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Placentalia (placental)

Mammalia

Taxonomy
Placentalia was named by Owen (1837). It is extant.

It was synonymized subjectively with Eutheria by Gadow (1898); it was synonymized subjectively with Monodelphia by Hay (1930); it was reranked as the order Placentalia by Olson (1966).

It was assigned to Theria by Rowe (1988); to Mammalia by Owen (1837), Bonaparte (1850), Olson (1966) and Seiffert and Simons (2000); to Theria by McKenna and Bell (1997) and Shoshani and Tassy (2005); to Eutheria by Luo et al. (2011); and to Eutheria by Horovitz (2003), Averianov and Archibald (2005), Wible et al. (2007), Asher and Helgen (2010) and Velazco et al. (2022).

Sister taxa
Afrotheria (syn. Afroplacentalia), Americatheria, Atlantogenata (syn. Notoplacentalia, Xenafrotheria), Boreoeutheria (syn. Boreoplacentalia, Boreotheria), Educabilia, Epitheria, Exafroplacentalia, Ineducabilia, Mutilata, Ungulatomorpha

Synonyms
Synonymy list
YearName and author
1837Placentalia Owen p. 903
1850Placentalia Bonaparte p. 1
1872Monodelphia Gill p. 45
1889Monodelphia Cope p. 874
1902Monodelphia Hay p. 571
1930Monodelphia Hay p. 396
1937Monodelphia Thorpe p. 31
1966Placentalia Olson p. 302
1988Placentalia Rowe p. 245 figs. Figure 3
1996Ungulatomorpha Archibald
1997Ungulatomorpha Averianov p. 249
1997Placentalia McKenna and Bell p. 80
1998Ungulatomorpha Archibald
1998Ungulatomorpha Nessov et al. p. 45
1999Atlantogenata Waddell et al. p. cover
2000Placentalia Seiffert and Simons p. 2646
2003Placentalia Horovitz
2004Ungulatomorpha Kielan-Jaworowska et al. pp. 494, 509
2005Placentalia Averianov and Archibald p. 595
2005Placentalia Shoshani and Tassy p. 9 figs. Table 2
2007Placentalia Wible et al.
2010Atlantogenata Asher and Helgen p. 3 figs. Figure 1
2010Placentalia Asher and Helgen p. 3 figs. Figure 1
2011Placentalia Luo et al. p. 444
2022Placentalia Velazco et al. figs. Fig. 1

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Bilateria
EubilateriaAx 1987
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1874
subphylumVertebrata
superclassGnathostomata
Osteichthyes()
subclassSarcopterygii()
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
subclassAmphibiosauriaKuhn 1967
RankNameAuthor
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
subclassSynapsida
Therapsida()
infraorderCynodontia()
Mammaliamorpha
Mammaliaformes
classMammalia
Cladotheria
Zatheria
subclassTribosphenida()
subclassTheria
Eutheria()
Placentalia
Placentalia

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Unr. Placentalia Owen 1837 [placental]
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Unr. Afrotheria Stanhope et al. 1998
+
Unr. Afroinsectiphilia Waddell et al. 2001
+
Unr. Afroinsectivora Waddell et al. 2001
+
Or. Macroscelidea Butler 1956 [elephant shrew]
+
Fm. †Adapisoricidae Schlosser 1887
G. †Adunator Russell 1964
+
Invalid names: Mckennatherium Van Valen 1965 [synonym]
Fm. †Afrohypselodontidae Senut and Pickford 2021
Fm. †Amphilemuridae Hill 1953
+
Invalid names: Dormaaliidae Quinet 1964 [synonym]
Fm. †Apheliscidae Matthew 1918
G. †Litocherus Gingerich 1983
Fm. †Louisinidae Hooker and Russell 2012
Fm. Macroscelididae Bonaparte 1838 [elephant shrew]
Fm. †Myohyracidae Andrews 1914
Fm. †Rhynchocyonidae Gill 1872
Invalid names: Dipogales Murray 1866 [synonym]
Superfm. Tenrecoidea Hay 1930
+
Fm. Chrysochloridae Gray 1825 [golden mole]
+
Invalid names: Amblysominae Simonetta 1957 [synonym], Eremitalpinae Simonetta 1957 [synonym]
G. †Plesiorycteropus Filhol 1895
+
Invalid names: Majoria Thomas 1915 [synonym]
Fm. Potamogalidae Allman 1866
G. †Qatranilestes Seiffert 2010
Fm. Tenrecidae Gray 1821 [tenrec]
+
Invalid names: Centetidae Murray 1866 [synonym]
Invalid names: Afrosoricida Stanhope et al. 1998 [invalid subgroup], Centetoidea Gill 1872 [synonym], Tenrecomorpha Butler 1972 [synonym]
Invalid names: Haemochorialia [synonym]
Or. Tubulidentata Huxley 1872 [aardvark]
+
Fm. Orycteropodidae Gray 1821
+
Subfm. Orycteropodinae Gray 1821
Invalid names: Orycteropodina Bonaparte 1850 [empty]
Invalid names: Fossoromorpha [synonym]
Unr. †Paenungulatomorpha Gheerbrant et al. 2016
+
G. †Abdounodus Gheerbrant et al. 2001
+
Abdounodus hamdii Gheerbrant et al. 2001
G. †Hadrogeneios Gheerbrant 2023
+
Hadrogeneios phosphaticus Gheerbrant 2023
G. †Ocepeia Gheerbrant et al. 2001
+
Ocepeia daouiensis Gheerbrant et al. 2001
Ocepeia grandis Gheerbrant et al. 2014
Unr. Paenungulata Simpson 1945
+
Or. Hyracoidea Huxley 1869 [hyrax]
+
G. †Dimaitherium Barrow et al. 2010
G. †Namahyrax Pickford et al. 2008
Fm. †Pliohyracidae Matsumoto 1926
Fm. Procaviidae Thomas 1892 [hyrax]
+
Invalid names: Hyracidae Gray 1821 [synonym]
G. †Rukwalorax Stevens et al. 2009
Fm. †Titanohyracidae Matsumoto 1926
Invalid names: Procaviamorpha Whitworth 1954 [empty], Pseudhippomorpha Whitworth 1954 [empty]
Unr. †Sudamericungulata Avilla and Mothé 2021
+
Or. †Astrapotheria Lydekker 1894
+
Invalid names: Astrapotheroidea Ameghino 1894 [synonym]
Or. †Notoungulata Roth 1903 [notoungulate]
Subor. †Pyrotheria Ameghino 1895
Or. †Xenungulata Paula Couto 1952
Invalid names: Uranotheria [synonym]
Unr. Tethytheria McKenna 1975
+
+
Fm. †Arsinoitheriidae Andrews 1904
+
Subfm. †Arsinoitheriinae Sen and Heintz 1979
G. †Arsinoitherium Beadnell 1902
Subfm. †Palaeoamasiinae Sen and Heintz 1979
G. †Lunania Chow 1957
+
Lunania zhoui Huang 2002
G. †Namatherium Pickford et al. 2008
+
Namatherium blackcrowense Pickford et al. 2008
G. †Stylolophus Gheerbrant et al. 2018
+
Stylolophus major Gheerbrant et al. 2021
Stylolophus minor Gheerbrant et al. 2018
Invalid names: Stylolophidae Gheerbrant et al. 2021 [empty]
Or. Proboscidea Illiger 1811 [proboscidean]
+
G. †Arcanotherium Delmer 2009
+
Arcanotherium savagei Court 1995
Subor. †Barytherioidea Andrews 1906
+
Fm. †Numidotheriidae Shoshani and Tassy 1996
Fm. †Choerolophodontidae Gaziry 1976
+
G. †Afrochoerodon Picford 2001
G. †Choerolophodon Schlesinger 1917
G. †Cryptomastodon von Koenigswald 1933
+
Cryptomastodon martini Koenigswald 1933
Superfm. †Deinotherioidea Osborn 1936
+
Fm. †Deinotheriidae Bonaparte 1845 [deinothere]
Subor. Elephantiformes Tassy 1988
+
G. †Dagbatitherium Hautier et al. 2021
Superfm. Elephantoidea Gray 1821
G. †Hemimastodon Pilgrim 1912
Fm. †Palaeomastodontidae Andrews 1906
Invalid names: Phiomiidae Kalandadze and Rautian 1992 [empty]
Unr. Elephantimorpha Tassy and Shoshani 1997
+
Unr. Elephantida Tassy and Shoshani 1997
G. †Eritreaum Shoshani et al. 2006
G. †Eritreum Shoshani et al. 2006
Fm. †Mammutidae Hay 1922 [mastodon]
Invalid names: Mammutida Tassy and Shoshani 1997 [empty]
G. †Eritherium Gheerbrant 2009
+
Eritherium azzouzorum Gheerbrant 2009
Fm. †Gomphotheriidae Hay 1922 [gomphothere]
+
G. †Amahuacatherium Romero-Pittman 1996
Subfm. †Amebelodontinae Barbour 1927
Subfm. †Anancinae Hay 1922
+
Invalid names: Brevirostrinae Osborn 1923 [synonym]
G. †Blancotherium May 2019
Subfm. †Cuvieroniinae Cabrera 1929
G. †Cuvieronius Osborn 1923
+
Invalid names: Cordillerion Osborn 1926 [synonym]
G. †Eubelodon Barbour 1914
G. †Eurybelodon Lambert 2016
G. †Gnathabelodon Barbour and Sternberg 1935
Subfm. †Gomphotheriinae Hay 1922
+
Invalid names: Gnathabelodontinae Barbour and Sternberg 1935 [synonym]
G. †Gomphotherium Burmeister 1837
+
Invalid names: Genomastodon Barbour 1917 [synonym], Ocalientinus Frick 1933 [synonym], Serridentinus Osborn 1923 [synonym], Tatabelodon Frick 1933 [synonym], Tetrabelodon Cope 1884 [synonym], Trilophodon Falconer 1857 [synonym], Trobelodon Frick 1933 [synonym]
G. †Konobelodon Lambert 1990
G. †Masthodon Proano 1922
G. †Mastotherium Fischer 1814
G. †Megabelodon Barbour 1914
G. †Morrillia Osborn 1924
G. †Pediolophodon Lambert 2007
G. †Pentalophodon Falconer 1857
Subfm. †Rhynchotheriinae Hay 1922
+
Invalid names: Rhynchorostrinae Osborn 1923 [synonym]
G. †Rhynchotherium Falconer 1868
+
Invalid names: Aybelodon Frick 1933 [synonym], Blickotherium Frick 1933 [synonym], Dibelodon Cope 1884 [synonym]
G. †Selenolophodon Chang and Zhai 1978
G. †Serbelodon Frick 1933
G. †Sinomastodon Tobien et al. 1986
G. †Stegomastodon Pohlig 1912
+
Invalid names: Rhabdobunus Hay 1914 [synonym]
G. †Synconolophus Osborn 1929
G. †Tetralophodon Falconer 1857
G. †Torynobelodon Barbour 1929
Invalid names: Mastodon shepardii Leidy 1870 [nomen dubium], Rhynchotherium rectidens Osborn 1923 [nomen dubium]
Subor. †Mastodontoidea Osborn 1921
+
Fm. †Bunomastodontidae Osborn 1921
Superfm. †Moeritherioidea Osborn 1921
+
Fm. †Moeritheriidae Andrews 1906
G. †Neodesmostylus Khomenko 1928
+
Neodesmostylus primigenius Khomenko 1928
+
Invalid names: Desmostylus wollosowitschi Pfizenmayer 1927 [objective synonym]
G. †Phiomia Andrews and Beadnell 1902
+
Phiomia major Sanders et al. 2004
Phiomia serridens Andrews and Beadnell 1902
Unr. †Plesielephantiformes Shoshani 2001
+
Fm. †Phosphatheriidae Gheerbrandt et al. 2005
G. †Saloumia Tabuce et al. 2020
+
Saloumia gorodiskii Tabuce et al. 2020
Invalid names: Caenobasileus Cope 1877 [nomen vanum], Caenobasileus tremontigerus Cope 1877 [nomen vanum], Dinotherioidea Osborn 1921 [empty], Euelephantoidea [empty], Hemimastodontidae McKenna and Bell 1997 [empty], Mastodontidae Gray 1821 [empty]
Or. Sirenia Illiger 1811 [sirenian]
+
Fm. Dugongidae Gray 1821 [dugong]
+
G. †Anisosiren Kordos 1979
G. †Caribosiren Reinhart 1959
Subfm. Dugonginae Gray 1821
+
Invalid names: Halicorinae Abel 1913 [synonym], Rhytiodinae Abel 1914 [synonym], Rytiodontinae Kretzoi 1941 [synonym], Thelriopiinae Pilleri 1987 [synonym]
G. †Eotheroides Palmer 1899
+
Invalid names: Eotherium Owen 1875 [synonym], Masrisiren Kretzoi 1941 [synonym]
Subfm. †Halitheriinae Gill 1872
+
Invalid names: Archaeosireninae Abel 1914 [synonym], Eotherioidinae Kretzoi 1941 [synonym], Halianassinae Reinhart 1959 [synonym], Halitherida Carus 1868 [objective synonym], Metaxytheriinae Kretzoi 1941 [synonym]
Subfm. †Hydrodamalinae Palmer 1895
+
Invalid names: Rhytinea Brandt 1846 [synonym], Rytinadae Gray 1843 [synonym], Rytineae Brandt 1833 [synonym], Rytinidae Girard 1852 [synonym]
G. †Indosiren von Koenigswald 1952
G. †Kaupitherium Voss and Hampe 2017
G. †Lentiarenium Voss et al. 2016
G. †Miodugong Deraniyagala 1969
G. †Nanosiren Domning and Aguilera 2008
G. †Paralitherium Kordos 1977
G. †Priscosiren Velez-Juarbe and Domning 2014
G. †Prohalicore Flot 1887
G. †Sirenavus Kretzoi 1941
Invalid names: Halicorida Brandt 1868 [synonym], Halicoridae Gray 1825 [synonym], Halicoroidea Gill 1872 [synonym], Halitherium Kaup 1838 [nomen dubium], Halitherium alleni Simpson 1932 [invalid subgroup], Halitherium antillense Matthew 1916 [nomen dubium], Halitherium taulannense Sagne 2001 [invalid subgroup], Rytiodinae Simpson 1932 [empty], Trachytherium Gervais 1849 [nomen dubium]
Fm. †Prorastomidae Cope 1889
+
G. †Pezosiren Domning 2001
G. †Prorastomus Owen 1855
+
Invalid names: Prorastoma Lydekker 1892 [objective synonym]
Invalid names: Prorastomatidae Flower and Lydekker 1891 [objective synonym]
Superfm. †Prorastomoidea Heal 1973
+
Invalid names: Eotheroididae Heal 1973 [empty]
Fm. †Protosirenidae Sickenberg 1934
+
G. †Ashokia Bajpai et al. 2009
G. †Dakhlasiren Zouhri et al. 2022
G. †Kilgai Malkani 2019
G. †Libysiren Domning et al. 2017
G. †Protosiren Abel 1904
G. †Sobrarbesiren Díaz-Berenguer et al. 2018
+
Sobrarbesiren cardieli Díaz-Berenguer et al. 2018
Fm. Trichechidae Gray 1821 [manatee]
+
Subfm. †Miosireninae Abel 1919
Fm. Trichechinae Gray 1825
Invalid names: Halicorea Brandt 1846 [synonym], Halicoreae Brandt 1833 [objective synonym], Manatida Brandt 1868 [objective synonym], Manatidae Gray 1821 [objective synonym], Manatoidea Gill 1872 [objective synonym], Manatus aequatorialis Lacépède 1799 [invalid subgroup], Manatus vulgaris Domning 1996 [invalid subgroup], Trichechoidea Gill 1872 [objective synonym]
Invalid names: Anthropocephala Billberg 1827 [objective synonym], Crassitherium Van Beneden 1871 [nomen dubium], Diopia Rafinesque 1815 [objective synonym], Dugongoidea Heal 1973 [empty], Halobioidea Ameghino 1889 [objective synonym], Herbivorae Gray 1821 [synonym], Manatherium Hartlaub 1886 [nomen dubium], Manatides Billberg 1827 [objective synonym], Manatina Bonaparte 1837 [objective synonym], Manatus inornatus Leidy 1873 [nomen dubium], Pugmeodon Kaup 1838 [nomen oblitum], Rhytinidae Gill 1872 [empty], Sireniformia Burmeister 1837 [objective synonym], Sirenotherium Paula Couto 1967 [nomen dubium], Sirenotherium pirabense Paula Couto 1967 [nomen dubium], Trichechiformes Hay 1923 [objective synonym]
Invalid names: Behemota McKenna and Bell 1997 [empty]
Invalid names: Afroplacentalia [synonym], Ocepeiidae Gheerbrant et al. 2014 [empty], Pseudoungulata Waddell et al. 1999 [empty]
Unr. †Americatheria Shockey 2017
+
Unr. Xenarthra Cope 1889 [edentate]
+
G. †Adiastaltus Ameghino 1893
+
Adiastaltus habilis Ameghino 1893
Adiastaltus procerus Ameghino 1894
G. †Anathitus Ameghino 1894
+
Anathitus revelator Ameghino 1894
G. †Argyromanis Ameghino 1904
+
Argyromanis patagonica Ameghino 1904
Or. Cingulata Illiger 1811
+
Fm. Chlamyphoridae Pocock 1924
+
Subfm. Chlamyphorinae Bonaparte 1850
G. †Proeutatus Ameghino 1891
G. †Prozaedyus Ameghino 1891
G. †Stenotatus Ameghino 1891
Unr. Dasypodoidea Gray 1821
+
Fm. Dasypodidae Gray 1821 [armadillo]
G. †Eocoleophorus Oliveira et al. 1997
+
Eocoleophorus glyptodontoides Oliveira et al. 1997
Subor. †Glyptodontia Ameghino 1889
+
G. †Chacus Zurita 2002
G. †Coscinocercus Cabrera 1939
G. †Eonaucum Scillato-Yané and Carlini 1998
G. †Eosclerophorus Castellanos 1948
Fm. †Glyptatelidae Castellanos 1932
Superfm. †Glyptodontoidea Gray 1869
Infraor. †Glyptodontoinei Gray 1869
G. †Isolinia Castellanos 1951
Tr. †Neothoracophorini Castellanos 1951
Tr. †Neuryurini Hoffstetter 1958
Tr. †Palaehoplophorini Hoffstetter 1958
G. †Parahoplophorus Castellanos 1932
G. †Phlyctaenopyga Cabrera 1944
G. †Plohophoroides Castellanos 1928
G. †Plohophorops Rusconi 1934
Infraor. †Propalaehoplophoroinei Ameghino 1891
G. †Stromaphoropsis Kraglevich 1932
G. †Trachycalyptus Ameghino 1908
G. †Uruguayurus Mones 1987
G. †Zaphilus Ameghino 1889
G. †Noatherium Fernicola et al. 2021
+
Noatherium emilioi Fernicola et al. 2021
Fm. †Pachyarmatheriidae Fernicola et al. 2018
+
G. †Neoglyptatelus Carlini et al. 1997
G. †Pachyarmatherium Downing and White 1995
Unr. †Peltephilidae Ameghino 1894
+
G. †Anantiosodon Ameghino 1891
G. †Epipeltephilus Ameghino 1904
G. †Parapeltecoelus Bordas 1938
G. †Peltecoelus Ameghino 1902
G. †Peltephilus Ameghino 1887
G. †Ronwolffia Shockey 2017
G. †Proeocoleophorus Sedor et al. 2017
+
Proeocoleophorus carlinii Sedor et al. 2017
G. †Saltatherium Fernicola et al. 2021
+
Saltatherium rosaurae Fernicola et al. 2021
G. †Yuruatherium Ciancio et al. 2012
+
Yuruatherium tropicalis Ciancio et al. 2012
Invalid names: Euphracta [empty], Glyptodonta [empty]
Fm. †Ernanodontidae Ding 1979
+
G. †Asiabradypus Nessov 1987
+
Subor. Hicanodonta Ameghino 1889
+
Invalid names: Loricata [synonym], Mesodontia Ameghino 1885 [empty]
G. †Orthoarthrus Ameghino 1904
+
Orthoarthrus mixtus Ameghino 1904
Unr. Phyllophaga Owen 1842
+
Superfm. †Megalonychoidea
+
G. †Proplatyarthrus Ameghino 1905
Invalid names: Nothrotheriidae Ameghino 1920 [empty]
G. †Pseudoglyptodon Engelmann 1987
+
Pseudoglyptodon chilensis McKenna et al. 2006
Pseudoglyptodon sallaensis Engelmann 1987
Invalid names: Gravigrada [synonym]
Infraor. Pilosa Flower 1883
+
Unr. Folivora Delsuc et al. 2001
+
Cl. †Eufolivora Delsuc 2001
+
Invalid names: Eutardigrada Gaudin 1995 [synonym]
Superfm. †Mylodontoidea Gill 1872
Invalid names: Tardigrada Latham and Davies 1795 [replaced]
Superfm. †Vermilingua
+
Fm. Cyclopedidae Pocock 1924
+
Invalid names: Adiastaltidae Ameghino 1894 [synonym], Anathitidae Ameghino 1894 [synonym]
Invalid names: Anicanodonta Ameghino 1889 [synonym]
Invalid names: Edentata Cuvier 1798 [synonym], Myrmecophagi Jaekel 1911 [empty], Placophori Jaekel 1911 [empty]
+
Unr. Euarchontoglires Murphy and Eizirik 2001
+
Or. †Anagalida Szalay and McKenna 1971
+
Fm. †Anagalidae Simpson 1931
+
G. †Anagale Simpson 1931
G. †Anagalopsis Bohlin 1951
G. †Anaptogale Xu 1976
G. †Chianshania Xu 1976
G. †Diacronus Xu 1976
G. †Eosigale Hu 1993
G. †Hsiuannania Xu 1976
G. †Huaiyangale Xu 1976
G. †Interogale Huang and Zheng 1983
G. †Linnania Chow et al. 1973
G. †Pseudictops Matthew et al. 1929
G. †Qipania Hu 1993
G. †Stenanagale Wang 1975
G. †Wanogale Xu 1976
G. †Zofiagale López-Torres and Fostowicz-Frelik 2018
Fm. †Astigalidae Zhang and Tong 1981
+
G. †Astigale Zhang and Tong 1981
G. †Yupingale Tong and Wang 2006
G. †Zhujegale Zhang and Tong 1981
Fm. †Pseudictopidae Sulimski 1969
+
G. †Allictops Qiu 1977
G. †Anictops Qiu 1977
G. †Cartictops Ding and Tong 1979
G. †Haltictops Ding and Tong 1979
G. †Paranictops Qiu 1977
G. †Suyinia Tong and Wang 2006
G. †Wania Wang 1995
+
Wania chowi Wang 1995
Invalid names: Eurymyloidea Li 1977 [empty]
+
Or. Primates Linnaeus 1758 [primate]
+
G. †Berruvius Russell 1964
G. †Ceciliolemur Weigelt 1933
G. †Chasselasia Schwartz and Tattersall 1982
Subor. Cheiromyoidea Wortman 1903
Unr. Euprimateformes Bloch et al. 2007
Infraor. Haplorhini Pocock 1918 [monkey]
G. †Megatarsius Weigelt 1933
Fm. †Micromomyidae Szalay 1974
Fm. †Microsyopidae Osborn and Wortman 1892
G. †Microtarsioides Weigelt 1933
G. †Nosmips Seiffert et al. 2010
Fm. †Paromomyidae Simpson 1940
+
Invalid names: Paromomyinae [objective synonym]
Subor. †Plesiadapiformes Simons and Tattersall 1972
G. †Rooneyia Wilson 1966
Subor. Strepsirrhini Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire 1812
Invalid names: Ceciliolemuridae Weigelt 1933 [invalid subgroup], Ceciliolemuroidea Weigelt 1933 [invalid subgroup], Lemures Hubrecht [empty], Pithecus Geoffroy and Cuvier 1795 [nomen nudum], Plesitarsiiformes Gingerich 1974 [empty], Pliopithecus posthumus Schlosser 1924 [nomen dubium], Prosimiae Milne Edwards [empty], Prosimii Illiger 1811 [empty], Simia Linnaeus 1758 [nomen nudum], Simia (Cercopithecus) sinicus pileatus Kerr 1792 [nomen dubium], Simia apedia Linnaeus 1758 [nomen dubium], Simiolemuriformes [empty], Tarsii [empty], Tupaioidea Dobson 1882 [empty]
Unr. Primatomorpha Beard 1991
+
Or. Dermoptera Illinger 1811 [colugo]
+
Invalid names: Galeopithecia Jaekel 1911 [synonym], Ptenopleura Van der Hoeven 1858 [synonym], Pterophorae Gray 1821 [synonym]
+
Fm. †Plagiomenidae Matthew 1918
Or. Scandentia Wagner 1855 [treeshrew]
Invalid names: Paraprimates [synonym]
Unr. †Gliriformes Wyss and Meng 1996
+
Fm. †Arctostylopidae Schlosser 1923
+
G. †Anatolostylops Zhai 1978
Subfm. †Arctostylopinae Tong and Wang 2006
G. †Arctostylops Matthew 1915
Subfm. †Asiostylopinae Zheng 1979
Subfm. †Bothriostylopinae Tong and Wang 2006
G. †Enantiostylops Averianov 2020
Subfm. †Kazachostylopinae Nessov 1987
G. †Palaeostylops Matthew and Granger 1925
+
Invalid names: Gashatostylops Cifelli et al. 1989 [synonym]
G. †Sinostylops Tang and Yan 1976
G. †Stenostylops Huang et al. 2001
G. †Wanostylops Huang and Zheng 1997
Unr. Glires Linnaeus 1758
+
Fm. Aspalacidae Gray 1825
Unr. Duplicidentata Illiger 1811
Fm. †Eurymylidae Matthew et al. 1929
Fm. Ierboidae Gray 1825
Or. †Mixodontia Sych 1971
Unr. Simplicidentata Flower 1883
G. †Sinomylus McKenna and Meng 2001
Invalid names: Lagostomyidae [empty], Ochtodontidae Waterhouse 1840 [empty], Rodentiaformes Wyss and Meng 1996 [empty]
Superfm. †Mixodectoidea Simpson 1945
+
Fm. †Mixodectidae Cope 1883
+
G. †Dracontolestes Gazin 1941
G. †Eudaemonema Simpson 1935
G. †Mixodectes Cope 1883
+
Invalid names: Indrodon Cope 1884 [synonym], Olbodotes Osborn 1902 [synonym]
G. †Prosinopa Trouessart 1897
Invalid names: Oldobotidae Schlosser 1907 [synonym]
Invalid names: Apatemyoidea [empty], Archonta Gregory 1910 [empty], Archontoglires [synonym], Supraprimates Waddell et al. 2001 [synonym]
Unr. Laurasiatheria Waddell et al. 1999
+
+
Unr. Erinaceomorpha Gregory 1910
+
Fm. †Chambelestidae Gheerbrant and Hartenberger 1999
G. †Diacodon Cope 1875
G. †Ghambilentes Unknown 2000
G. †Quadratodon De Bast and Smith 2017
G. †Seia Russell and Gingerich 1981
Fm. †Sespedectidae Novacek 1985
G. †Talpavoides Bown and Schankler 1982
G. †Talpavus Marsh 1872
Fm. †Vastanidae Bajpai et al. 2005
Invalid names: Creotarsinae Hay 1930 [invalid subgroup]
G. †Ghamidtherium Sánchez-Villagra et al. 2007
+
Ghamidtherium dimaiensis Sánchez-Villagra et al. 2007
Subor. Soricomorpha Gregory 1910
+
Fm. †Changlelestidae Tong and Wang 1993
Fm. †Geolabididae McKenna 1960
+
Invalid names: Centetodontinae Trouessart 1879 [synonym], Metacodontidae Butler 1948 [synonym]
G. †Nycticonodon Quinet 1964
Fm. †Plesiosoricidae Winge 1917
+
Invalid names: Butselidae Quinet and Misonne 1965 [synonym]
Fm. Soricidae Fischer 1814 [shrew]
Superfm. Soricoidea Gill 1872
Infraor. †Soricota Kalandadze and Rautian 1992
Invalid names: Lipotyphla Haeckel 1866 [synonym]
Unr. Scrotifera Waddell et al. 1999
+
Or. †Acreodi Matthew 1909
+
G. †Andrewsarchus Osborn 1924
Unr. †Mesonychia [mesonychian]
G. †Mondegodon Tabuce et al. 2011
Fm. †Triisodontidae Scott 1892
Invalid names: Oxyclaenidae Scott 1892 [invalid subgroup]
Unr. †Bulbulodentata Archibald 1998
+
Fm. †Periptychidae Cope 1882 [condylarth]
Unr. Euungulata Waddell et al. 2001
+
Unr. Artiodactylamorpha Spaulding et al. 2009
Unr. †Panperissodactyla Welker et al. 2015
Invalid names: Eparctocyona McKenna 1975 [synonym], Ungulata Linnaeus 1766 [synonym]
Unr. Ferae Linnaeus 1758
+
Unr. Carnivoramorpha Wyss and Flynn 1993
Or. †Creodonta Cope 1875 [creodont]
Unr. †Pholidotamorpha Gaudin et al. 2009
Invalid names: Ostentoria [synonym]
Unr. Fereuungulata Waddell et al. 1999
+
Invalid names: Zooamata Waddell et al. 1999 [empty]
Invalid names: Variamana [synonym]
Invalid names: Laurasiaplacentalia [synonym]
Invalid names: Boreoplacentalia [synonym], Boreotheria [synonym]
Unr. Educabilia Bonaparte 1850
+
Invalid names: Pinnata Bonaparte 1850 [empty]
Unr. Epitheria McKenna 1975
+
Or. †Condylarthra Cope 1881
+
G. †Desmatoclaenus Gazin 1941
+
Desmatoclaenus dianae Van Valen 1978
+
Invalid names: Desmatoclaenus paracreodus Gazin 1941 [synonym]
Desmatoclaenus mearae Van Valen 1978
Fm. †Hyopsodontidae Trouessart 1879 [condylarth]
+
G. †Asiohyopsodus Tong and Wang 2006
+
Asiohyopsodus confuciusi Tong and Wang 2006
G. †Bubogonia Johnston and Fox 1984
+
Bubogonia bombadili Van Valen 1978
Bubogonia saskia Johnston and Fox 1984
G. †Chacomylus Williamson and Weil 2011
+
Chacomylus sladei Williamson and Weil 2011
G. †Choeroclaenus Simpson 1937
+
Subfm. †Hyopsodontinae Trouessart 1879
+
G. †Decoredon Xu 1977
G. †Obtususdon Xu 1977
G. †Hyopsodus Leidy 1870
+
Hyopsodus despiciens Matthew 1909
Hyopsodus fastigatus Russell and Wickenden 1933
Hyopsodus itinerans Godinot 1978
Hyopsodus latidens Denison 1937
Hyopsodus lepidus Matthew 1909
Hyopsodus loomisi McKenna 1960
Hyopsodus lysitensis Gingerich 1974
Hyopsodus markmani Abel and Cook 1925
Hyopsodus marshi Osborn 1902
Hyopsodus mentalis Cope 1875
+
Invalid names: Hyopsodus lemoinianus Cope 1882 [synonym]
Hyopsodus minor Loomis 1905
Hyopsodus minusculus Leidy 1873
Hyopsodus miticulus Cope 1874
Hyopsodus paulus Leidy 1870
+
Invalid names: Hyopsodus distans Marsh 1875 [synonym], Hyopsodus vicarius Cope 1873 [synonym], Stenacodon rarus Marsh 1872 [synonym]
Hyopsodus pauxillus Gingerich 1994
Hyopsodus powellianus Cope 1884
+
Invalid names: Hyopsodus browni Loomis 1905 [synonym], Hyopsodus jacksoni Loomis 1905 [synonym], Hyopsodus lawsoni Loomis 1905 [synonym]
Hyopsodus pygmaeus Cope 1872
Hyopsodus sholemi Krishtalka 1979
Hyopsodus simplex Loomis 1905
Hyopsodus tonksi Eaton 1982
Hyopsodus uintensis Osborn 1902
Hyopsodus walcottianus Matthew 1915
Hyopsodus wardi Hooker 1979
Hyopsodus wortmani Osborn 1902
Invalid names: Lemuravus Marsh 1875 [synonym], Stenacodon Marsh 1872 [synonym]
G. †Lessnessina Hooker 1979
+
Lessnessina khushuensis Hooker and Dashzeveg 2003
Lessnessina packmani Hooker 1979
Lessnessina praecipuus Russell 1987
G. †Litaletes Simpson 1935
+
Litaletes disjunctus Simpson 1935
Litaletes gazinensis Robison 1986
Litaletes gazini Robison 1986
Litaletes ondolinde Van Valen 1978
G. †Midiagnus Russell 1987
+
Midiagnus gracilis Kondrashov 2004
G. †Mioclaenus Cope 1881
+
Mioclaenus baldwini Cope 1882
Mioclaenus turgidus Cope 1881
+
Invalid names: Mioclaenus lydekkerianus Cope 1888 [synonym], Mioclaenus zittelianus Cope 1888 [synonym]
G. †Molinodus Muizon and Marshall 1987
+
Molinodus suarezi Muizon and Marshall 1987
G. †Promioclaenus Trouessart 1904
+
+
Invalid names: Ellipsodon aquilonius Simpson 1935 [synonym], Mioclaenus minimus Cope 1882 [synonym]
Promioclaenus lemuroides Matthew 1897
+
Invalid names: Ellipsodon shepherdi Gazin 1939 [synonym], Jepsenia mantiensis Gazin 1939 [synonym]
Promioclaenus thnetus Scott et al. 2013
Promioclaenus walshi Lofgren et al. 2014
Invalid names: Jepsenia Gazin 1939 [synonym]
G. †Protoselene Matthew 1897
+
Protoselene ashtoni Lofgren et al. 2014
Protoselene griphus Gazin 1939
Protoselene novissimus Gazin 1956
Invalid names: Dracoclaenus Gazin 1939 [synonym]
Subfm. †Tricuspiodontinae Simpson 1929
+
G. †Paratricuspiodon Russell 1964
G. †Tricuspiodon Lemoine 1885
G. †Valenia de Muizon and Cifelli 2000
+
Valenia wilsoni Van Valen 1978
G. †Yuodon Chow et al. 1973
+
Yuodon protoselenoides Chow et al. 1973
Invalid names: Limnotheriidae Marsh 1875 [synonym], Mioclaenidae Osborn and Earle 1895 [synonym], Pleuraspidotheriinae Zittel 1892 [empty]
Fm. †Paroxyclaenidae Weitzel
+
G. †Kopidodon Weitzel 1933
Subfm. †Merialinae Russell and Godinot 1988
+
G. †Euhookeria Russell and Godinot 1988
G. †Merialus Russell and Godinot 1988
Subfm. †Paroxyclaeninae Weitzel 1933
+
G. †Paravulpavoides Harrison 2009
G. †Paroxyclaenus Teilhard de Chardin 1922
+
Paroxyclaenus lemuroides Teilhard de Chardin 1922
G. †Pugiodens Matthes 1952
+
Pugiodens mirus Matthes 1952
Invalid names: Russellites Van Valen 1965 [synonym]
G. †Spaniella Crusafont-Pairo and Russell 1968
G. †Vulpavoides Matthes 1952
+
Vulpavoides cooperi Hooker 1986
Vulpavoides germanica Matthes 1952
Vulpavoides simplicidens Van Valen 1965
Vulpavoides vanvaleni Russell and Godinot 1988
Invalid names: Kochictidae Kretzoi 1943 [synonym]
Fm. †Pleuraspidotheriidae Zittel 1892
+
G. †Hilalia Maas et al. 2001
+
Hilalia robusta Maas et al. 2001
Hilalia saribeya Maas et al. 2001
Hilalia selanneae Maas et al. 2001
Hilalia sezerorum Maas et al. 2001
G. †Orthaspidotherium Lemoine 1885
+
G. †Parabunodon Ducrocq and Sen 1991
+
Parabunodon anatolicum Ducrocq and Sen 1991
G. †Pleuraspidotherium Lemoine 1878
+
Invalid names: Didolodontoidea Cifelli 1983 [empty], Meniscotheridae Cope 1882 [empty]
Unr. Ernotheria McKenna 1975
+
Invalid names: Kennalestida McKenna 1975 [empty]
Unr. Preptotheria McKenna 1975
+
Superor. †Deltatheridia Van Valen 1965
+
Invalid names: Zalambdodonta [empty]
Invalid names: Tokotheria McKenna 1975 [empty]
Unr. Ineducabilia Bonaparte 1850
+
Invalid names: Bestiae Linnaeus 1758 [empty]
G. †Pahelia Zack et al. 2019
+
Pahelia mysteriosa Zack et al. 2019
Fm. †Petrolemuridae Szalay et al. 1986
+
G. †Petrolemur Tong 1979
+
G. †Tingamarra Godthelp et al. 1992
+
Tingamarra porterorum Godthelp et al. 1992
Invalid names: Atlantogenata Waddell et al. 1999 [invalid subgroup], Exafroplacentalia Waddell et al. 2001 [empty], Monodelphia Gill 1872 [synonym], Ungulatomorpha Archibald 1996 [invalid subgroup]
Diagnosis
No diagnoses are available
Measurements
No measurements are available
Composition: phosphaticsubp
Maximum body mass: 1374.7 kgs
Minimum body mass: 3 gg
Environment: terrestrialsubc
Locomotion: actively mobilec
Life habit: scansorialsubc
Diet: insectivoresubc
Reproduction: viviparoussubc
Created: 2005-09-06 20:43:42
Modified: 2005-09-06 22:44:32
Source: s = species, g = genus, subc = subclass, c = class, subp = subphylum
References: Carroll 1988, Johnson and Madden 1997, Ji et al. 2002, Legendre 1988, Vizcaíno et al. 2010, Lillegraven 1979, Czaplewski 1997, Hendy et al. 2009, Martin 1990

Age range

Maximum range based only on fossils: base of the Middle Turonian to the top of the Holocene or 93.50000 to 0.00000 Ma
Minimum age of oldest fossil (stem group age): 89.3 Ma

Collections (21160 total)

Oldest occurrences

Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Middle Turonian - Late/Upper Turonian93.5 - 89.3Uzbekistan (Navoi) Cretasorex arkhangelskyi, Deltatheriidae indet. (58179) Periptychidae indet. (58168)
Judithian83.5 - 70.6Canada (Alberta) Nyctitheriidae indet. (14451)
Late/Upper Campanian83.5 - 70.6Mongolia (Omnogov) Insectivora indet. (37009)
Late/Upper Campanian - Early/Lower Maastrichtian83.5 - 66.0Brazil (São Paulo) Placentalia indet. (57000)
Maastrichtian72.1 - 66.0India (Madhya Pradesh) Kharmerungulatum vanvaleni (75493)
Maastrichtian72.1 - 66.0Portugal (Coimbra) Leptacodon sp., Palaeoryctidae indet. (49276)
Lancian70.6 - 66.0USA (Montana) Cimolestes magnus (14516 14532)
Lancian70.6 - 66.0Canada (Alberta) Cimolestes magnus (14630 14633 14635 14637)
Lancian70.6 - 66.0USA (Wyoming) Cimolestes magnus (14519 14598) Protungulatum sp. (14514)
Lancian70.6 - 66.0Canada (Saskatchewan) Cimolestes magnus (14558)
Late/Upper Maastrichtian70.6 - 66.0USA (North Dakota) Cimolestes magnus (45144)
Late/Upper Maastrichtian70.6 - 66.0USA (Montana) Paleoungulatum hooleyi, Baioconodon nordicus (183109) Protungulatum coombsi (110464) Protungulatum gorgun (14674)
Pu166.0 - 63.3USA (Montana) Mimatuta minuial, Protungulatum donnae, Purgatorius janisae, Purgatorius mckeeveri (14762)
Pu366.0 - 63.3USA (Montana) Eoconodon hutchisoni (143205) Eoconodon hutchisoni, Eoconodon nidhoggi, Oxyacodon ferronensis, Purgatorius mckeeveri, Purgatorius unio (14738) Eoconodon hutchisoni, Eoconodon nidhoggi, Purgatorius mckeeveri (218647)
Pu366.0 - 63.3USA (New Mexico) Chacomylus sladei, Valenia sp., Tiznatzinia sp. (26575)
Puercan66.0 - 63.3Canada (Saskatchewan) Arctocyonidae indet., Loxolophus schizophrenus, Baioconodon denverensis, Oxyclaenus sp., Desmatoclaenus sp. (14691) Eoconodon sp., Anisonchus oligistus, Oxyacodon agapetillus, Carnivora indet., Ravenictis krausei, Loxolophus schizophrenus, Carcinodon aquilonius, Baioconodon denverensis, Oxyclaenus corax, Litomylus orthronepius, Bubogonia saskia, Litaletes sp., Purgatorius sp. (14768) Mimatuta sp., Oxyprimus erikseni, Protungulatum donnae, Hyopsodontidae indet., Ragnarok sp. (14756) Periptychidae indet., Protungulatum donnae, Condylarthra indet. (14737)
Puercan66.0 - 63.3USA (Colorado) Ampliconus browni, Maiorana sp., Oxyprimus sp., Protungulatum donnae, Baioconodon nordicus (176863) Auraria urbana, Oxyacodon archibaldi, Ampliconus browni, Conacodon matthewi, Arctocyonidae indet., Oxyprimus galadrielae, Baioconodon denverensis, Oxyclaenus subbituminus, Baioconodon cannoni, Tinuviel gazini (14658) Baioconodon denverensis, Tinuviel gazini (14774) Carsioptychus coarctatus (176748 205865 205867 205895 205900 205901 205903 205907 205908 205910 205914 205928 209872 209892 209904 209921 209924 209943 209946 209957 209964 209968 209976 210033) Carsioptychus coartatus (206072 206084) Carsioptychus sp. (206071) Conacodon delphae, Oxyclaenus cuspidatus (14689) Conacodon entoconus (205919) Conacodon entoconus, Periptychus coarctatus, Loxolophus hyattianus, Oxyclaenus cuspidatus (14683) Conacodon harbourae (88207) Ectoconus ditrigonus (14684 14687 14688 205863 205864 205868 205871 205881 205886 209900 209983 209997) Ectoconus ditrigonus, Periptychus coarctatus (14679) Ectoconus ditrigonus, Periptychus coarctatus, Anisonchus athelas, Loxolophus hyattianus, Mioclaenidae indet., Desmatoclaenus protogonioides (14792) Eoconodon coryphaeus (205932 205934) Loxolophus sp. (209874 209879 209890 209965) Militocodon lydae (234689) Periptychidae indet. (205873) Periptychus coarctatus (14659 14680 14681 14682 14685 14686 14746 14750 14793) Periptychus coarctatus, Conacodon delphae, Mioclaenidae indet., Desmatoclaenus protogonioides (14678) Periptychus coarctatus, Loxolophus hyattianus (14677)
Puercan66.0 - 63.3USA (New Mexico) Arctocyon ferox (74549 125183) Bomburia prisca (193949 193950 193951 193952) Ellipsodon priscus (193953) Eoconodon coryphaeus, Eoconodon gaudrianus, Dissacus navajovius, Conacodon entoconus, Hemithlaeus kowalevskianus, Ectoconus ditrigonus, Periptychus coarctatus, Conacodon kohlbergeri, Loxolophus hyattianus, Loxolophus kimbetovius, Oxyclaenus cuspidatus, Oxyclaenus simplex, Choeroclaenus turgidunculus, Desmatoclaenus protogonioides, Desmatoclaenus dianae, Gillisonchus gillianus (14703) Eoconodon coryphaeus, Oxyacodon apiculatus, Loxolophus pentacus, Loxolophus hyattianus, Loxolophus priscus, Oxyclaenus cuspidatus, Oxyclaenus simplex, Bubogonia bombadili, Tiznatzinia vanderhoofi, Ellipsodon grangeri, Chriacus antiquus, Protogonodon grangeri, Conacodon sp., Ectoconus sp., Gillisonchus gillianus, Plagioptychus matthewi, Bomburia prisa, Tiznatzinia turgidunculus, Promioclaenus wilsoni (14662) Eoconodon gaudrianus, Conacodon entoconus, Hemithlaeus kowalevskianus, Ectoconus ditrigonus, Periptychus coarctatus, Loxolophus hyattianus, Erinaceomorpha indet., Choeroclaenus turgidunculus, Gillisonchus gillianus (14794) Eoconodon sp., Eoconodon coryphaeus, Eoconodon gaudrianus, Eoconodon ginibitohia, Conacodon entoconus, Hemithlaeus kowalevskianus, Ectoconus ditrigonus, Periptychus coarctatus, Oxyacodon priscilla, Oxyacodon apiculatus, Conacodon kohlbergeri, Conacodon cophater, Escatepos campi, Loxolophus kimbetovius, Oxyclaenus cuspidatus, Oxyclaenus simplex, Erinaceomorpha indet., Choeroclaenus turgidunculus, Bubogonia bombadili, Bomburia priscus, Platymastus palantir, Tiznatzinia vanderhoofi, Mimotricentes mirielae, Fimbrethil ambaronae, Gillisonchus gillianus, Promioclaenus wilsoni (14760) Hemithlaeus sp., Conacodon sp., Ectoconus sp., Anisonchus sp., Carsioptychus sp. (14661) Periptychus coarctatus, Loxolophus pentacus, Loxolophus hyattianus, Loxolophus priscus, Gillisonchus gillianus, Desmatoclaenus sp., Desmatoclaenus sp. (14795) Promioclaenus wilsoni (14657)
Puercan66.0 - 63.3USA (North Dakota) Oxyacodon priscilla, Protungulatum sp. (14765)
Puercan66.0 - 63.3USA (Wyoming) Arctocyonidae indet. (14715 14735) Arctocyonidae indet., Oxyprimus galadrielae (14804) Baioconodon denverensis, Oxyclaenus sp., Oxyclaenus cuspidatus, Promioclaenus wilsoni (14729) Baioconodon sp. (14712) Conacodon cophater (14727) Ectoconus ditrigonus (14717) Ectoconus ditrigonus, Periptychus coarctatus, Conacodon cophater, Arctocyonidae indet. (14716) Eoconodon sp., Mithrandir gillianus, Oxyacodon agapetillus, Arctocyonidae indet., Loxolophus hyattianus (14731) Eoconodon sp., Oxyprimus sp. (14710) Mimatuta makpialutae, Ragnarok wovokae (14807) Mimatuta minuial, Maiorana noctiluca, Oxyprimus galadrielae, Oxyprimus putorius, Loxolophus nordicus, Eoconodon sp., Oxyacodon josephi (14808) Mimatuta sp. (14725) Mimatuta sp., Maiorana ferrisensis, Protungulatum donnae (14711) Mimatuta sp., Oxyprimus sp., Oxyprimus galadrielae, Protungulatum donnae, Protungulatum sloani (14796) Miniconus jeanninae, Ampliconus antoni, Beornus honeyi, Conacodon harbourae, Conacodon hettingeri, Mimatuta sp., Sigynorum magnadivisus, Maiorana noctiluca, Oxyprimus sp., Protungulatum donnae (174233) Mithrandir gillianus (14714 14718 14724 14726) Mithrandir gillianus, Conacodon cophater, Arctocyonidae indet., Oxyclaenus cuspidatus (14723) Mithrandir gillianus, Loxolophus faulkneri (14707) Mithrandir gillianus, Loxolophus hyattianus (14728) Mithrandir gillianus, Loxolophus sp., Loxolophus faulkneri, Ampliconus browni (14713) Oxyacodon apiculatus (14734) Oxyclaenus simplex (14803) Periptychidae indet., Mithrandir gillianus, Alticonus gazini, Ectoconus cavigellii, Ampliconus antoni, Oxyacodon priscilla, Oxyacodon agapetillus, Loxolophus hyattianus, Loxolophus priscus, Baioconodon middletoni (14797) Periptychidae indet., Mithrandir gillianus, Ectoconus sp., Oxyacodon agapetillus, Conacodon delphae, Arctocyonidae indet., Protungulatum donnae, Protungulatum gorgun, Condylarthra indet., Conacodon harbourae (14722) Periptychidae indet., Mithrandir gillianus, Periptychus coarctatus, Oxyacodon priscilla, Loxolophus faulkneri, Promioclaenus wilsoni (14706) Periptychidae indet., Periptychus coarctatus (14719) Periptychus coarctatus (14721 14733) Periptychus coarctatus, Oxyacodon priscilla, Loxolophus priscus, Protungulatum donnae, Protoselene sp. (14720) Protungulatum donnae (14708 14709) Triisodontinae indet., Arctocyonidae indet. (14805)