nesonektris García-Bellido et al. 2014
G. †Skeemella Briggs et al. 2005
Or. †Vetulicolata Hou and Berstrom 1997
Fm. †Vetulicolidae Hou 1999
Invalid names: Neorenalia [synonym], Xenacoelomorpha Philippe et al. 2011 [empty]
Unr. Protostomia Grobben 1908
Unr. †Ecdysozoa
Invalid names: Protocephalorhynca Adrianov and Malakhov 1995 [empty]
Unr. Cycloneuralia Ahlrichs 1995
Ph. Arthropoda Latreille 1829 [arthropod]
Invalid names: Euarthropoda [synonym], Schizoramia Bergström 1976 [synonym]
Cl. †Dinocaridida Collins 1996
Or. †Luolishaniida Hou and Bergström 1995
Ph. Onychophora Grube 1853 [velvet worm]
Fm. †Opabiniidae Walcott 1912
Ph. Tardigrada Doyère 1840 [water bear]
Cl. †Xenusia Dzik and Krumbiegel 1989
Invalid names: Lobopodia [invalid subgroup]
Unr. †Scalidophora
G. †Eokinorhynchus Zhang et al. 2015
G. †Eolympia Han et al. 2010
G. †Eopriapulites Liu et al. 2014
Unr. †Loricifera
Invalid names: Kinorhyncha [empty]
Invalid names: Nematozoa Zrzavy et al. 1998 [empty]
Unr. Chaetognathifera Park et al. 2024
Ph. Chaetognatha Leuckart 1854 [arrow worm]
Invalid names: Chaetonotida [empty], Macrodasydida [empty]
Fm. †Dakorhachiidae Conway Morris et al. 2020
Invalid names: Gnathostomulida [empty], Micrognathozoa Kristensen and Funch 2004 [empty]
Ph. Annelida Lamarck 1809 [worm]
Ph. Entoprocta Nitsche 1869
Invalid names: Calyssozoa Clark 1921 [synonym], Kamptozoa [synonym]
Unr. †Lophophorata
Ph. Mollusca Linnaeus 1758 [mollusk]
G. †Namacalathus Grotzinger et al. 2000
Cl. †Tentaculita Boucek 1964
Unr. †Platyzoa Cavalier-Smith 1998
Ph. †Platyhelminthes Gegenbaur 1859
Invalid names: Sipunculida [synonym]
Invalid names: Nemertini [empty]
Unr. †Trochozoa
Unr. †Eutrochozoa
Invalid names: Rhynchocoelia [synonym]
Invalid names: Brachiozoa Cavalier-Smith 1998 [empty]
G. †Ikaria Evans et al. 2020
Ikaria wariootia Evans et al. 2020
G. †Rhombocorniculum Walliser 1958
G. †Siphusauctum O’Brien and Caron 2012
Siphusauctum gregarium O’Brien and Caron 2012
Siphusauctum lloydguntheri Kimmig et al. 2017
No diagnoses are available
No measurements are available
No ecological data are available

Age range: base of the Pridoli to the top of the Kungurian or 423.00000 to 272.30000 Ma

Collections (2 total)

Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Pridoli423.0 - 419.2China (Xinjiang) Sciadophyton pristinum (10931)
Sakmarian - Kungurian293.52 - 272.3USA (Kansas) Eukaryota indet. (32659)