Basic info Taxonomic history Classification Included Taxa
Morphology Ecology and taphonomy External Literature Search Age range and collections

Protostomia

Taxonomy
Protostomia was named by Grobben (1908). It is extant.

It was assigned to Nephrozoa by Peterson et al. (2005) and Edgecombe et al. (2011); and to Eubilateria by Nielsen (2012).

Subtaxa
Sister taxa
Ecdysozoa, Spiralia

Synonymy list
YearName and author
1908Protostomia Grobben p. 497
2005Protostomia Peterson et al. p. 38
2011Protostomia Edgecombe et al. p. 153 figs. Fig. 1
2012Protostomia Nielsen p. 87 figs. Fig. 16.1

Is something missing? Join the Paleobiology Database and enter the data

RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Bilateria
EubilateriaAx 1987
RankNameAuthor
Protostomia
Protostomia

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Unr. Protostomia Grobben 1908
show all | hide all
Unr. †Ecdysozoa
hide
+
Invalid names: Protocephalorhynca Adrianov and Malakhov 1995 [empty]
Unr. Cycloneuralia Ahlrichs 1995
+
+
Ph. Nematoda Potts 1932 [roundworm]
+
G. Anguillula Muller 1786
G. †Copalonema Poinar 2011
G. Enchytraeus Henle 1837
Cl. Enoplea Inglis 1983
G. Ingenia Gerlach 1957
G. †Vetus Taylor 1935
Invalid names: Nemata [synonym]
Ph. Nematomorpha Vejdovsky 1886
+
Superfm. Gordioidea Rauther 1930
G. Gordius Linnaeus 1758
Invalid names: Gordiacea [synonym]
+
Ph. Priapulida Théel 1906 [priapulid worm]
+
G. †Acosmia Chen and Zhou 1997
Unr. †Archaeopriapulida Conway Morris 1977
G. †Archotuba Hou et al. 1999
G. †Corynetis Luo and Hu 1999
+
Invalid names: Anningvermis Huang et al. 2004 [synonym]
G. †Eximipriapulus Ma et al. 2014
G. †Omnidens Hou and Others 2006
Unr. †Palaeoscolecidomorpha Shi et al. 2022
Fm. Priapulidae Gosse 1855
Or. †Priapulomorpha Slavini-Plawen 1974
Or. †Selkirkiimorpha Adrianov and Malakhov 1995
+
Invalid names: Palaeopriapulites Hou et al. 1999 [synonym], Protopriapulites Hou et al. 1999 [synonym]
Fm. Tubiluchidae Van der Land 1970
Invalid names: Halicryptidae Salvini-Plawen 1974 [empty], Maccabeidae Por and Bromley 1974 [empty], Xiaoheiqingidae Chen 2002 [empty]
Invalid names: Priapula [empty]
+
Ph. Arthropoda Latreille 1829 [arthropod]
+
G. †Actaeus
G. †Almenia Hou and Bergström 1997
+
Almenia spinosa Hou and Bergström 1997
Or. †Bradoriida Raymond 1935
+
Fm. †Beyrichonidae Ulrich and Bassler 1931
Fm. †Bradoriidae Mathew 1902
Fm. †Cambriidae Li 1975
Fm. †Comptalutidae Opik 1968
G. †Haoia Shu 1990
Fm. †Hipponicharionidae Sylvester-Bradley 1961
G. †Monceretia Vannier and Williams 2005
G. †Sinskolutella Melnikova 1998
G. †Spinospitella Skovsted et al. 2006
Fm. †Svealutidae Opik 1968
G. †Yakutingella Melnikova 1998
Invalid names: Archaeocopida Sylvester-Bradley 1961 [synonym], Bradoriid Hu 2005 [synonym]
G. †Burgessia
G. †Clypecaris Hou 1997
G. †Cryptocaris Barrande 1872
+
Cryptocaris bohemica Barrande 1872
Cryptocaris contracta Barrande 1872
Cryptocaris obsoleta Barrande 1872
Cryptocaris pulchra Barrande 1872
Cryptocaris rhomboidea Barrande 1872
Cryptocaris solida Barrande 1872
Cryptocaris tardissima Barrande 1872
G. †Dongshanocaris Hou and Bergström 1998
+
Dongshanocaris foliiformis Hou and Bergström 1998
G. †Emeiella
G. †Ercaia Chen et al. 2001
G. †Esmeraldacaris Waggoner 2003
+
Esmeraldacaris richardsonae Waggoner 2003
Subcl. †Euthycarcinoidea Gall and Grauvogel 1964
+
Or. †Euthycarcinida Gall and Grauvogel 1964
G. †Forfexicaris Hou 1999
G. †Goticaris
Fm. †Guangweicarididae Luo et al. 2007
+
G. †Guangweicaris Luo et al. 2007
G. †Habelia
G. †Hanburia Walcott 1916
Supercl. Hexapoda Latreille 1825
+
Unr. Cercofilata Kukalová-Peck 1987
Unr. Ellipura Börner 1910
G. †Grammepus Hitchcock 1858
Cl. Insecta Linnaeus 1758 [insect]
G. †Leverhulmia Anderson and Trewin 2003
G. †Onycholepisma Pierce 1951
Invalid names: Entognatha Hirst and Maulik 1926 [invalid subgroup]
G. †Kablikia
G. †Kleptothule Budd 1995
+
G. †Liantuoia
G. †Longquania Luo et al. 2008
+
Longquania bispinosa Luo et al. 2008
Cl. †Marrelomorpha Beurlen 1930
+
Or. †Acercostraca Lehmann 1955
Invalid names: Mimetasterida Beurlen 1934 [empty]
G. †Meristosoma Robison and Wiley 1995
+
Meristosoma paradoxum Robison and Wiley 1995
+
Invalid names: Emeraldellida Størmer 1944 [empty], Limulavida Walcott 1912 [empty]
G. †Molaria
G. †Motina
Cl. Myriapoda Latreille 1802
+
G. †Anthracerpes Meek and Worthen 1865
G. †Archicarabides Fritsch 1901
Cl. Chilopoda Latreille 1817 [centipede]
Unr. Dignatha Tiegs 1947
G. †Eileticus Scudder 1882
G. †Eojulus Kušta 1886
G. †Hemiphoberia Fritsch 1899
G. †Heterovorhoeffia Fritsch 1899
G. †Juloites Haupt 1956
G. †Kralupia Fritsch 1907
G. †Palenarthrus Scudder 1890
G. †Sandtneria Fritsch 1899
Cl. Symphyla Ryder 1880
Invalid names: Eoscolopendridae Scudder 1890 [invalid subgroup], Gerascutigeridae Scudder 1890 [invalid subgroup], Tiphoscorpionoidea Kjellesvig-Waering 1986 [invalid subgroup]
G. †Naptile
G. †Notchia Lerosey-Aubril 2015
+
Notchia weugi Lerosey-Aubril 2015
G. †Occacaris Hou 1999
Or. †Odaraiida Simonetta and Delle Cave 1975
+
Fm. †Pectocariidae Hou 1999
G. †Panlongia Liu et al. 2006
+
Panlongia spinosa Liu et al. 2006
Panlongia tetranodusa Liu et al. 2006
G. †Parioscorpio Wendruff et al. 2020
+
Parioscorpio venator Wendruff et al. 2020
Unr. †Parvancorinomorpha Lin et al. 2006
+
Fm. †Parvancorinidae Glaessner 1979
G. †Parvibellus Liu et al. 2022
+
Parvibellus atavus Liu et al. 2022
G. †Pauloterminus Taylor 2002
+
G. †Pisinnocaris Hou and Bergström 1998
G. †Platicytes Garvey and Hasiotis 2008
+
Platicytes lioparadus Garvey and Hasiotis 2008
G. †Priscansermarinus Collins and Rudkin 1981
+
Priscansermarinus barnetti Collins and Rudkin 1981
G. †Proricaris Baily 1870
+
Proricaris machenrici Baily 1870
+
Protocaris marshi Walcott 1884
G. †Pseudoiulia Hou and Bergström 1998
+
Pseudoiulia cambriensis Hou and Bergström 1998
Cl. Pycnogonida Latreille 1810 [sea spider]
+
G. †Cambropycnogon Waloszek and Dunlop 2002
G. †Flagellopantopus Poschmann and Dunlop 2006
G. †Haliestes Siveter et al. 2004
Fm. †Palaeoisopodidae Dubinin 1957
G. †Palaeomarachne Rudkin et al. 2013
Or. Pantopoda Gerstaecker 1863
G. †Pentapantopus Kühl et al. 2013
Invalid names: Arachnopoda Dana 1853 [synonym], Palaeoisopoda [empty]
G. †Pygmaclypeatus Zhang et al. 2000
G. †Rhombicalvaria Hou 1987
+
G. †Rhynimonstrum Anderson and Trewin 2003
+
Rhynimonstrum dunlopi Anderson and Trewin 2003
G. †Schizodiscus Clarke 1888
Cl. Scorpionida Latreille 1817 [scorpion]
+
G. †Waeringoscorpio Størmer 1970
Invalid names: Euscorpionina Petrunkevitch 1949 [empty], Neoscorpionina [empty], Palaeoscorpiones Stockwell 1989 [empty], Proscorpionidae Scudder 1885 [empty]
G. †Shankouia Waloszek et al. 2005
+
Shankouia zhenghei Chen et al. 2004
G. †Tanglangia Lou and Hu 1999
Or. †Tuzoida Simonetta and Delle Cave 1975
+
Fm. †Tuzoiidae Raymond 1935
G. †Utahcaris Conway Morris and Robison 1988
+
Utahcaris orion Conway Morris and Robison 1988
Invalid names: Agonata Fabricius 1775 [invalid subgroup], Aptera Linnaeus 1758 [invalid subgroup], Arachnoidea Guthörl 1934 [empty], Blattina splendens Göppert 1865 [nomen dubium], Branchiata Fitzinger 1843 [empty], Devonopilio Tihelka et al. 2020 [nomen dubium], Devonopilio hutchinsoni Tihelka et al. 2020 [nomen dubium], Dinopilio parvus Petrunkevitch 1953 [nomen dubium], Euarthropoda [synonym], Geracus Matthew 1897 [nomen dubium], Geracus tubifer Matthew 1897 [nomen dubium], Gigantopleurida Guthörl 1934 [empty], Graeophonus Scudder 1890 [nomen dubium], Kampecaris obanensis Peach 1899 [nomen dubium], Kounicia Frič 1901 [nomen dubium], Libellula carbonaria Scudder 1876 [nomen dubium], Monoculus Linnaeus 1758 [nomen oblitum], Orstenocarida Müller and Walossek 1988 [empty], Palaeophonus arctus Matthew 1895 [nomen dubium], Paratrilobita [empty], Pedestria Scopoli 1763 [invalid subgroup], Pleurolycosa Fritsch 1904 [nomen vanum], Pleurolycosa prolifera Fritsch 1899 [nomen vanum], Poliochera pustulatus Laurentiaux-Vieira and Laurentiaux 1963 [nomen dubium], Schizoramia Bergström 1976 [synonym], Skaracarida Müller and Walossek 1985 [empty], Synistata Fabricius 1775 [invalid subgroup], Unogata Fabricius 1775 [invalid subgroup]
Cl. †Dinocaridida Collins 1996
+
G. †Pambdelurion Budd 1997
+
Or. †Luolishaniida Hou and Bergström 1995
+
G. †Facivermis Hou and Chen 1989
+
Facivermis yunnanicus Hou and Chen 1989
Invalid names: Xishania Hu 2002 [replaced]
+
Luolishania longicruris Hou and Chen 1989
Invalid names: Miraluolishania Liu and Shu 2004 [synonym]
G. †Ovatiovermis Carib and Aria 2017
Fm. †Teratopodidae Caron and Aria 2020
+
G. †Acinocricus Conway-Morris and Robinson 1988
G. †Collinsium Yang et al. 2015
G. †Collinsovermis Caron and Aria 2020 [Collins monster]
+
Onychodictyon ferox Hou et al. 1991
Onychodictyon gracilis Liu et al. 2008
Ph. Onychophora Grube 1853 [velvet worm]
+
G. †Antennacanthopodia Ou et al. 2011
+
Antennacanthopodia gracilis Ou et al. 2011
Fm. †Aysheaidae Walcott 1911
+
G. †Aysheaia Walcott 1911
+
Cardiodictyon catenulum Hou et al. 1991
G. †Diania Liu et al. 2011
+
Diania cactiformis Liu et al. 2011
Or. Euonychophora Hutchinson 1930
+
Fm. Peripatidae Evans 1901
Invalid names: Ontonychophora Poinar 2000 [synonym]
Unr. †Hallucishaniids Smith and Caron 2015
+
G. †Carbotubulus Haug et al. 2012
G. †Hallucigenia Conway Morris 1977
Fm. †Hallucigeniidae Conway Morris 1977
G. †Orstenotubulus Maas et al. 2007
G. †Rushtonites Hinz 1987
Invalid names: Luolishaniidae Hou and Bergstrom 1995 [empty]
G. †Helenodora Thompson and Jones 1980
+
Helenodora inopinata Thompson and Jones 1980
G. †Microdictyon Bengston et al. 1981
+
Microdictyon cuneum Wotte and Sundberg 2017
Microdictyon depressum Bengtson et al. 1990
Microdictyon effusum Bengtson et al. 1981
Microdictyon montezumaensis Wotte and Sundberg 2017
Microdictyon rhomboidale Bengtson et al. 1986
Microdictyon robisoni Bengtson et al. 1986
Microdictyon sinicum Chen et al. 1989
Fm. †Peripatopsidae Bouvier 1905
+
G. Euperipatoides Ruhberg 1985
G. Metaperipatus Clark 1913
G. †Xenusion Pompeckj 1927
+
Xenusion auerswaldae Pompeckj 1927
Invalid names: Udeonychophora Poinar 2000 [invalid subgroup]
Fm. †Opabiniidae Walcott 1912
+
G. †Opabinia Walcott 1912
+
Opabinia regalis Walcott 1912
G. †Utaurora Pates et al. 2022
+
Utaurora comosa Pates et al. 2022
Ph. Tardigrada Doyère 1840 [water bear]
+
Fm. Batillipedidae Ramazzotti 1969
+
G. Batillipes Richters 1909
Fm. Echiniscidae Thulin 1928
+
G. Echiniscus Schultze 1840
Cl. Eutardigrada Richters 1926
+
Or. Apochela Schuster et al. 1980
Fm. Hypsibiidae Pilato 1969
Or. Parachela Schuster et al. 1980
G. Macrobiotus Schultze 1834
Fm. Tanarctidae Renaud-Mornant 1980
+
G. Actinarctus Schulz 1935
Invalid names: Heterotardigrada Marcus 1927 [empty]
Cl. †Xenusia Dzik and Krumbiegel 1989
+
Or. †Archonychophora Hou and Bergström 1995
+
Fm. †Paucipodiidae Hou et al. 2004
Or. †Scleronychophora Huo and Bergström 1995
+
Invalid names: Eoconchariidae Hou and Shu 1987 [empty]
Xenusia auerswaldae Pompeckj 1927
Or. †Xenusiida Dzik and Krumbiegel 1989
+
Fm. †Xenusiidae Dzik and Krumbiegel 1989
Invalid names: Lobopodia [invalid subgroup]
Unr. †Scalidophora
+
G. †Eokinorhynchus Zhang et al. 2015
+
Eokinorhynchus rarus Zhang et al. 2015
G. †Eolympia Han et al. 2010
+
Eolympia pediculata Han et al. 2010
G. †Eopriapulites Liu et al. 2014
+
Eopriapulites sphinx Liu et al. 2014
Unr. †Loricifera
+
G. †Eolorica Harvey and Butterfield 2017
+
Eolorica deadwoodensis Harvey and Butterfield 2017
Invalid names: Kinorhyncha [empty]
Invalid names: Nematozoa Zrzavy et al. 1998 [empty]
hide
Unr. Chaetognathifera Park et al. 2024
+
Ph. Chaetognatha Leuckart 1854 [arrow worm]
+
Fm. †Amiskwidae Walcott 1911
+
G. †Amiskwia Walcott 1911
G. †Eognathacantha Chen and Huang 2002
G. †Paucijaculum Schram 1973
+
Paucijaculum samamithion Schram 1973
Cl. †Protoconodonta Landing 1995
+
G. †Mongolodus Missarzhevsky 1977
+
Invalid names: Maldeotaia Singh and Shukla 1981 [synonym]
G. †Protohertzina Missarzhevsky 1973
+
Invalid names: Emeidus Chen 1982 [synonym], Hastina Yang and He 1984 [synonym]
Or. †Protoconodontida Landing 1995
+
G. †Glauderia Poulsen 1967
G. †Kijacus Missarzhevsky and Mambetov 1981
+
Invalid names: Leguminella He 1984 [synonym]
G. †Timorebestia Park et al. 2024
+
Timorebestia koprii Park et al. 2024
G. †Titerina
+
Invalid names: Chaetonotida [empty], Macrodasydida [empty]
+
Fm. †Dakorhachiidae Conway Morris et al. 2020
+
G. †Dakorhachis Conway Morris et al. 2020
+
Dakorhachis thambus Conway Morris et al. 2020
+
Supercl. Eurotatoria De Ridder 1957
+
Cl. Bdelloidea Hudson 1884
+
Superfm. Brachionoidea
Invalid names: Gnathostomulida [empty], Micrognathozoa Kristensen and Funch 2004 [empty]
+
Ph. Annelida Lamarck 1809 [worm]
+
Fm. †Amphinomea
+
+
Fm. †Cloudinidae Hahn and Pflug 1985
+
G. †Acuticloudina Hahn and Pflug 1985
G. †Cloudina Germs 1972
+
Invalid names: Nevadatubulus Signor and Mount 1987 [synonym]
G. †Conotubus Zhang and Lin 1986
G. †Costatubus Selly et al. 2020
G. †Rajatubulus Yang et al. 2016
G. †Saarina
G. †Zuunia Yang et al. 2020
+
Ctenoscolex procerus Ehlers 1869
Cl. Polychaeta Grube 1850
+
Subcl. Aciculata Rouse and Fauchald 1997
G. Arachnostega Bertling 1992
G. †Caprascolex Schweitzer et al. 2005
Or. Eunicida Ushakov 1955
G. †Haileyia
G. †Khemisina
G. †Klakesia
Fm. †Leodicidae Treadwell 1921
G. †Nawnites
G. †Palaeotubus Sanfilippo et al. 2016
Fm. †Phragmochaetidae Conway Morris and Peel 2008
G. †Ramesses Schram 1979
Infraor. Scolecida Rouse and Fauchald 1997
Subcl. Sedentaria Lamarck 1818
Fm. †Siboglinidae Caullery 1914
G. †Soris Schram 1979
G. †Sphenothallus Hall 1847
+
Invalid names: Campylites Eichwald 1856 [synonym]
G. Spiroglyphus Daudin 1800
G. †Stoma
G. †Tymbochoos Steele-Petrovich and Bolton 1998
Invalid names: Aeolosomatidae Beddard 1895 [empty], Flabelligerimorpha [empty], Geophilus proavus Germar 1842 [nomen dubium], Miskoa Walcott 1911 [empty], Palpata Rouse and Fauchald 1997 [empty], Parergodrilidae Reisinger 1925 [empty], Potamodrilidae [empty], Psammodrilidae Swedmark 1952 [empty], Pyllodocida Dales 1962 [empty], Sedentarida Lamarck 1818 [empty], Tubicola Glenn 1904 [empty]
Or. †Sabelliditida Sokolov 1965
+
G. †Acanthocassis He and Xie 1989
G. †Anhuiella
G. †Calyptrina Sokolov 1967
Fm. †Sabelliditidae Sokolov 1965
G. †Skolekichnus Ellenberger 1974
+
Skolekichnus coprophagus Ellenberger 1974
G. †Thartharella Elliott 1962
G. †Tubulostium Stoliczka 1868
G. †Vermiforafacta Cameron 1969
+
Vermiforafacta rollinsi Cameron 1969
Invalid names: Aphanoneura [empty], Chaetopoda [empty], Myzostomaria [empty], Palaeoannelida Weigert and Bleidorn 2016 [empty]
Ph. Entoprocta Nitsche 1869
+
G. †Cotyledion Chen et al. 2002
+
Cotyledion tylodes Luo and Hu 1999
Invalid names: Calyssozoa Clark 1921 [synonym], Kamptozoa [synonym]
Unr. †Lophophorata
+
Ph. Bryozoa Ehrenberg 1831 [bryozoan]
+
Cl. †Eurystomata Marcus 1938
G. †Flabellina de Gregorio 1930
Cl. Gymnolaemata Allman 1856
Cl. Phylactolaemata Allman 1856 [freshwater bryozoan]
Cl. Stenolaemata Borg 1926
Invalid names: Dingeria Geinitz 1861 [nomen dubium], Dingeria depressa Geinitz 1861 [nomen dubium], Ectoprocta [synonym], Fenestellida [empty], Polyzoa [synonym]
G. †Conicula Luo et al. 1999
+
Conicula striata Luo et al. 1999
Ph. †Hyolitha Marek 1963
+
G. †Attenuella Malinky 2014
Or. †Hyolithida Mathew 1962
Or. †Orthothecida Marek 1966
Unr. †Panbrachiopoda Carlson and Cohen 2020
+
Ph. Brachiopoda Cuvier 1805 [lamp shell]
Cl. †Stenothecoida Yochelson 1969
G. †Phlogites Luo et al. 1999
+
Phlogites longus Luo and Hu 1999
Or. †Tentaculitida Ljaschenko 1955
+
Fm. †Contractenidae Ljaschenko 1973
Or. †Cornulitida Boucek 1964
Fm. †Costatulitidae Berger 1982
Fm. †Dentiannulatidae Farsan 1994
Fm. †Gotlandellitidae Larsson 1979
Fm. †Laminitidae Ljaschenko 1985
Fm. †Multiconidae Vjalov 1962
G. †Samarites
Fm. †Sektionitidae Farsan and Blind 1989
Fm. †Tentaculitidae Walcott 1886
Fm. †Uniconidae Ljaschenko 1955
Invalid names: Phoronida Hatschek 1888 [empty]
Ph. Mollusca Linnaeus 1758 [mollusk]
+
G. †Acevina
G. †Actinoconus Yü 1979
+
G. †Aldanolina Pelman 1983
+
Aldanolina magna Pelman 1983
G. †Algomella Val'kov and Karlova 1984
+
Algomella calyptrata Val'kov and Karlova 1984
G. Anisomyaria Neumayr 1883
+
G. †Acaenoplax Sutton et al. 2001
G. †Kulindroplax Sutton et al. 2012
G. †Aulacotrochus Cossman 1916
G. †Beroides
G. †Bisulcus Hitchcock 1862
+
Bisulcus undulatus Hitchcock 1862
Cl. Bivalvia Linnaeus 1758 [clam]
+
G. †Amosius González and Waterhouse 2004
Fm. Arhouriellidae Geyer and Streng 1998
G. †Bakevellia King 1848
G. †Bleta De Gregorio 1930
G. †Bodmania Miller and Faber 1894
G. †Burriera Laseron 1910
G. †Carnidia Bittner 1901
Fm. †Cirravidae Chernyshev 1935
G. †Conchodus Stoppani 1865
G. †Cruciella Koken 1913
G. †Ctenolima Fuersich and Werner 1988
G. †Delia
G. †Edon Miller 1877
G. †Elliptoidea Tasch 1961
G. †Ensia De Gregorio 1930
Unr. Eubivalvia Carter 2011
G. †Euburnopecten Conrad 1865
Unr. †Euprotobranchia Nevesskaja 2009
G. †Fogiella Krumbeck 1913
G. †Geinitzia Gemmellaro 1896
G. †Gibboconcha De Gregorio 1930
G. †Gosselettia Conrad
G. †Laubeia Bittner 1895
Fm. †Laurskiidae Khalfin 1948
G. Lux Chemnitz 1782
G. †Manankovia Astafieva-Urbaytis 1983
G. †Paradoxia Krumbeck 1923
G. †Phyllonia
Fm. †Praelamellodontidae Zhang 1980
G. †Productae Tasch 1961
G. †Psammoconcha Tommasi 1896
G. †Ptychoplasma Fenton and Fenton 1937
G. †Rebusum De Gregorio 1930
G. Reniella Swainson 1840
G. †Rostrotortus Tasch 1961
Fm. †Spirodomidae Miller 1889
G. †Stagnestesta Tasch 1961
G. †Taeniodon Dunker 1848
G. †Tatella
Invalid names: Amphikoilinae Novozhilov 1953 [empty], Asiphonidae Choffat 1886 [invalid subgroup], Asthenodonta [empty], Bathyspinulinae Coan and Scott 1997 [invalid subgroup], Cryptodonta Neumayr 1884 [empty], Isofilibranchia Iredale 1939 [empty], Lamellibranchiata Blainville [synonym], Modiolopsis praerupta Dana 1847 [nomen dubium], Neotaxodonta Korobkov 1954 [empty], Ostrea compta Goldfuss 1838 [nomen dubium], Palaeoentolium [nomen nudum], Palaeostrea Grabau 1936 [nomen dubium], Paraviculidae Gugenberger 1935 [empty], Pelecypoda Goldfuss 1820 [synonym], Pteriomorpha Beurlan 1944 [empty], Septocardiidae Kafanov and Starobogatov 1977 [empty], Solen (Solecurtus) ellipticus Dana 1847 [nomen dubium], Solen (Solecurtus) planulatus Dana 1847 [nomen dubium]
Or. †Calyptoptomatida Fisher 1962
+
G. †Adyshevitheca Mambetov and Repina 1979
Or. †Camerothecida Syssoiev 1957
Subor. †Cupithecina Duan 1984
Or. †Globorilida Syssoiev 1957
G. †Kygmaeoceras Flower 1954
G. †Neogloborilus Qian and Zhang 1983
Fm. †Persicithecidae Duan 1984
G. †Phragmotheca Barrande 1867
G. †Quinquelithes Syssoiev 1958
G. †Stimulitheca Duan 1984
+
Invalid names: Chaetodermomorpha [synonym]
G. †Centriconus Yü 1979
Cl. Cephalopoda Cuvier 1797
+
Subcl. †Actinoceratoidea Teichert et al. 1964
G. †Akidocheilus Till 1907
Subcl. †Ammonoidea Zittel 1884 [ammonite]
Fm. †Anomalosaepiidae Yancey and Garvie 2011
G. †Avramidiscus Vermeulen 1996
Subcl. †Bactritoidea Shimanskiy 1951
Or. †Barrandeocerida Flower and Kummel, Jr. 1950
G. †Belosaepia Voltz 1830
Subcl. Coleoidea Bather 1888
+
Invalid names: Dibranchiata Owen 1836 [synonym]
G. †Dartoceras Foerste 1936
G. †Davidiceras Vermeulen 2003
G. †Didymoceras Lai and Xu 1987
Or. †Ellesmerocerida Flower and Kummel, Jr. 1950
Subcl. †Endoceratoidea Teichert 1933
G. †Erlangericheilus Shimanskiy 1947
G. †Gonatocheilus Till 1907
G. †Hadrocheilus Till 1907
G. †Lamellaptychus Trauth 1927 [ammonoid aptychus]
+
Invalid names: Trigonellites Parkinson 1811 [synonym]
G. †Leptocheilus Till 1907
Subcl. †Multiceratoidea Mutvei 2013
Subcl. Nautiloidea Agassiz 1847 [nautiloid]
Subg. †Nautilus (Solenochilus) Meek and Worthen 1870
Subcl. †Orthoceratoidea M'Coy 1844
Subcl. †Orthoceratoidea Zhuravleva 1994
G. †Palaeoteuthis d'Orbigny 1850
G. †Rhyncholithes Blainville 1827
G. †Rhynchoteuthis d'Orbigny 1847
G. †Scaptorrhynchus Bellardi 1871
G. †Teratoceroides Xu and Lai 1983
G. †Tillicheilus Shimanskiy 1947
G. †Toxancyloceras Delanoy 2003
Invalid names: Ectocochlia Schwarz 1894 [empty], Endocycloceratidae Ulrich et al. 1944 [empty], Irianoceras Kobayashi and Burton 1971 [nomen dubium], Mesoteuthoidea Naef 1921 [empty], Ohioceratidae Shimizu and Obata 1936 [invalid subgroup], Plectronocerida [empty], Robsonoceratidae Ulrich et al. 1944 [empty], Stemtonoceratidae Ulrich et al. 1944 [empty], Tetrabranchiata [empty]
G. †Conchula Herrmannsen 1847
G. †Corystos Vendrasco et al. 2010
+
Corystos thorntoniensis Vendrasco et al. 2010
G. †Dingus
G. Dysmea Dall et al. 1939
+
Dysmea occidens Gmelin 1791
G. †Ebianella
G. †Eosoconus Yü 1979
+
Eosoconus formosus Yü 1979
Eosoconus primarius Yü 1979
Cl. Gastropoda Cuvier 1795 [snail]
+
Fm. Admetidae Troschel 1869
G. †Alamirifica Saul and Squires 2003
G. †Amalthea
Subcl. †Archaeobranchia Parkhaev 2001
G. †Auroraella Pchelintsev 1965
Or. †Bellerophontida Ulrich and Scofield 1897
G. †Brachycerithium Bonarelli 1921
G. †Briardia Munier-Chalmas 1884
G. †Bucardites von Schlotheim 1820
G. †Bulimella Pfeiffer 1854
G. †Bulimus Bruguière 1792
G. Bullaea Lamarck 1801
Subcl. †Caenogastropoda Cox 1959
Superfm. †Cavolinioidea Gray 1850
G. †Chippewaella Gunderson 1993
G. Chlathrus Oken 1815
G. †Chuchleconus Frýda 1998
G. †Cithna Adams 1854
G. Clathromangelia Monterosato 1884
Superor. Cocculiniformia Hazsprunar 1987
G. Cyclostoma Draparnaud 1801
Subcl. †Dextrobranchia Minichev and Starobogatov 1975
G. Dicathais Iredale 1936
+
Invalid names: Calusathais Petuch 1994 [synonym]
G. †Dicosmus
G. †Elmira Cooke 1919
Subcl. Eogastropoda Ponder and Lindberg 1996
+
Invalid names: Euomphalomorpha Bandel and Frýda 1998 [synonym]
G. †Galericulus Seeley 1861
G. †Globulitopa Gründel 1998
G. Gundlachia Pfeiffer 1849
G. †Hecatastoma Rohr and Blodgett 2008
G. †Helicites Wahlenberg 1821
G. †Helictes Haliday 1838
Fm. †Helminthoglyptidae Pilsbry 1939
Or. Heterostropha Fischer 1885
+
Invalid names: Heterobranchia Gray 1840 [synonym]
G. †Holyneconcha Frýda 1998
G. †Hyalaea Lamarck 1799
G. Hyalinia Schumacher 1817
G. †Hyrcania Monterosato 1894
G. †Isaea Conrad 1871
G. †Iteria
G. Jeffreysia Alder 1850
Fm. Juliidae Smith 1885
G. †Liris Conrad 1871
G. †Luoguella Pan and Erwin 2002
G. †Luoguispira Pan and Erwin 2002
G. †Mahajangina Kiel 2006
G. †Microceras Hall 1845
G. †Microcochlis Yoo 1994
G. Mitrularia Schumacher 1817
Subor. Neomphaliones Sitnikova and Starobogatov 1983
Fm. Neptuneidae Stimpson 1865
Subor. †Neritaemorpha Koken 1897
Subcl. Neritimorpha Golikov and Starobogatov 1975
G. †Neritites von Schlotheim 1820
Or. †Opisthobranchia Milne-Edwards 1848
Fm. †Opisthonematidae Yu 1976
Subcl. Orthogastropoda Ponder and Lindberg 1997
Subcl. Patellogastropoda Lindberg 1986 [limpet]
G. †Patelloidea Tasch 1961
G. †Pejona Bolten 1798
G. †Peraubium
G. †Permoplanorboidea Tasch 1961
G. Phorus Montfort 1810
G. †Pitonnellus Montfort 1810
G. †Platyostomella Etheridge 1880
G. †Platystoma Conrad 1842
Fm. †Plicatusidae Pan and Erwin 2002
Fm. †Pragoserpulinidae Fryda 1998
Fm. Prasinidae Stoliczka 1871
Subcl. Prosobranchia Milne-Edwards 1848
G. †Pseudobrochidium Grupe 1907
G. †Pseudotylostoma Ihering 1903
Unr. †Ptenoglossa Gray 1853
G. Pteronotus Swainson 1833 [mustached bat]
Subcl. Pulmonata Cuvier 1817 [pulmonate]
G. Pythia Röding 1798
Fm. †Rhytidopilidae Starobogatov 1976
G. Rotellina Münster 1840
G. †Rugoplanorboidella Tasch 1961
G. †Serpulopsis Kittl 1900
G. Spectamen Iredale 1924
+
Invalid names: Zeminolia Finlay 1926 [synonym]
Subcl. Streptoneura Spengel 1881
G. †Stuorilda Bandel 1995
G. †Suprazonalia Yu and Xi 1974
G. †Taeniodomus van Koloniën 1889
G. †Tirolthilda Bandel 1995
G. Tornatella Lamarck 1816
G. †Tortifusus Conrad 1867
G. †Toxonema Böhm 1895
G. †Tripartella Gründel 1998
G. †Trochifusus Gabb 1877
G. †Trochiletes von Schlotheim 1813
G. †Trochopsis Gemmellaro 1878
G. †Trochotremaria de Ryckholt 1860
G. †Vespertilio Mörch 1852
Subcl. Vetigastropoda Salvini-Plawen 1980
G. †Wellingtonia Tasch 1961
G. †Zlichovia Frýda and Manda 1997
Invalid names: Alectrionidae [empty], Amphigastropoda Simroth 1906 [empty], Beekmanoceras Ulrich and Foerste 1936 [invalid subgroup], Capulus sellardsi Beede 1907 [nomen dubium], Catubrina Caneva 1906 [nomen nudum], Chrysodomidae Dall 1870 [empty], Doliidae [empty], Gadinidae [empty], Galeodea schencki Weaver and Kleinpell 1963 [nomen dubium], Geinitzia Dietz 1911 [nomen dubium], Geinitzia carinata Dietz 1911 [nomen dubium], Gryphellina Iredale 1929 [nomen dubium], Lysechinus Gregory 1897 [nomen dubium], Lysechinus incongruens Gregory 1897 [nomen dubium], Pleurotomaria verticillata Webster 1906 [nomen vanum], Pleurotomaria verticillata Webster 1906 [nomen vanum], Pleurotomaria viola Billings 1865 [nomen vanum], Pupillacea Turton 1831 [empty], Scalariidae Lamarck 1812 [empty], Thatcheriidae [empty], Turbo guadalupensis Shumard 1859 [nomen nudum], Turbo texana Shumard 1859 [nomen vanum]
G. †Granoconus Yü 1979
+
Granoconus trematus Yü 1979
Cl. †Helcionelloida Peel 1991
+
G. †Beshtashella Missarzhevsky and Mambetov 1981
+
Invalid names: Paraformichella Qian and Zhang 1983 [synonym]
Fm. †Ceratoconidae Missarzhevsky 1989
G. †Emargimantus Skovsted et al. 2012
Or. †Helcionellida Geyer 1994
G. †Michniakia Missarzhevsky 1966
Invalid names: Helcionelliformes Golikov and Starobogatov 1975 [empty]
Or. †Hemithecellitina Stinchcomb and Darrough 1995
+
Invalid names: Hemithecellidae Stinchcomb and Darrough 1995 [empty]
G. †Huangshandogoconus Yü 1979
+
+
Fm. †Khairkhaniidae Missarzhevsky 1989
+
G. †Ardrossania Bengtson et al. 1990
G. †Barskovia Golubev 1976
+
Invalid names: Nikolenia Vasil’yeva 1998 [synonym]
G. †Khairkhania Missarzhevsky 1980
G. †Philoxenella Vostokova 1962
G. †Xinjispira Yü and Rong 1987
G. †Laticonus Yü 1979
+
G. †Liantuoconus Yü 1979
+
G. †Mackenziella Voronova et al. 1987
+
Mackenziella dilatata Voronova et al. 1987
Fm. †Maikhanellidae Missarzhevsky 1989
+
G. †Aegides
G. †Canopoconus Luo et al. 1982
+
Invalid names: Cassidina Jiang 1980 [synonym], Emeiconus He and Yang 1982 [synonym], Jiangia Starobogatov and Moskalev 1987 [synonym], Mediata Feng et al. 2001 [synonym], Ramenta Luo et al. 1982 [synonym], Ramentoides Feng et al. 2001 [synonym]
G. †Jakobina Kerber 1988
G. †Purella Missarzhevsky 1974
+
Invalid names: Maikhanella Voronin et al. 1982 [synonym], Rozanoviella Missarzhevsky 1980 [synonym]
G. †Xiadongoconus Yü 1979
G. †Yunnanopleura Yü 1987
Invalid names: Maikhanellinae Feng et al. 2001 [empty], Purellidae Vassiljeva 1990 [synonym]
G. †Makarakia
G. †Merismoconcha Yü 1979
+
G. †Minymerisma Yu 1984
+
+
Odontogriphus omalus Conway-Morris 1976
Cl. †Paragastropoda Linsley and Kier 1984
+
Or. †Mimospirida Dzik 1983
+
Invalid names: Hyperstrophina Linsley and Kier 1984 [objective synonym]
Superfm. †Onychochiloidea Koken 1925
Invalid names: Hyperstophina Linsley and Kier 1984 [empty], Orthostrophina Linsley and Kier 1984 [empty]
G. †Polytropis Sandberger 1875
G. †Porcaconus Qian and Xiao 1984
+
Porcaconus xinjiangensis Qian and Xiao 1984
G. †Proconus Webers et al. 1992
+
Proconus incertis Webers et al. 1992
Cl. †Rostroconchia Pojeta et al. 1972
+
Or. †Anetshelloida Mazaev 2012
Or. †Conocardiida Neumayr 1891
Or. †Ribeirioida Kobayashi 1933
+
Invalid names: Ischyrinoida Pojeta and Runnegar 1976 [synonym]
Or. †Tuarangiida MacKinnon 1982
Invalid names: Euchasmidae Starobogatov 1977 [empty], Ozomiidae Starobogatov 1977 [empty], Pseudotechnophoridae Starobogatov 1977 [empty], Tolmachoviidae Starobogatov 1977 [empty], Wanwaniidae Scarlato and Starobogatov 1983 [empty]
Unr. †Sachitida He 1980
+
Cl. Aculifera Blumrich 1891
G. †Hippopharangites Bengtson 1990
G. †Miriella
G. †Quadrochites Qian et al. 1979
Fm. †Siphogonuchitidae Qian 1977
Invalid names: Halkierioidea Poulsen 1967 [empty], Halwaxida Conway Morris and Caron 2007 [synonym], Siphogonuchitoidea Qian 1977 [empty], Thambetolepida Jell 1981 [synonym]
G. †Salanyella Missarzhevsky 1980
+
Salanyella costulata Missarzhevsky and Mambetov 1981
G. †Sargaella
Cl. Scaphopoda Bronn 1862 [tusk shell]
+
Or. Dentaliida Da Costa 1776
G. Entalis Sowerby 1839
Or. Gadilida Starobogatov 1982
G. †Throopella Greger 1933
Invalid names: Dentalioida Palmer 1974 [empty], Dentaloidea Pojeta 1987 [empty], Solenoconchia [empty]
Unr. Serialia Giribet et al. 2006
+
Cl. Monoplacophora Knight 1952
Cl. Polyplacophora de Blainville 1816 [chiton]
+
Invalid names: Amphineura [synonym]
G. †Sinuconus Yü 1979
+
Sinuconus clypeus Yü 1979
Sinuconus undatus Yü 1979
+
Invalid names: Neomeniomorpha [invalid subgroup]
G. †Spatuloconus Yü 1979
+
Spatuloconus rudis Yü 1979
Cl. †Tergomya Horný 1965
+
Or. †Archinacellida Knight and Yochelson 1958
Or. †Cyrtonellida Horný 1963
Or. †Kiringellida Rozov 1975
+
Invalid names: Hypseloconida Peel 1991 [synonym], Romaniellida Doguzhaeva 1981 [synonym]
Superfm. †Scenelloidea Miller 1889
Or. Tryblidiida Lemche 1957
Invalid names: Tryblidia Lemche 1957 [replaced]
G. †Trunctoconus Yü 1979
G. †Watsonella Grabau 1900
+
Watsonella crosbyi Grabau 1900
+
Invalid names: Heraultia varensalensis Cobbold 1935 [synonym], Watsonella sibirica Missarzhevsky 1974 [synonym], Watsonella yunnanensis He and Yang 1982 [synonym]
Watsonella terranovica Matthew 1899
Invalid names: Heraultia Cobbold 1935 [synonym], Heraultipegma Pojeta and Runnegar 1976 [synonym]
G. †Yangtzemerisma Yu 1984
+
Invalid names: Chiton cottae Geinitz 1846 [nomen dubium], Conchifera Lamarck 1818 [empty], Cyrtostoma Runnegar and Pojeta 1974 [empty], Diplacophora Vinther and Nielsen 2005 [empty], Khairkhaniiformes Parkhaev 2002 [empty]
G. †Namacalathus Grotzinger et al. 2000
+
Namacalathus hermanastes Grotzinger et al. 2000
Cl. †Tentaculita Boucek 1964
+
G. †Anticalyptraea Quenstedt 1867
+
+
Invalid names: Anticalyptraea calyptrata d'Eichwald 1859 [replaced]
Invalid names: Autodetus Clarke 1894 [objective synonym]
Subcl. †Chonioconarida Farsan 1994
+
Superor. †Lirioconarida Farsan 1994
Superor. †Trompetoconarida Farsan 1994
Subcl. †Dacryoconarida Fisher 1962
+
Or. †Gonionowakiida Farsan 1994
Or. †Nowakiida Ljaschenko 1955
Or. †Procorniculinida Farsan 1994
G. †Styliola Leseuer 1826
Or. †Styliolinida Ljaschenko 1955
G. †Viratellina Boucek 1964
Or. †Microconchida Weedon 1991
+
G. †Helicoconchus Wilson et al. 2011
G. †Microconchus Murchison 1839
G. †Palaeoconchus Vinn 2006
G. †Polonoconchus Zaton and Krawczynski 2011
G. †Punctaconchus Vinn and Taylor 2007
G. †Spathioconchus Zatoń et al. 2016
Unr. †Platyzoa Cavalier-Smith 1998
+
Ph. †Platyhelminthes Gegenbaur 1859
+
Or. †Rhabdocoela von Graff 1904
+
Invalid names: Typhloplanoida Graff 1908 [empty]
Cl. Trematoda Rudolphi 1808
+
G. †Digenites Poinar and Boucot 2006
Invalid names: Turbellaria Ehrenberg 1831 [empty]
+
+
G. †Lecathylus Weller 1925
Invalid names: Sipunculida [synonym]
Invalid names: Nemertini [empty]
Unr. †Trochozoa
+
Unr. †Eutrochozoa
+
Unr. †Chaetifera
+
+
Invalid names: Echiurida [synonym]
Ph. Pogonophora Johansson 1937
Invalid names: Lobatocerebromorpha [empty], Myzostomida [empty]
+
G. †Legnodesmus Ehlers 1869
+
Legnodesmus ehlersi Howell 1958
Invalid names: Rhynchocoelia [synonym]
Invalid names: Brachiozoa Cavalier-Smith 1998 [empty]
Diagnosis
No diagnoses are available
Measurements
No measurements are available
No ecological data are available

Age range: base of the Pridoli to the top of the Kungurian or 423.00000 to 272.30000 Ma

Collections (2 total)


Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Pridoli423.0 - 419.2China (Xinjiang) Sciadophyton pristinum (10931)
Sakmarian - Kungurian293.52 - 272.3USA (Kansas) Eukaryota indet. (32659)