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Phytosauria

Reptilia -

Taxonomy
Phytosauria was named by Jaeger (1828). It is not extant. It was considered monophyletic by Stocker (2010) and Nesbitt (2011).

It was reranked as the order Phytosauria by Osborn (1903); it was synonymized subjectively with Parasuchia by Kuhn (1946) and Kuhn (1964); it was reranked as the unranked clade Phytosauria by Hungerbühler (2002), Stocker (2010), Nesbitt (2011) and Ezcurra (2016).

It was assigned to Diapsida by Osborn (1903); to Parasuchia by Osborn (1904), Lull (1915), Lull (1917) and Roxo (1937); to Thecodontia by Baird (1957) and Carroll (1988); to Suchia by Weinbaum and Hungerbühler (2007); to Archosauria by Stocker (2010); to Crurotarsi by Hungerbühler (2002) and Nesbitt (2011); and to Pseudosuchia by Ezcurra (2016).

Sister taxa
Pelycosimia

View classification of included taxa

Synonyms
Synonymy list
YearName and author
1828Phytosauria Jaeger
1828Phytosaurus Jaeger p. 22–23
1828Phytosaurus cylindricodon Jaeger p. 23
1828Phytosaurus cubicodon Jaeger p. 33
1836Palaeosaurus Riley and Stutchbury p. 398
1836Palaeosaurus platyodon Riley and Stutchbury p. 398
1840Palaeosaurus Riley and Stutchbury p. 352
1840Palaeosaurus platyodon Riley and Stutchbury p. 352
1842Phytosaurus cylindricodon Owen p. 118
1842Palaeosaurus Owen p. 154
1842Palaeosaurus platyodon Owen p. 154
1844Belodon Meyer
1844Belodon plieningeri Meyer
1844Termatosaurus albertii Meyer and Plieninger
1844Termatosaurus alberti Plieninger
1845Belodon Meyer p. 282
1845Palaeosaurus Meyer p. 282
1846Palaeosaurus platyodon Plieninger p. 151
1849Phytosaurus d'Orbigny p. 206
1849Palaeosaurus d'Orbigny p. 208
1850Palaeosaurus platyodon King p. 239
1851Clepsysaurus pennsylvanicus Lea p. 172
1851Clepsysaurus Lea p. 205
1851Clepsysaurus pennsylvanicus Lea p. 205
1852Palaeosaurus Quenstedt p. 109
1852Belodon Quenstedt p. 110
1852Belodon plieningeri Quenstedt p. 110
1856Centemodon Lea
1856Centemodon sulcatus Lea
1856Omosaurus Leidy
1856Compsosaurus Leidy p. 165 figs. not figured
1856Compsosaurus priscus Leidy p. 165 figs. not figured
1856Omosaurus perplexus Leidy p. 256
1856Palaeosaurus Roemer p. 788
1856Palaeosaurus platyodon Roemer p. 788
1857Belodon plieningeri Rütimeyer p. 152
1859Eurydorus Leidy
1859Eurydorus serridens Leidy
1861Palaeosaurus Owen p. 276
1861Palaeosaurus platyodon Owen p. 276
1861Belodon Owen p. 278
1861Belodon plieningeri Owen p. 278
1866Belodon plieningeri Haeckel p. CXXXIV
1866Palaeosaurus Haeckel p. CXXXIV
1866Palaeosaurus platyodon Haeckel p. CXXXIV
1867Palaeosaurus Quenstedt p. 139
1868Clepsysaurus leai Emmons
1869Belodon lepturus Cope p. 22
1869Clepsysaurus Cope p. 733
1869Clepsysaurus pennsylvanicus Cope p. 733
1870Belodon Cope
1870Belodon lepturus Cope
1870Clepsysaurus Cope
1870Clepsysaurus pennsylvanicus Cope pp. 122-A
1870Dicynodon rosmarus Cope p. 232
1870Clepsysaurus Cope p. 444
1870Palaeosaurus Huxley p. 34
1870Clepsysaurus Huxley p. 49
1875Parasuchia Cope p. 14
1875Belodon priscus Cope p. 34
1875Clepsysaurus leai Cope p. 36
1875Clepsysaurus Cope p. 39
1875Clepsysaurus pennsylvanicus Cope p. 39
1876Termatosaurus alberti Henry p. 404 figs. Pl 1, figs 5,5.1
1877Palaeoctonus Cope pp. 182-183
1877Palaeoctonus appalachianus Cope pp. 182-183
1877Clepsysaurus veatleianus Cope p. 184
1877Palaeoctonus aulacodus Cope p. 184
1877Suchoprion Cope p. 185
1877Suchoprion cyphodon Cope p. 185
1878Palaeosaurus fraserianus Cope
1878Suchoprion sulcidens Cope
1878Palaeosaurus fraserianus Cope p. 58
1879Clepsysaurus pennsylvanicus Miller p. 152
1881Belodon scolopax Cope p. 922
1881Palaeosaurus stricklandi Davis p. 421
1882Clepsysaurus Marsh
1882Palaeosaurus Marsh
1882Clepsysaurus Sauvage pp. 35-36
1882Palaeosaurus Sauvage p. 36
1883Parasuchia Dollo p. 310
1883Belodon Dollo p. 311
1883Palaeosaurus stricklandi Sauvage p. 39
1884Clepsysaurus Dollo p. 298
1884Palaeosaurus Dollo p. 298
1884Clepsysaurus Marsh p. 69
1884Palaeosaurus Marsh p. 69
1884Clepsysaurus Marsh p. 338
1884Palaeosaurus Marsh p. 338
1884Clepsysaurus Vetter p. 363
1884Palaeosaurus Vetter p. 363
1885Clepsysaurus Marsh p. 765
1885Palaeosaurus Marsh p. 765
1887Belodon scolopax Cope p. 221
1890Palaeosaurus stricklandi Woodward and Sherborn p. 261
1890Thecodontosaurus platyodon Woodward and Sherborn p. 291
1890Parasuchia Zittel p. 450
1890Palaeosaurus Zittel p. 722
1890Palaeosaurus platyodon Zittel p. 722
1890Clepsysaurus Zittel p. 731
1893Belodon superciliosus Cope p. 12
1893Palaeoctonus orthodon Cope p. 15
1893Palaeoctonus dumblianus Cope p. 16
1893Belodon validus Marsh p. 170
1894Belodon priscus Lyman p. 207
1895Clepsysaurus Marsh
1895Palaeosaurus Marsh
1895Palaeosaurus platyodon Seeley p. 145
1896Belodon ingens Fraas
1896Rhytidodon rostratus Marsh
1896Clepsysaurus pennsylvanicus Marsh p. 147
1896Clepsysaurus Marsh p. 240
1896Palaeosaurus Marsh p. 240
1898Heterodontosuchus Lucas
1898Heterodontosuchus ganei Lucas
1898Belodon ingens Spangenberg p. 408
1898Parasuchia Woodward p. 141
1902Palaeoctonus Hay p. 490
1902Palaeoctonus appalachianus Hay p. 490
1902Palaeoctonus dumblianus Hay p. 490
1902Palaeoctonus orthodon Hay p. 490
1902Suchoprion Hay p. 490
1902Suchoprion aulacodus Hay p. 490
1902Suchoprion cyphodon Hay p. 490
1902Suchoprion sulcidens Hay p. 490
1902Clepsysaurus Hay p. 492
1902Clepsysaurus pennsylvanicus Hay p. 492
1902Clepsysaurus veatleianus Hay p. 492
1902Thecodontosaurus fraserianus Hay p. 492
1902Palaeoctonus Huene
1902Palaeosaurus Huene
1902Suchoprion Huene
1902Rileya bristolensis Huene pp. 62-63
1902Omosaurus Lucas p. 435
1902Omosaurus perplexus Lucas p. 435
1903Phytosauria Osborn p. 276
1904Phytosauria Osborn p. 100
1904Parasuchia Osborn p. 112
1907Palaeosaurus stricklandi Sauvage p. 14
1907Clepsysaurus Sauvage p. 15
1908Termatosaurus albertii Amthor p. 94 figs. Pl 2, figs 1,2
1908Rileya bristolensis Huene p. 16
1908Rileya platyodon Huene p. 16
1908Rileya bristolensis Huene p. 99
1908Rileya platyodon Huene p. 99
1911Mystriosuchus ruetimeyeri Huene p. 31
1913Rutiodon manhattanensis Huene p. 277
1914Palaeosaurus Huene p. 146
1915Parasuchia Lull p. 98
1915Belodon validus Lull pp. 109-110
1915Phytosauria Lull p. 109
1915Rutiodon manhattanensis Lull p. 113
1915Clepsysaurus Lull p. 119
1915Palaeosaurus Lull p. 119
1915Angistorhinus gracilis Mehl p. 146
1915Lophoprosopus Mehl p. 163
1917Phytosauria Lull p. 110
1917Rutiodon validus Lull p. 110
1917Parasuchia Lull p. 113
1917Phytosaurus Watson p. 179
1921Palaeoctonus Huene p. 561
1921Palaeoctonus appalachianus Huene p. 561
1921Palaeoctonus aulacodus Huene p. 563
1921Suchoprion Huene p. 564
1921Clepsysaurus Huene p. 565
1921Clepsysaurus pennsylvanicus Huene p. 565
1921Suchoprion cyphodon Huene p. 565
1921Clepsysaurus veatleianus Huene p. 567
1922Leptosuchus imperfecta Case p. 68
1922Parasuchia Huene p. 22
1922Angistorhinopsis Huene p. 23
1922Phytosaurus Huene p. 23
1923Angistorhinopsis Huene
1923Angistorhinopsis ruetimeyeri Huene
1930Clepsysaurus Camp p. ix
1932Francosuchus Kuhn
1932Francosuchus broilii Kuhn p. 123
1932Francosuchus latus Kuhn p. 123
1934Thecodontosaurus platyodon Swinton p. 31
1937Parasuchia Roxo p. 44
1937Phytosauria Roxo p. 44
1938Palaeosaurus Berckhemer p. 196
1940Brachysuchus maleriensis Huene p. 21
1940Phytosaurus plieningeri Huene p. 23
1944Clepsysaurus Rapp p. 287
1944Clepsysaurus pennsylvanicus Rapp p. 287
1946Parasuchia Kuhn p. 64
1953Clepsysaurus Lull p. 89
1954Parasuchia Huene p. 44
1956Palaeosaurus Romer p. 614
1957Phytosauria Baird p. 486
1957Thecodontosaurus platyodon Robinson p. 262
1958Phytosaurus maleriensis Colbert p. 75
1958Parasuchia Huene p. 205
1961Rileyasuchus bristolensis Kuhn
1962Clepsysaurus pennsylvanicus Gregory p. 4
1962Mystriosuchus plieningeri Gregory p. 12
1963Termatosaurus alberti Persson pp. 21-22
1964Parasuchia Kuhn p. 317
1964Phytosaurus Kuhn p. 319
1964Rileyasuchus bristolensis Kuhn p. 319
1964Francosuchus Kuhn p. 324
1970Palaeosauriscus platyodon Steel p. 25
1970Palaeosauriscus fraserianus Steel p. 26
1970Palaeosauriscus stricklandi Steel p. 26
1985Parasuchia Galton
1985Parasuchia Gauthier and Padian pp. 187-189 fig. 1
1988Belodon Carroll
1988Phytosauria Carroll
1990Parasuchia Sereno and Arcucci p. 39 fig. 7
1991Parasuchia Sereno p. 27
1993Parasuchia Parrish p. 290 fig. 1
1995Parasuchia Long and Murry
2002Phytosauria Hungerbühler p. 380
2005Parasuchia Irmis pp. 71-72
2007Phytosauria Weinbaum and Hungerbühler p. 141
2010Phytosauria Stocker
2011Phytosauria Nesbitt p. 193 fig. 51
2016Phytosauria Ezcurra

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subphylumVertebrata
superclassGnathostomata
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda()
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
Batrachosauria()
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
RankNameAuthor
Sauropsida
classReptilia
subclassEureptilia()
Romeriida
Diapsida()
Eosuchia()
Neodiapsida
SauriaGauthier 1984
Archosauromorpha(Huene 1946)
Crocopoda
ArchosauriformesGauthier 1986
Eucrocopoda
Archosauria()
Pseudosuchia(Zittel 1890)
Phytosauria(Jaeger 1828)
Phytosauria(Jaeger 1828)

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
ReferenceDiagnosis
M. R. Stocker 2010A stem-based group that is the most inclusive clade containing Rutiodon carolinensis (Emmons 1856) but not Aetosaurus ferratus (Fraas 1877), Rauisuchus tiradentes (Huene 1942), Prestosuchus chiniquensis (Huene 1942), Ornithosuchus woodwardi (Newton 1894) or Crocodylus niloticus (Laurenti 1768).
S. J. Nesbitt 2011The most inclusive clade containing Rutiodon carolinensis(Emmons, 1856) but not Aetosaurus ferratus Fraas, 1877, Rauisuchus tiradentes Huene, 1942, Prestosuchus chiniquensis Huene, 1942, Ornithosuchus longidens Huxley, 1877, and Crocodylus niloticus Laurenti, 1768 (sensu Sereno, 2005).