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Protozoa

Protozoa

Taxonomy
Protozoa was named by Goldfuss (1820) [also said to be 1817 or 1820]. It is extant.

It was reranked as the phylum Protozoa by von Siebold (1845) and Owen (1860).

It was assigned to Life by Owen (1860); to Animalia by von Siebold (1845) and Cavalier-Smith (1993); to Eukaryota by Blackwell (2004); and to Eukaryota by Ruggiero et al. (2015).

Synonymy list
YearName and author
1820Protozoa Goldfuss
1845Protozoa von Siebold
1860Protozoa Owen
1993Protozoa Cavalier-Smith
2004Protozoa Blackwell p. 274
2015Protozoa Ruggiero et al. p. 15

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RankNameAuthor
Life
Eukaryota()
RankNameAuthor
classProtozoaGoldfuss 1820
classProtozoaGoldfuss 1820

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Cl. Protozoa Goldfuss 1820
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Ph. †Ciliophora
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G. †Cadosina Wanner 1940
G. †Colomisphaera Nowak 1968
Cl. Oligotrichea Scott and Marchant 2005
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Invalid names: Choreotrichida Scott and Marchant 2005 [empty]
G. †Stomiosphaera Wanner 1940
Or. Tintinnida Corliss 1955
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Fm. Codonellidae Kent et al. 1881
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G. Remanellina Loeblich and Tappan 1968
Or. Ebriales Honigsberg et al. 1964
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Fm. Ebriaceae Lemmermann 1901
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G. Ebria Borgert 1891
Fm. Ebriopsidaceae Deflandre 1950
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G. Ebriopsis Hovasse 1932
G. †Hermesinum Zacharias 1906
G. †Parathranium Hovasse 1932
G. Parebriopsis Hovasse 1932
G. Podamphoropsis Dumitrică 1973
G. †Falsebria Deflandre 1951
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Falsebria ambigua Deflandre 1950
G. †Spongebria Deflandre 1950
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Spongebria marthae Deflandre 1950
Fm. Entamoebidae Chatton 1925
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G. †Entamoebites Poinar and Boucot 2006
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Entamoebites antiquus Poinar and Boucot 2006
Unr. Eozoa
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Or. Kinetoplastida Honigberg 1961
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Fm. Trypanosomatidae Doflein 1901
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G. †Paleotrypanosoma Poinar 2008
Invalid names: Euglenoidea [empty], Symbiontida [empty]
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Invalid names: Neolouka [empty]
G. Malawimonas O'Kelly and Nerad 1999
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Invalid names: Pharyngomonada [empty], Tetramitia [empty]
Invalid names: Fornicata [empty], Heterolobosea [empty], Jakobida [empty], Metamonada [empty], Parabasalia [empty], Preaxostyla [empty]
G. Microcetella Aescht 2001
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Microcetella lappus Orpin and Mathiesen 1986
Invalid names: Microcetus Orpin and Mathiesen 1986 [objective synonym]
G. Perispira Stein 1859
Cl. Rhizopodea von Siebold 1845
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Belonechitina hirsuta Laufeld 1967
Belonechitina robusta Eisenack 1959
G. †Euconochitina Taugourdeau 1966
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Fungochitina pilosa Collinson and Scott 1958
Ph. †Granuloreticulosa de Saedeleer 1934
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G. Lampas Montfort 1810
Invalid names: Athalamida [empty], Labyrinthulida [empty]
G. †Hoegisphaera Staplin 1961
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Hoegisphaera glabra Staplin 1961
G. †Laufeldochitina Paris 1981
Subph. Sarcodina Schmarda 1871
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Cl. Reticularea Lankester 1885
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Subcl. Acantharia Haeckel 1862
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Superfm. Astrolonchacea Haeckel 1881
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Fm. Astrolonchidae Haeckel 1881
Superfm. Dorataspacea Haeckel 1862
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Fm. Dorataspidae Haeckel 1862
Subcl. Filosia Leidy 1879
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Or. Gromiida Claparède and Lachmann 1859
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Superfm. Gromiacea Reuss 1862
Invalid names: Aconchulinida [empty], Xenophyophorida [empty]
Subcl. Radiolaria Müller 1858 [radiolarian]
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G. Actinommura Haeckel 1887
G. †Adamas Afanasieva 2000
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Adamas cathedrarius Afanasieva 2000
G. Amphicentria Ehrenberg 1862
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Amphicentria salpa Ehrenberg 1862
G. †Amphicraspedum Haeckel 1882
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Amphicraspedum murrayanum Haeckel 1887
G. †Anthocyrtium Haeckel 1887
G. Archiphormis Haeckel 1882
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Archiphormis cancellata Ehrenberg 1854
Superfm. Archipiliacea Haeckel 1881
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Fm. Artophormidae Haeckel 1881
Fm. Aulosphaeridae Haeckel 1862
Fm. Sethophatnidae Haeckel 1881
Fm. Stichoperidae Haeckel 1881
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Invalid names: Podocampida Haeckel 1887 [synonym], Stichocyrtida Haeckel 1881 [synonym], Stichopiliidae Frizzell 1951 [synonym], Tetracyrtida Haeckel 1881 [synonym], Triacartidae Campbell 1954 [synonym]
G. †Artocyrtis Haeckel 1887
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G. †Astractinium Haeckel 1887
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Astractinium aristotelis Ehrenberg 1847
G. †Cancellientactinia Obut and Shcherbanenko 2008
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Cancellientactinia acifera Obut and Shcherbanenko 2008
G. †Cavasphaera Won and Iams 2015
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Cavasphaera diversa Won and Iams 2015
Cavasphaera inaequalis Won and Iams 2015
G. Ceratastrum Haeckel 1882
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Ceratastrum trochus Ehrenberg 1873
Superfm. Challengeriacea Murray 1876
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Fm. Lirellidae Loeblich and Tappan 1961
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Invalid names: Cadiidae Borgert 1910 [replaced]
G. Chilomma Ehrenberg 1847
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Chilomma saturnus Ehrenberg 1862
G. Clathrocircus Haeckel 1882
G. Clathrocorona Haeckel 1882
Superfm. Coccodiscacea Haeckel 1862
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Fm. Ommatodiscidae Stöhr 1880
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Invalid names: Euchitoniidae Haeckel 1882 [synonym]
Fm. Phacodiscidae Haeckel 1881
Or. Collodaria Haeckel 1881
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Fm. Collosphaeridae Müller 1858
G. Siphonosphaera Müller 1858
Fm. Sphaerozoidae Haeckel 1862
Fm. Thalassosphaeridae Haeckel 1862
G. Cornutellium Haeckel 1882
G. Corythomelissa Campbell 1951
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Corythomelissa corythium Ehrenberg 1874
G. †Cromyatractus Haeckel 1887
G. Cromyechinus Haeckel 1882
G. †Crucidiscus Rüst 1892
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Invalid names: Crucidiscus praecursor Rüst 1892 [nomen dubium]
G. Cryptoprora Ehrenberg 1847
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Cryptoprora fundicola Ehrenberg 1873
G. †Cubosphaera Deflandre and Deflandre-Rigaud 1958
G. Cyrtidosphaera Haeckel 1861
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G. †Cyrtophormis Haeckel 1887
G. Dictyocodon Haeckel 1882
G. Dictyospyrella Haeckel 1887
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Dictyospyrella tristoma Ehrenberg 1874
G. Dictyospyrissa Haeckel 1887
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Dictyospyrissa fenestra Ehrenberg 1874
G. Dipospyris Haeckel 1887
G. †Dizonium Rüst 1892
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Invalid names: Dizonium laeve Rüst 1892 [nomen dubium]
G. Druppatractona Haeckel 1887
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Druppatractona laevis Ehrenberg 1874
G. Drymyomma Jørgensen 1900
G. †Dystympanium Rüst 1892
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Invalid names: Dystympanium carbonicum Rüst 1892 [nomen dubium]
Superfm. Ethmosphaeracea Haeckel 1862
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Fm. Actinommidae Haeckel 1862
Fm. Ethmosphaeridae Haeckel 1862
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Invalid names: Cenosphaeridae Deflandre 1952 [synonym], Liosphaeridae Campbell 1954 [synonym]
Fm. Triposphaeridae Vinassa de Regny 1898
G. Euphysetta Cleve 1898
G. †Gyrosphaera Noble and Maletz 2000
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Gyrosphaera cavea Jones and Noble 2006
Gyrosphaera primigena Umeda and Suzuki 2005
Gyrosphaera raneatela Noble and Maletz 2000
Gyrosphaera siljanensis Noble and Maletz 2000
G. †Halicapsa Rüst
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Invalid names: Halicapsa megapora Rüst 1892 [nomen dubium]
G. †Haploplus Li 1995
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Haploplus qunii Li 1995
G. †Haplopolaris Li 1991
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G. †Hapolpolus Li 1995
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G. †Hataina Huang 1967
G. †Heliaster Hollande and Enjumet 1960
G. Heliosestilla Haeckel 1887
G. †Hexalastrum Rüst
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Invalid names: Hexalastrum infans Rüst 1892 [nomen dubium]
G. Hexaspyridium Haeckel 1887
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Hexaspyridium setigera Ehrenberg 1874
G. †Hexastylidium Aberdeen
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Hexastylidium variatum Aberdeen 1940
G. Hymenastromma Haeckel 1887
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Hymenastromma ternarium Ehrenberg 1874
G. †Labyrinthosphaera Noble and Maletz 2000
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Labyrinthosphaera lancia Jones and Noble 2006
Labyrinthosphaera lenzi Jones and Noble 2006
Labyrinthosphaera macdonaldi Noble and Maletz 2000
G. Lamprodiscus Ehrenberg 1861
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Lamprodiscus monoceros Ehrenberg 1873
G. Lithamphora Popofsky 1908
G. Lithocampium Haeckel 1882
G. Lithocorythium Ehrenberg 1847
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Lithocorythium galea Ehrenberg 1844
G. Lithomitrella Haeckel 1887
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Lithomitrella acephalum Ehrenberg 1874
G. Lithopilium Popofsky 1913
G. Lithotympanium Haeckel 1882
G. †Lynchnocanella Clark and Campbell 1942
G. Mazosphaera Ehrenberg 1861
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Mazosphaera laevis Ehrenberg 1873
G. Microlecitos Issel 1890
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Microlecitos cassis Ehrenberg 1844
G. †Neoaspiculum Won and Iams 2011
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Neoaspiculum amplum Won and Iams 2011
Neoaspiculum cancellium Won and Iams 2011
Neoaspiculum echinatum Won and Iams 2015
Neoaspiculum headense Won and Iams 2011
Neoaspiculum laxum Won and Iams 2011
Neoaspiculum maletziana Won and Iams 2015
Neoaspiculum transformum Won and Iams 2011
G. †Nyfrieslandia Maletz and Bruton 2007
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Nyfrieslandia complicata Maletz and Bruton 2007
Nyfrieslandia crassispinosa Won and Iams 2013
Nyfrieslandia sphaeroidea Maletz and Bruton 2007
G. Octalacorys Haeckel 1887
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Octalacorys aculeata Ehrenberg 1874
G. †Odontosphaera Haeckel 1887
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Invalid names: Odontosphaera echinocactus Rüst 1892 [nomen dubium]
G. †Palhindeolithus Deflandre 1973
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Palhindeolithus ambiguus Deflandre 1973
Palhindeolithus diductus Deflandre 1973
Palhindeolithus octostyla Dumitrica 1982
Palhindeolithus paululus Dumitrica 1982
Palhindeolithus pulcher Deflandre 1973
Palhindeolithus triassicus Dumitrica 1982
G. Panartus Haeckel 1887
G. †Parafollicucullinoides Xiao et al. 2021
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Parafollicucullinoides globosus Xiao et al. 2021
G. †Pentalacorys Haeckel 1882
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Pentalacorys pentacantha Ehrenberg 1874
G. †Pentinastrum Haeckel 1881
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Pentinastrum subbotinae Lipman 1960
G. Peridium Haeckel 1887
G. †Peripanartus Rüst
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Invalid names: Peripanartus deficiens Rüst 1892 [nomen dubium]
G. Peritiviator Pessagno Jr. 1976
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Peritiviator labyrinthi Pessagno 1976
Subor. †Pheodaria
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Superfm. †Phaeocystina
Superfm. Plagoniacea Haeckel 1881
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Fm. Plectaniidae Haeckel 1881
G. †Plagoniscus Hinde
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Invalid names: Plagoniscus colligatus Hinde 1899 [nomen dubium], Plagoniscus cristatus Hinde 1899 [nomen dubium], Plagoniscus simplex Hinde 1899 [nomen dubium], Plagoniscus vetustus Hinde 1899 [nomen dubium]
Superor. Polycystina Ehrenberg 1838
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Superfm. Actinommacea Haeckel 1862
Or. †Albaillellaria Deflandre 1953
Or. †Archaeospicularia Dumitrica et al. 2000
Or. †Entactinaria Kozur and Mostler 1982
Or. †Latentifistularia Caridroit et al. 1999
Or. Nassellaria Ehrenberg 1875
G. †Protobiramus Won and Below 1999
G. †Praespongocoelia Noble
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G. †Priscilatentidiota Li 1995
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G. †Prismatium Rüst
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Invalid names: Prismatium paradictyum Rüst 1892 [nomen dubium]
G. Protocystis Wallich 1862
G. †Protosegmentum Wang 2008
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G. †Prunulum Rüst
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Invalid names: Prunulum armeniacum Rüst 1892 [nomen dubium], Prunulum murrayi Rüst 1892 [nomen dubium]
G. †Pseudostaurosphaera Krasheninnikov 1960
G. Psilomelissa Haeckel 1882
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Psilomelissa galeatus Ehrenberg 1873
G. Pteractis Ehrenberg 1873
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Pteractis elegans Ehrenberg 1873
G. Pylosphaera Ehrenberg 1858
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Pylosphaera mediterranea Ehrenberg 1858
G. †Retientactinosphaera Afanasieva 2011
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Retientactinosphaera clavata Afanasieva 2011
Retientactinosphaera magnifica Afanasieva 2011
Superfm. †Rotasphaeracea Noble 1994
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Invalid names: Rotasphaeridae Noble 1994 [empty]
G. †Russirad Afanasieva 2000
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Russirad kazintsovae Afanasieva 2000
G. †Sanctipaulelum Won and Iams 2015
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Sanctipaulelum biglobosum Won and Iams 2015
Sanctipaulelum contractum Won and Iams 2015
Sanctipaulelum indivisum Won and Iams 2015
Sanctipaulelum inusitata Won and Iams 2015
Sanctipaulelum pingue Won and Iams 2015
Sanctipaulelum superpingue Won and Iams 2015
G. †Saturnulus Haeckel 1879
G. Schizomma Ehrenberg 1861
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Schizomma quadrilobum Ehrenberg 1862
G. Sethocorys Haeckel 1882
G. Sethodisculus Haeckel 1887
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Sethodisculus radians Ehrenberg 1841
G. Soreuma Haeckel 1882
G. Spirillina Ehrenberg 1858
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Spirillina imperforata Ehrenberg 1858
G. †Spirocapsa Rüst
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Invalid names: Spirocapsa singularis Rüst 1892 [nomen dubium]
G. †Spongocyrtis Rüst
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Invalid names: Spongocyrtis eurydictyum Rüst 1892 [nomen dubium]
G. †Spongodruppa Rüst
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Invalid names: Spongodruppa ornithopus Rüst 1892 [nomen dubium], Spongodruppa triradiata Rüst 1892 [nomen dubium]
G. †Spongopila Rüst
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Invalid names: Spongopila juniperina Rüst 1892 [nomen dubium]
Or. Spumellaria Ehrenberg 1875
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G. †Acanthopyle Deflandre 1963
G. †Adiyamanium Uzuncimen et al. 2011
G. Amphisphaera Haeckel 1882
Fm. †Anakrusidae Nazarov 1977
Fm. †Angulobracchiidae Baumgartner 1980
Fm. †Antygoporidae Maletz and Bruton 2007
Fm. †Archaeospongoprunidae Pessagno 1973
Fm. †Aspiculumidae Won et al. 2005
G. Astromma Ehrenberg 1846
Fm. †Astrosphaeridae Haeckel 1881
G. †Beatricea Whalen and Carter 1998
G. †Bipylospongia Noble 1994
G. †Caltrop Carter et al. 1988
G. †Cannartus
Fm. †Capnuchosphaeridae De Wever 1979
G. †Caspiaza Afanasieva 1986
Fm. †Cavaspongiidae Pessagno 1973
Fm. †Coccodiscidae Haeckel 1862
Fm. †Conocaryommidae Lipman 1969
G. Cubotholonium Chen 1987
Fm. †Dactyliosphaeridae Squinabol 1904
G. †Devoniglansus Wakamatsu et al. 1990
G. †Dicoccura
G. Dictyastrum Ehrenberg 1861
Fm. †Domuzdagiidae Dumitrica and Zügel 2002
G. †Doryplegma Hinde 1890
G. †Dorysphaera Hinde 1890
Fm. †Emiluviidae Dumitrica 1995
Fm. †Entapiidae De Wever et al. 2001
G. †Fontinella Carter 1993
G. †Franklinia Jones and Noble 2006
G. †Futobari Furutani 1990
G. †Glomeropyle Aita and Bragin 1999
Fm. †Hagiastridae Riedel 1971
G. Haliomma Ehrenberg 1838
G. †Haplopolus Li 1994
Fm. †Haplotaeniatumidae Won et al 2002
Fm. Heliodiscidae Haeckel 1881
G. †Hexadoras
Fm. †Hexaporobrachiidae Kozur and Mostler 1979
Fm. †Hexapylomellidae Kozur and Mosder 1979
G. †Kalimnasphaera Webby and Blom 1986
G. †Labyrinthia Maletz and Bruton 2007
G. †Lampasa Hull 1997
Fm. Larnacillidae Haeckel 1887
Fm. †Mendacastridae Dumitrica and Zügel 2002
Fm. †Miropylidae Dumitrica 1988
G. †Natraglia Pessagno et al. 1979
G. Ommatocampe Ehrenberg 1861
G. Ommatospyris Ehrenberg 1861
G. †Orbiculopylorum Noble et al. 1997
Fm. †Orosphaeridae Haeckel 1887
Fm. †Pantanelliidae Pessagno 1977
G. †Parabeothuka Won and Iams 2015
Fm. †Parasaturnalidae Kozur and Mostler 1972
Fm. †Paratriassoastridae Kozur and Mostler 1981
G. †Paratriassoastrum Kozur and Mostler 1981
Fm. †Parvivaccidae Pessagno and Yang 1989
Fm. †Patulibracchiidae Pessagno 1971
G. Pentactura Haeckel 1882
G. †Phantum Hull 1997
G. †Plussatispila MacDonald 2006
Fm. †Praeconocaryommidae Pessagno 1976
G. †Primaritripus Afanasieva and Amon
Fm. †Pseudoacanthocircidae Kozur and Mostler 1990
G. †Pseudoacanthosphaera O'Dogherty 1994
Fm. †Pseudoaulophacidae Riedel 1967
Superfm. Pyloniacea Haeckel 1881
Fm. Pyloniidae Haeckel 1881
Fm. †Pyramispongiidae Kozur and Mostler 1978
G. †Quasibeothuka Wang 2008
G. Rhopalodictyum Ehrenberg 1860
Superfm. †Saturnaliacea Deflandre 1953
G. †Schizodiscus Dogiel' and Reshetnyak 1952
G. †Spongiomma Haeckel 1887
Superfm. †Spongodiscacea Haeckel 1862
Fm. Spongodiscidae Haeckel 1862
Fm. †Spongopalliidae Kozur et al. 1996
G. †Spongosphaeradiscus Wang and Shang 2001
Superfm. Sponguracea Haeckel 1862
Fm. Sponguridae Haeckel 1862
G. †Srakaeosphaera Sashida et al. 1997
G. †Stauracontium Haeckel 1882
G. Streblacantha Haeckel 1887
Fm. Stylosphaeridae Haeckel 1881
G. †Tauridastrum Tekin 1999
G. †Tetrasphaera Wang 2008
G. †Tetriastrum Yang 1993
G. Tholomura Haeckel 1887
Fm. Tholoniidae Haeckel 1887
G. †Tipperella Longridge et al. 2007
G. †Triplococcus Danelian and Popov 2003
Fm. †Tritrabidae Baumgartner 1980
Fm. †Veghicycliidae Kozur and Mostler 1972
G. †Vinassaspongus Kozur and Mostler 1979
G. †Zadrappolus Furutani 1990
G. †Zhuangodiscus Wu and Feng 2010
Invalid names: Acaeniotylidae Yang 1993 [empty], Bernoulliidae Pessagno et al. 1993 [empty], Bolenidae Hull 1997 [empty], Entactiniacae Riedel 1967 [empty], Suttoniidae Schaaf 1976 [empty], Vitorfidae Pessagno 1977 [empty]
G. †Staurosphaerella Demanet
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G. Stichopera Haeckel 1882
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Invalid names: Stichopera aculeata Rüst 1892 [nomen dubium]
G. Stichopilidium Haeckel 1887
G. Stichopodium Haeckel 1882
G. Stichopterygium Haeckel 1882
G. †Stomatosphaera Dreyer 1889
G. Stylactis Ehrenberg 1873
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Stylactis pacifica Ehrenberg 1873
G. †Stylotrochus Haeckel 1862
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Invalid names: Stylotrochus dolfussi Rüst 1892 [nomen dubium]
G. †Tepka Sanfilippo et al. 1973
G. Tessarastrum Haeckel 1887
G. Tessarospyris Haeckel 1882
G. Tetracorethra Haeckel 1882
G. †Tetraedroclathrum Deflandre 1960
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G. Thalassoplancta Haeckel
Superfm. Thallassosphaeracea Haeckel 1862
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Fm. Lithacanthidae Popovsky 1907
G. Thamnospyris Haeckel 1882
G. Theoconus Haeckel 1887
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Invalid names: Theosyringium praecox Rüst 1892 [nomen dubium]
G. Trigonactinium Haeckel 1887
G. †Ulcundia Nazarov 1974
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Ulcundia incomperta Nazarov 1974
G. †Veles Sugiyama 1997
G. Xiphatractylis Haeckel 1887
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Xiphatractylis spinulosa Ehrenberg 1874
G. Zygospyris Haeckel 1887
Invalid names: Carposphaeridium Chapman 1923 [nomen dubium], Caryosphaera [nomen dubium], Cenellipsis [nomen dubium], Cenodiscus [nomen dubium], Ceratoclathrulum Deflandre 1960 [nomen nudum], Cessipylorum [nomen nudum], Choenicosphaera Ruedemann and Wilson 1936 [nomen dubium], Clavata Feng 1992 [nomen dubium], Cornutanna Rüst 1892 [nomen dubium], Diploplegma Hinde 1890 [nomen dubium], Ectoactinia Liu 1992 [nomen dubium], Ehrenbergia Liu 1995 [nomen dubium], Guangxitrisphaera Wang and Kuang 1993 [nomen dubium], Helminentactinia Li 1991 [nomen dubium], Hemisphaera Li 1995 [nomen nudum], Litheliacea Haeckel 1862 [empty], Lithocannosphaeropsis Deflandre 1960 [nomen dubium], Palaeolithochytris Li 1995 [nomen dubium], Palamphimorphium Ters and Deflandre 1966 [nomen nudum], Paleocenosphaera Nazarov 1973 [nomen dubium], Papinochium Ters and Deflandre 1966 [nomen nudum]
Invalid names: Heliozoia [empty]
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Subph. Lobosa Carpenter 1861
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Or. Arcellinida Kent 1880
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Superfm. Arcellacea Ehrenberg 1832
Superfm. Cryptodifflugiacea Jung 1942
G. Nebela Leidy 1875
Invalid names: Amoebida [empty], Mycetozoida [empty]
G. Pelomyxa Greef 1874
Invalid names: Acanthamoebidae [empty], Conosa [empty], Entamoebida [empty], Flabellinea [empty], Mastigamoebidae [empty], Stereomyxida [empty], Tubulinea [empty]
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Invalid names: Apusozoa [empty], Varisulca [empty]
Diagnosis
No diagnoses are available
Measurements
No measurements are available
No ecological data are available

Age range

Maximum range based only on fossils: base of the Templetonian to the top of the Holocene or 508.00000 to 0.00000 Ma
Minimum age of oldest fossil (stem group age): 504.5 Ma

Collections (3428 total)

Oldest occurrences

Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Templetonian508.0 - 504.5Australia (Queensland) Palaeospiculum radiatum, Palaeospiculum georginaensis, Palaeospiculum burkensis, Palaeospiculum arcussimile, Archeoentactinia angulata, Spongomassa nannosphaera (90974)
Floran504.5 - 503.0Australia (Queensland) Palaeospiculum arcussimile, Archeoentactinia hexactinia, Archeoentactinia tetractinia, Archeoentactinia incaensis, Fungomacula sp. 1, Fungomacula barbatula, Spongomassa gigantea (90972) Palaeospiculum arcussimile, Archeoentactinia hexactinia, Archeoentactinia tetractinia, Archeoentactinia incaensis, Fungomacula sp. 1, Fungomacula sp. 3, Fungomacula barbatula, Spongomassa gigantea (90973)
Mindyallan499.0 - 497.0Australia (Queensland) Echidnina runnegari (233863)
Franconian497.0 - 485.4Canada (Newfoundland and Labrador) Palaeospiculum greenpointensis, Curvechidnina longispinosa, Echidnina irregularis, Subechidnina florea, Pararcheoentactinia reedae (90966) Palaeospiculum martinpointenis, Palaeospiculum grosmornensis, Palaeospiculum hexaradiatum, Protoentactinia gracilispinosa, Curvechidnina fusa, Curvechidnina kozuri, Curvechidnina tetractina, Curvechidnina longispinosa, Echidnina sp., Echidnina stevensi, Echidnina irregularis, Echidnina curvata, Subechidnina delicata, Subechidnina gracilis, Subechidnina florea, Subechidnina pressa, Parechidnina jamesi, Pararcheoentactinia reedae (90968) Palaeospiculum martinpointenis, Palaeospiculum grosmornensis, Palaeospiculum tetraradiatum, Palaeospiculum greenpointensis, Protoentactinia gracilispinosa, Curvechidnina fusa, Curvechidnina kozuri, Curvechidnina tetractina, Echidnina sp., Echidnina stevensi, Echidnina irregularis, Subechidnina delicata, Subechidnina gracilis, Subechidnina pressa, Parechidnina jamesi, Pararcheoentactinia reedae (90967) Radiolaria indet. 1, Radiolaria indet. A, Palaeospiculum martinpointenis, Palaeospiculum grosmornensis, Palaeospiculum tetraradiatum, Palaeospiculum greenpointensis, Protoentactinia gracilispinosa, Curvechidnina fusa, Curvechidnina tetractina, Curvechidnina longispinosa, Echidnina sp., Echidnina irregularis, Echidnina monactina, Subechidnina florea, Parechidnina jamesi, Parechidnina aspinosa, Pararcheoentactinia reedae (90965)
Trempealeauan492.5 - 485.4Canada (Newfoundland and Labrador) Echidnina irregularis, Pararcheoentactinia reedae (90969) Protoentactinia gracilispinosa, Echidnina sp., Echidnina irregularis, Pararcheoentactinia impedia, Pararcheoentactinia reedae (90970) Ramuspiculum trifurcatum, Ramuspiculum curvatum, Ramuspiculum multiramosum, Palaeospiculum hexaradiatum, Palaeospiculum tetraradiatum, Protoentactinia gracilispinosa, Echidnina sp., Echidnina conjuncta, Echidnina curvata, Grosmorneus sp. A., Grosmorneus globosus, Parechidnina jamesi, Parechidnina aspinosa, Pararcheoentactinia impedia, Pararcheoentactinia reedae (90971)
Tremadoc486.5 - 477.7Russian Federation (Gorny Altai) Desmochitina minor, Desmochitina erinacea (203936 203939)
Tremadoc486.5 - 477.7USA (Nevada) Protoentactinia sp. A, Protoentactinia sp. B, Protoentactinia sp. C, Protoentactinia minuta, Protoentactinia gracilispinosa, Protoentactinia latospinosa, Noblella tremadociensis, Echidnina bengtsoni, Parechidnina nevadensis (90927)
Tremadocian485.4 - 477.7Canada (Newfoundland and Labrador) Neopalaeospiculum sp., Neopalaeospiculum transformum, Palaeospiculum neofurcatum, Protospongentactinia spongiosa, Protoentactinia gracilispinosa, Protoentactinia primigena, Protoentactinia transformis, Protoentactinia kozuriana, Echidnina sp., Echidnina bengtsoni, Westernbrookia ovata, Westernbrookia diversa, Pararcheoentactinia stilla, Pararcheoentactinia cowheadensis, Pararcheoentactinia reedae, Protoproventocitum aitchisoni, Archeoproventocitum retiformum, Archeoproventocitum nudiformum, Aspiculum jamesi, Aspiculum multistratum, Aspiculum densum, Aspiculum gigantium (234141) Neopalaeospiculum transformum, Neopalaeospiculum densum, Neopalaeospiculum laxum, Palaeospiculum neofurcatum, Protospongentactinia sp., Protospongentactinia spongiosa, Protoentactinia gracilispinosa, Protoentactinia primigena, Protoentactinia transformis, Protoentactinia kozuriana, Echidnina sp., Echidnina bengtsoni, Westernbrookia cancella, Westernbrookia ovata, Pararcheoentactinia stilla, Pararcheoentactinia cowheadensis, Pararcheoentactinia reedae, Cowheadia duplextesta, Protoproventocitum aitchisoni, Archeoproventocitum retiformum, Archeoproventocitum nudiformum, Aspiculum sp., Aspiculum jamesi, Aspiculum eccentricum, Aspiculum multistratum, Aspiculum densum (234138) Protoentactinia gracilispinosa, Pararcheoentactinia reedae, Protoproventocitum nazarovi, Protoproventocitum aitchisoni (234142) Protoentactinia gracilispinosa, Protoentactinia transformis, Pararcheoentactinia reedae, Protoproventocitum nazarovi, Protoproventocitum aitchisoni (234143)
Tremadocian485.4 - 477.7Russian Federation (Siberia) Desmochitina minor, Desmochitina sp. (205623)
Ordovician485.4 - 443.8Canada (Québec) Beatricea undulata (27236)
Moridunian477.7 - 473.8Kazakhstan Proventocitum procerulum, Inanihella akzhala, Inanihella bakanasensis, Triplococcus acanthicus (38015)
Floian477.7 - 470.0China (Hubei) Belonechitina henryi (203695)
Floian477.7 - 470.0Russian Federation (Siberia) Lagenochitina deunffi (205381)
Dapingian - Darriwilian470.0 - 458.4Oman Belonechitina micracantha, Lagenochitina obeligis, Laufeldochitina baculiformis (90376)
Kunda469.2 - 464.3Estonia (Ida-Viru) Lagenochitina esthonica (195558)
Llanvirn468.0 - 458.4Argentina Cyathochitina sp., Rhabdochitina sp., Lagenochitina sp., Desmochitina sp. (8888)
Llanvirn468.0 - 458.4Norway Radiolaria indet., Archaeospicularia indet., Palaeospiculum sp., Protoentactinia sp., Sphaeroentactinia hexaspinosa, Haplentactinia armillata, Proventocitum procerulum, Inaniguttidae indet., Inanigutta penrosei, Inanigutta sp. A, Inanigutta sp. B, Inanigutta magnifica, Antygopora sp., Antygopora irregularia, Haplotaeniatum sp. (90922) Radiolaria indet., Protoentactinia sp., Sphaeroentactinia hexaspinosa, Haplentactinia armillata, Proventocitum procerulum, Inaniguttidae indet., Inanigutta penrosei, Inanigutta sp. B, Antygopora sp., Antygopora irregularia, Haplotaeniatumidae indet., Haplotaeniatum sp. (90921)
Darriwilian467.3 - 458.4Oman Euconochitina vulgaris, Belonechitina micracantha (90377)
Lasnamagi463.5 - 460.9Estonia Tanuchitina tallinnensis, Cyathochitina campanulaeformis, Cyathochitina sebyensis, Pterochitina retracta, Euconochitina primitiva, Belonechitina crinita, Belonechitina micracantha, Laufeldochitina striata (210664)
Lasnamagi463.5 - 460.9Latvia Tanuchitina tallinnensis, Cyathochitina sebyensis, Rhabdochitina gracilis, Desmochitina minor (172964)