|Basic info||Taxonomic history||Classification||Relationships|
|Morphology||Ecology and taphonomy||External Literature Search||Age range and collections|
Original taxonomic rank is not given in the reference.
It was synonymized objectively with Vertebrata by Heimberg et al. (2010); it was reranked as the subphylum Craniata by Edgecombe et al. (2011) and Zhang (2011).
It was assigned to Olfactores by Edgecombe et al. (2011); to Cephalochordata by Zhang (2011); and to Chordata by Van Der Laan (2019).
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If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.