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Cynodontia (cynodont)

Sister taxa
Charassognathidae, Chronoperatidae, Cynognathidae, Dviniidae, Gomphodontidae, Madysauridae, Procynosuchidae (syn. Silphedestidae), Riograndidae, Therioherpetidae (syn. Therioherpetodontidae), Thrinaxodontidae

Synonyms
Synonymy list
YearName and author
1861Cynodontia Owen p. 267
1890Cynodontia Zittel p. 574
1903Cynodontia Osborn p. 276
1904Cynodontia Osborn p. 102
1910Cynodontia Gregory p. 464
1913Cynodontia Broom p. 363
1937Cynodontia Roxo p. 43
1946Cynodontia Kuhn p. 57
1954Cynodontia Haughton and Brink p. 8
1954Cynodontia Huene p. 34
1966Cynodontia Olson p. 302
1970Masitisitherium Ellenberger p. 347
1970Masitisitherium primordialis Ellenberger p. 347
1971Cynodontia Kuhn p. 22
1977Cynodontia Colbert and Kitching p. 3
1988Cynodontia Carroll
1989Cynodontia Gauthier et al. p. 341
1992Cynodontia Fox et al. p. 233
2000Cynodontia Battail and Surkov
2001Cynodontia Hopson and Kitching p. 7
2001Cynodontia Rubidge and Sidor
2007Cynodontia Botha et al. pp. 478, 485 fig. 5
2013Cynodontia Martinez et al.
2022Cynodontia Gaetano et al. p. 2

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Bilateria
EubilateriaAx 1987
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1874
subphylumVertebrata
superclassGnathostomata
Osteichthyes()
subclassSarcopterygii()
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
RankNameAuthor
Tetrapoda
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
subclassAmphibiosauriaKuhn 1967
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
subclassSynapsida
Therapsida()
infraorderCynodontia()
infraorderCynodontia()

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Infraor. Cynodontia Owen 1861 [cynodont]
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G. †Aelurosuchus Broom 1906
+
Aelurosuchus browni Broom 1906
Fm. †Charassognathidae Kammerer 2016
+
G. †Abdalodon Kammerer 2016
+
Abdalodon diastematicus Kammerer 2016
Subfm. †Abdalodontinae Huttenlocker and Sidor 2020
+
G. †Nshimbodon Huttenlocker and Sidor 2020
+
Nshimbodon muchingaensis Huttenlocker and Sidor 2020
G. †Charassognathus Botha et al. 2007
+
Charassognathus gracilis Botha et al. 2007
Fm. †Chronoperatidae Fox et al. 1992
+
G. †Chronoperates Fox et al. 1992
+
Chronoperates paradoxus Fox et al. 1992
G. †Cromptodon Bonaparte 1972
+
Cromptodon mamiferoides Bonaparte 1972
G. †Dromatherium Emmons 1857
+
Dromatherium sylvestre Emmons 1857
Fm. †Dviniidae Tatarinov 1968
+
G. †Dvinia Amalitzky 1922
+
Dvinia prima Amalitzky 1922
+
Invalid names: Permocynodon sushkini Woodward 1932 [synonym]
Invalid names: Permocynodon Woodward 1932 [synonym]
Unr. Epicynodontia Hopson and Kitching 2001
+
Infraor. †Cynognathia Tatarinov 2008
+
G. †Cynognathus Seeley 1895
+
Cynognathus crateronotus Seeley 1895
+
Invalid names: Cynidiognathus longiceps Haughton 1924 [synonym], Cynognathus berryi Seeley 1895 [synonym], Cynognathus merenskyi Broili and Schroder 1935 [synonym], Cynognathus minor Bonaparte 1969 [synonym], Cynognathus platyceps Seeley 1895 [synonym], Karoomys browni Broom 1903 [synonym], Lycognathus ferox Broom 1913 [synonym]
Cynognathus seeleyi Broom 1913
Invalid names: Cynidiognathus Haughton 1922 [synonym], Karoomys Broom 1903 [synonym]
Unr. †Gomphodontia Seeley 1895
+
G. †Boreogomphodon Sues and Olsen 1990
+
Boreogomphodon jeffersoni Sues and Olsen 1990
G. †Diademodon Seeley 1895
+
Diademodon browni Seeley 1894
Diademodon tetragonus Seeley 1894
+
Invalid names: Cragievarus kitchingi Brink 1965 [synonym], Diademodon laticeps Brink 1955 [synonym], Diademodon ontomophonus Seeley 1908 [synonym], Diademodon parringtoni Brink 1955 [synonym], Diademodon rhodesiensis Brink 1963 [synonym]
Invalid names: Protacmon Watson 1920 [synonym]
Fm. †Diademodontidae Haughton 1925
+
G. †Titanogomphodon Keyser 1973
Invalid names: Cynochampsa Owen 1860 [nomen vanum], Cynochampsa laniaria Owen [nomen vanum], Gomphognathidae [synonym]
G. †Impidens Tolchard et al. 2021
+
Impidens hancoxi Tolchard et al. 2021
Fm. †Traversodontidae Huene 1936
+
G. †Andescynodon Bonaparte 1969
+
Invalid names: Rusconiodon Bonaparte 1970 [synonym]
G. †Arctotraversodon Sues et al. 1992
G. †Colbertosaurus Minoprio 1957
+
Invalid names: Colbertia Minoprio 1954 [replaced]
G. †Dadadon Flynn et al. 2000
G. †Etjoia Hendrickx et al. 2020
G. †Exaeretodon Cabrera 1943
+
Invalid names: Ischignathus Bonaparte 1963 [synonym], Proexaeretodon Bonaparte 1963 [synonym]
Subfm. †Gomphodontosuchinae Watson and Romer 1956
G. †Habayia Godefroit 1999
G. †Luangwa Brink 1963
G. †Mandagomphodon Hopson 2013
G. †Massetognathus Romer 1967
G. †Maubeugia Godefroit and Battail 1997
G. †Menadon Flynn et al. 2000
G. †Microscalenodon Hahn et al. 1988
G. †Nanogomphodon Hopson and Sues 2006
G. †Paratraversodon Kerber et al. 2024
G. †Pascualgnathus Bonaparte 1965
G. †Plinthogomphodon Sues et al. 1999
G. †Protuberum Reichel et al. 2009
G. †Rosieria Godefroit and Battail 1997
G. †Ruberodon Ray 2015
G. †Santacruzodon Abdala and Ribeiro 2003
G. †Scalenodon Crompton 1955
G. †Scalenodontoides Crompton and Ellenberger 1957
+
Invalid names: Belesodon Huene 1936 [synonym]
Subfm. †Sinognathinae Gao et al. 2010
G. †Siriusgnathus Pavanatto et al. 2018
Invalid names: Scalenodontinae Tatarinov 1973 [empty], Theropsodon njalilus Huene 1950 [nomen dubium]
Fm. †Trirachodontidae Romer 1967
+
G. †Cricodon Crompton 1955
G. †Langbergia Abdala et al. 2006
G. †Redondagnathus Spielmann and Lucas 2012
G. †Trirachodon Seeley 1895
Invalid names: Gomphognathoidea Broom 1903 [empty]
Infraor. Eucynodontia Kemp 1982
+
G. †Candelariodon de Oliveira et al. 2011
+
Candelariodon barberenai de Oliveira et al. 2011
Fm. †Cistecynodontidae Abdala 1996
+
G. †Cistecynodon Brink and Kitching 1953
+
Cistecynodon parvus Brink and Kitching 1953
Fm. †Dromatheriidae Gill 1872
+
G. †Polonodon Sulej et al. 2018
+
Polonodon wozniekiensis Sulej et al. 2018
G. †Pseudotriconodon Hahn et al. 1984
+
Pseudotriconodon chatterjeei Lucas and Oakes 1988
Pseudotriconodon wildi Hahn et al. 1984
G. †Rewaconodon Datta et al. 2004
+
Rewaconodon tikiensis Datta et al. 2004
Fm. †Ecteniniidae Martinez et al. 2013
+
G. †Diegocanis Martinez et al. 2013
+
Diegocanis elegans Martinez et al. 2013
G. †Kataigidodon Kligman et al. 2020
+
Kataigidodon venetus Kligman et al. 2020
G. †Microconodon Osborn 1886
+
Unr. Probainognathia Hopson 1990
+
G. †Aleodon Crompton 1955
+
Aleodon brachyrhamphus Crompton 1955
Aleodon cromptoni Martinelli et al. 2017
Fm. †Chiniquodontidae Huene 1936
+
Unr. †Aleodontinae Martinelli et al. 2024
G. †Chiniquodon Huene 1936
G. †Deccanodon Nath and Yadagiri 2007
G. †Lepagia Hahn et al. 1987
G. †Ecteninion Martinez et al. 1996
+
Ecteninion lunensis Martinez et al. 1996
Unr. †Ictidosauria Broom 1929
+
G. †Trithelodon Broom 1930
Invalid names: Ictidosauridae [empty]
Fm. †Lumkuiidae Hopson and Kitching 2001
+
G. †Lumkuia Hopson and Kitching 2001
Fm. †Probainognathidae Romer 1973
+
G. †Bonacynodon Martinelli et al. 2016
G. †Probainognathus Romer 1970
+
Unr. †Prozostrodontia Liu and Olsen 2010
+
G. †Alemoatherium Martinelli et al. 2017
G. †Botucaraitherium Soares et al. 2014
G. †Prozostrodon Bonaparte and Barberena 2001
G. †Therioherpeton Bonaparte and Barberena 1975
G. †Pseudotherium Wallace et al. 2019
+
Pseudotherium argentinus Wallace et al. 2019
G. †Santacruzgnathus Martinelli et al. 2016
+
Santacruzgnathus abdalai Martinelli et al. 2016
G. †Tessellatia Gaetano et al. 2022
+
Tessellatia bonapartei Gaetano et al. 2022
G. †Trucidocynodon Oliveira et al. 2010
+
Trucidocynodon riograndensis Oliveira et al. 2010
Invalid names: Chiniquodontoidea [empty]
Fm. †Galesauridae Lydekker 1890
+
G. †Bolotridon Coad 1977
+
Bolotridon frerensis Seeley 1895
Invalid names: Tribolodon Seeley 1895 [replaced]
G. †Cynosaurus Schmidt 1927
+
Cynosaurus suppostus Owen 1876
+
Invalid names: Baurocynodon gracilis Brink 1951 [synonym], Cynosuchus whaitsi Haughton 1918 [synonym], Mygalesuchus peggyae Broom 1942 [synonym]
Invalid names: Baurocynodon Brink 1951 [synonym], Cynosuchoides Broom 1931 [synonym], Cynosuchus Owen 1876 [replaced], Mygalesuchus Broom 1942 [synonym]
G. †Nanictosaurus Broom 1936
+
+
Invalid names: Nanictosaurus robustus Broom 1940 [synonym], Nanictosaurus rubidgei Broom 1940 [synonym]
G. †Progalesaurus Sidor and Smith 2004
+
Progalesaurus lootbergensis Sidor and Smith 2004
G. †Sysphinctostoma Broili and Schröder 1936
+
Sysphinctostoma smithi Broili and Schröder 1936
Invalid names: Cynosauridae Haughton and Brink 1954 [synonym], Cynosuchidae Broom 1915 [synonym], Nythosauridae Watson 1917 [synonym]
G. †Platycraniellus van Hoepen 1917
+
Platycraniellus elegans van Hoepen 1916
Infraor. †Procynosuchia
+
Unr. †Galesauria Bonaparte 2012
+
G. †Galesaurus Owen 1860
+
Galesaurus planiceps Owen 1860
+
Invalid names: Glochinodon detinens van Hoepen 1916 [synonym], Glochinodontoides gracilis Haughton 1924 [synonym], Notictosaurus gracilis Broom and Robinson 1948 [synonym]
G. †Probelesodon Romer 1969
G. †Thrinaxodon Seeley 1894
+
Thrinaxodon liorhinus Seeley 1894
+
Invalid names: Ictidopsis elegans Broom 1912 [synonym], Ictidopsis formosa van Hoepen 1916 [synonym], Micrictodon marionae Broom 1937 [synonym], Notictosaurus luckhoffi Broom 1936 [synonym], Nythosaurus larvatus Owen 1876 [synonym], Thrinaxodon putterilli Broom 1932 [synonym]
Invalid names: Ictidopsis Broom 1912 [synonym], Micrictodon Broom 1937 [synonym], Notictosaurus Broom 1936 [synonym]
G. †Vetusodon Abdala et al. 2019
+
Vetusodon elikhulu Abdala et al. 2019
G. †Gaumia Hahn et al. 1987
+
Gaumia incisa Hahn et al. 1987
Gaumia longiradicata Hahn et al. 1987
G. †Hahnia Godefroit and Battail 1997
+
Hahnia obliqua Godefroit and Battail 1997
G. †Hwanghocynodon Young 1979
+
G. †Kunminia Young 1947
+
Kunminia minima Young 1947
Fm. †Madysauridae Tatarinov 2005
+
G. †Madysaurus Tatarinov 2005
+
Madysaurus sharovi Tatarinov 2005
Unr. Mammaliamorpha Rowe 1988 [mammaliamorph]
+
Unr. †Brasilodontia Bonaparte 2012
+
Fm. †Brasilodontidae Bonaparte and Martinelli 2005
+
G. †Brasilitherium Bonaparte et al. 2003
+
Brasilitherium riograndensis Bonaparte et al. 2003
G. †Brasilodon Bonaparte et al. 2003
+
Brasilodon quadrangularis Bonaparte et al. 2003
G. †Minicynodon Bonaparte et al. 2010
+
Minicynodon maieri Bonaparte et al. 2010
G. †Panchetocynodon Das and Gupta 2012
+
Panchetocynodon damodarensis Das and Gupta 2012
G. †Protheriodon Bonaparte et al. 2006
+
Protheriodon estudianti Bonaparte et al. 2006
Unr. Mammaliaformes Rowe 1988 [mammaliaform]
+
G. †Adelobasileus Lucas and Hunt 1990
+
Adelobasileus cromptoni Lucas and Hunt 1990
Unr. †Amphilestheria Gaetano and Rougier 2012
+
G. †Condorodon Gaetano and Rougier 2012
+
Condorodon spanios Gaetano and Rougier 2012
G. †Bocaconodon Montellano et al. 2008
+
Bocaconodon tamaulipensis Montellano et al. 2008
Or. †Docodonta Kretzoi 1946 [dodocont]
+
G. †Agilodocodon Meng et al. 2015
+
Agilodocodon scansorius Meng et al. 2015
G. †Castorocauda Ji et al. 2006
+
Castorocauda lutrasimilis Ji et al. 2006
Fm. †Docodontidae Simpson 1929
+
G. †Borealestes Waldman and Savage 1972
G. †Cyrtlatherium Freeman 1979
G. †Delsatia Sigogneau-Russell and Godefroit 1997
G. †Docodon Marsh 1881
+
Invalid names: Diacynodon Schlosser 1890 [synonym]
G. †Dsungarodon Pfretzschner et al. 2005
+
Invalid names: Acuodulodon Hu et al. 2007 [synonym]
G. †Gondtherium Prasad and Manhas 2007
G. †Haldanodon Kühne and Krusat 1972
G. †Peraiocynodon Simpson 1928
G. †Docofossor Luo et al. 2015
+
Docofossor brachydactylus Luo et al. 2015
G. †Itatodon Lopatin and Averianov 2005
+
Itatodon tatarinovi Lopatin and Averianov 2005
Fm. †Simpsonodontidae Averianov et al. 2010
+
G. †Simpsonodon Kermack et al. 1987
G. †Tashkumyrodon Martin and Averianov 2004
+
Tashkumyrodon desideratus Martin and Averianov 2004
Fm. †Tegotheriidae Tatarinov 1994
+
G. †Hutegotherium Averianov et al. 2010
G. †Khorotherium Averianov et al. 2018
G. †Krusatodon Sigogneau-Russell 2003
G. †Microdocodon Zhou et al. 2019
G. †Paritatodon Martin and Averianov 2010
G. †Sibirotherium Maschenko et al. 2002
G. †Tegotherium Tatarinov 1994
G. †Hadrocodium Luo et al. 2001
+
Hadrocodium wui Luo et al. 2001
Unr. †Haramiyida Hahn 1989
+
Subor. †Haramiyoidea Hahn 1973
+
Fm. †Haramiyaviidae Butler 2000
Fm. †Haramiyidae Simpson 1940
+
Invalid names: Microcleptidae Simpson 1928 [synonym]
G. †Mojo Hahn et al. 1987
+
Mojo usuratus Hahn et al. 1987
Subor. †Theroteinida Hahn et al. 1989
+
Invalid names: Theroteinidae Sigogneau-Russell et al. 1986 [empty]
G. †Theroteinus Sigogneau-Russell et al. 1986
+
Theroteinus nikolai Sigogneau-Russell et al. 1986
Fm. †Kuehneotheriidae Kermack et al. 1968
+
G. †Fluctuodon Debuysschere 2017
+
Fluctuodon necmergor Debuysschere 2017
G. †Kotatherium Datta 1981
+
Kotatherium haldanei Datta 1981
G. †Kuehneotherium Kermack et al. 1968
+
Kuehneotherium praecursoris Kermack et al. 1968
Kuehneotherium stanislavi Debuysschere 2017
Cl. Mammalia Linnaeus 1758 [mammal]
+
Unr. †Allotheria Marsh 1880
+
G. †Boreodon Lambe 1902
Subor. †Eleutherodontida Kermack et al. 1998
Unr. †Euharamiyida Bi et al. 2014
G. †Fractinus Higgins 2003
Subor. †Gondwanatheria Mones 1987
Or. †Multituberculata Cope 1884 [multituberculate]
Or. †Symmetrodonta Simpson 1925 [symmetrodont]
Fm. †Ameghinichnidae Casamiquela 1961
+
G. †Catocapes Mateus et al. 2017
G. †Koreasaltipes Kim et al. 2017
G. †Ameghinichnus Casamiquela 1961
+
Ameghinichnus acutus Ellenberger 1970
Ameghinichnus cancrivorus Ellenberger 1970
Ameghinichnus formosus Ellenberger 1970
Ameghinichnus fortis Ellenberger 1970
Ameghinichnus ginsburgi Ellenberger 1970
Ameghinichnus gracilis Ellenberger 1970
Ameghinichnus intentus Ellenberger 1970
Ameghinichnus major Ellenberger 1970
Ameghinichnus manantialensis De Valais 2009
Ameghinichnus mirabilis Ellenberger 1970
Ameghinichnus mirus Ellenberger 1970
Ameghinichnus parvulus Ellenberger 1970
Ameghinichnus parvus Ellenberger 1970
Ameghinichnus patagonicus Casamiquela 1961
Ameghinichnus vandijki Ellenberger 1970
Invalid names: Eopentapodiscus Ellenberger 1970 [synonym]
Subcl. †Apotheria Averianov and Lopatin 2011
+
Superor. †Archaeosymmetrodonta Averianov and Lopatin 2011
Superor. †Archaeotriconodonta Averianov and Lopatin 2011
Superor. †Paratribosphenida Averianov and Lopatin 2011
Unr. †Archaeoceti Flower 1883
+
Invalid names: Basilosauroidea Mitchell 1989 [empty], Hydrothereuta Ameghino 1889 [objective synonym], Zeuglodonta Ameghino 1889 [synonym], Zeuglodontia Pictet 1853 [synonym]
Or. †Arrhinolemuroidea Ameghino 1899
+
G. †Arrhinolemur Ameghino 1898
G. †Atlasodon Sigogneau-Russell 1991
+
Atlasodon monbaroni Sigogneau-Russell 1991
Unr. Australosphenida Luo et al. 2001
+
G. †Ambondro Flynn et al. 1999
Unr. †Ausktribosphenida Rich et al. 1997
G. †Ausktribosphenos Rich et al. 1997
G. †Bishops Rich et al. 2001
Fm. †Henosferidae Rougier et al. 2007
Or. Monotremata Bonaparte 1838 [monotreme]
Fm. †Bondesiidae Bonaparte 1990
+
G. †Bondesius Bonaparte 1990
Unr. Cladotheria McKenna 1975
+
Fm. †Amphitheriidae Owen 1846
Unr. †Dryolestoidea Butler 1939
Fm. †Vincelestidae Bonaparte 1986
Unr. Zatheria McKenna 1975
Fm. †Dipodiscidae Ellenberger 1974
+
G. †Entodipodiscus Ellenberger 1974
Unr. Ditremata Ameghino 1889
+
Unr. Homalodonta Ameghino 1889
Subcl. Unguiculata Gray 1821
G. †Eotetrapodiscus Ellenberger 1970
+
Eotetrapodiscus cursor Ellenberger 1970
Eotetrapodiscus moyenensis Ellenberger 1970
Subcl. †Eotheria Kermack and Mussett 1958
+
Or. †Triconodonta Osborn 1888 [triconodont]
G. †Erythrotherium Crompton 1964
+
Erythrotherium parringtoni Crompton 1964
Or. †Eutriconodonta Kermack et al. 1973
+
G. †Chaoyangodens Hou and Meng 2014
G. †Dyskritodon Sigogneau-Russell 1995
Fm. †Gobiconodontidae Jenkins, Jr. and Schaff 1988
+
Invalid names: Repenomamidae Li et al. 2000 [synonym]
G. †Hakusanodon Rougier et al. 2007
G. †Indotriconodon Bajpai et al. 2024
G. †Jeholodens Ji et al. 1999
Fm. †Jeholodentidae Luo et al. 2007
G. †Juchilestes Gao et al. 2010
Fm. †Klameliidae Martin and Averianov 2007
G. †Liaoconodon Meng et al. 2011
G. †Sangarotherium Averianov et al. 2018
Fm. †Triconodontidae Marsh 1887
Invalid names: Austrotriconodontidae Bonaparte 1992 [empty]
G. †Eutrochodon Roth 1904
+
Eutrochodon inceptus Roth 1904
G. †Florentinoameghinia Simpson 1932
+
G. †Fruitafossor Luo and Wible 2005
+
Fruitafossor windscheffeli Luo and Wible 2005
G. †Gobiotheriodon Trofimov 1997
+
Gobiotheriodon infinitus Trofimov 1980
Invalid names: Gobiodon Trofimov 1980 [replaced]
G. †Helioseus Sudre 1979
+
Helioseus insolitus Sudre 1979
Subcl. Holotheria Jaekel 1911
+
Invalid names: Diungulati Jaekel 1911 [empty]
G. †Likhoeletherium Ellenberger 1970
G. †Lophiodolodus Stirton 1947
+
G. †Lufengoconodon Young 1982
G. †Malutitetrapodiscus Ellenberger 1970
+
Malutitetrapodiscus minimus Ellenberger 1970
Malutitetrapodiscus pertinax Ellenberger 1970
Malutitetrapodiscus saltator Ellenberger 1970
Malutitetrapodiscus tenuis Ellenberger 1970
G. †Malutitetrasauropodiscus Ellenberger 1970
+
Malutitetrasauropodiscus tenuis Ellenberger 1970
Infracl. Marsupialia Illiger 1811 [marsupial]
+
Superor. Diprotodonta Owen 1866
G. †Wirunodon Goin and Candela 2004
Subcl. Mesotheria Jaekel 1911
+
Or. Bimani Jaekel 1911
Invalid names: Galeopitheci Jaekel 1911 [empty], Simiae [empty]
G. †Microderson Sigogneau-Russell 1991
+
Microderson laaroussii Sigogneau-Russell 1991
Subcl. Miotheria Jaekel 1911
+
Invalid names: Haplodonti Jaekel 1911 [empty]
G. †Molapopentapodiscus Ellenberger 1970
Fm. †Paraeopentapodiscidae Ellenberger 1974
+
G. †Paraeopentapodiscus Ellenberger 1974
G. †Plagiocoelus Ameghino 1894
+
Plagiocoelus obliquus Ameghino 1894
G. Pleurodon Harland 1831
Or. Prensiculantia Illiger 1811
+
Fm. Cunicularia Illiger 1811
Fm. Macropoda Illiger 1811
Invalid names: Aculeata Illiger 1811 [empty], Agilia Illiger 1811 [empty], Palmipeda Illiger 1811 [empty]
Subcl. †Prototheria Gill 1872
+
Invalid names: Ornithodelphia de Blainville 1834 [empty], Ornithostomi Cope 1889 [empty]
Or. †Ptolemaiida Simons and Bown 1995
+
Fm. †Kelbidae Cote et al. 2007
Fm. †Ptolemaiidae Osborn 1908
G. †Qarunavus Simons and Gingerich 1974
Or. Sarcobora Ameghino 1889
+
Invalid names: Dasyura Ameghino 1891 [empty]
G. †Schadipes Lockley and Foster 2003
+
Schadipes crypticus Lockley and Foster 2003
G. †Sederipes Stanford et al. 2018
+
Sederipes goddardensis Stanford et al. 2018
Fm. †Sororyctidae Gingerich et al. 1998
+
G. †Sororyctes Gingerich et al. 1998
Fm. †Thereuodontidae Sigogneau-Russell and Ensom 1998
+
G. †Thereuodon Sigogneau-Russell 1989
Unr. Theriamorpha Rowe 1993
+
Fm. †Amphilestidae Osborn 1888
Unr. †Theriiformes Rowe 1988
G. †Tikitherium Datta 2005
+
Tikitherium copei Datta 2005
G. †Tricorynopus Sarjeant and Langston 1994
G. †Trilobodon Roth 1902
+
Trilobodon brancoi Roth 1902
Unr. †Uintatheriamorpha Schoch and Lucas 1985
+
Or. †Dinocerata Marsh 1872 [uintathere]
G. †Wanotherium Tang and Yan 1976
+
Wanotherium xuanchengensis Tang and Yan 1976
Invalid names: Acrotheria Averianov and Lopatin 2011 [empty], Anagonia Ameghino 1904 [nomen dubium], Anagonia insulata Ameghino 1904 [nomen dubium], Anisorhizus Ameghino 1902 [nomen dubium], Anisorhizus atriarius Ameghino 1902 [nomen dubium], Aquila ferox Shufeldt 1913 [nomen dubium], Archaeorycteropus patagonicus Ameghino 1905 [nomen vanum], Bellua Linnaeus 1758 [empty], Bunotheria Cope 1877 [empty], Cimolomidae Marsh 1889 [empty], Deinotheria Scott 1873 [empty], Diplodon ampliatus Roth 1902 [nomen vanum], Diplodonops Ameghino 1902 [nomen vanum], Dipriodontidae Marsh 1889 [empty], Eopentapodiscidae Ellenberger 1974 [empty], Erecta Illiger 1811 [empty], Holotheria Wible et al. 1995 [empty], Homunculus imago Ameghino 1894 [nomen dubium], Hypotheria Huxley 1880 [empty], Isolophodon aplanatus Roth 1904 [nomen vanum], Lobodon vetus Leidy 1853 [nomen dubium], Marsupionta Gregory 1947 [invalid subgroup], Necrolestidae Ameghino 1894 [empty], Ovovivipara [empty], Pachydermata Unknown [empty], Pachypithecus Ameghino 1897 [nomen dubium], Pachypithecus macrognathus Ameghino 1897 [nomen dubium], Pansirenia Velez-Juarbe and Wood 2018 [empty], Phoca aegyptiaca Blainville 1839 [nomen dubium], Phoca aegyptiaca antiqua Blainville 1839 [nomen dubium], Picunia Roth 1902 [nomen dubium], Praephoca Diedrich 2011 [nomen dubium], Praephoca bendullensis Diedrich 2011 [nomen dubium], Promammalia Haeckel [empty], Proplanodus Ameghino 1902 [nomen dubium], Proplanodus adnepos Ameghino 1902 [nomen dubium], Prostylophorus Roth 1902 [nomen dubium], Prostylophorus margeriei Roth 1902 [nomen dubium], Protobradidae Ameghino 1902 [invalid subgroup], Protobradys Ameghino 1902 [nomen vanum], Protobradys harmonicus Ameghino 1902 [nomen vanum], Simioidea Ameghino 1901 [empty], Solipedia Rafinesque [empty], Stenogenium aenigmaticum Ameghino 1901 [nomen dubium], Stylodontidae Marsh 1879 [empty], Subungulata Illiger 1811 [empty], Sukotyro Kerr 1792 [nomen vanum], Trichechus hydropithecus Shaw 1800 [nomen nudum], Volaticotheria Meng et al. 2006 [empty], Yinotheria Chow and Rich 1982 [empty]
Or. †Morganucodonta Kermack 1973
+
G. †Bridetherium Clemens 2011
+
Bridetherium dorisae Clemens 2011
G. †Cherwellia Butler and Sigogneau-Russel 2016
+
Cherwellia leei Butler and Sigogneau-Russel 2016
G. †Cifellilestes Davis et al. 2022
+
Cifellilestes ciscoensis Davis et al. 2022
G. †Hallautherium Clemens 1980
+
Hallautherium schalchi Clemens 1980
Fm. †Megazostrodontidae Gow 1986
+
G. †Dinnetherium Jenkins, Jr. et al. 1983
G. †Megazostrodon Crompton and Jenkins 1968
G. †Wareolestes Freeman 1979
Fm. †Morganucodontidae Kuehne 1958
+
G. †Brachyzostrodon Sigogneau-Russell 1983
G. †Eozostrodon Parrington 1941
G. †Gondwanadon Datta and Das 1996
G. †Helvetiodon Clemens 1980
G. †Indotherium Yadagiri 1984
+
Invalid names: Indozostrodon Datta and Das 2001 [synonym]
G. †Morganucodon Kuehne 1949
G. †Paikasigudodon Prasad and Manhas 2002
G. †Paceyodon Clemens 2011
+
Paceyodon davidi Clemens 2011
G. †Purbeckodon Butler et al. 2012
+
Purbeckodon batei Butler et al. 2012
G. †Storchodon Martin et al. 2019
+
Storchodon cingulatus Martin et al. 2019
G. †Stylidens Butler and Sigogneau-Russel 2016
+
Stylidens hookeri Butler and Sigogneau-Russel 2016
G. †Sinoconodon Patterson and Olson 1961
+
Sinoconodon rigneyi Patterson and Olson 1961
+
Invalid names: Lufengoconodon changchiawaensis Young 1982 [synonym], Sinoconodon parringtoni Young 1982 [synonym], Sinoconodon yangi Zhang and Cui 1983 [synonym]
Fm. †Tritheledontidae Broom 1912
+
Unr. †Chalimininae Martinelli and Rougier 2007
+
G. †Chaliminia Bonaparte 1980
+
Chaliminia musteloides Bonaparte 1980
G. †Diarthrognathus Crompton 1958
+
Diarthrognathus broomi Crompton 1958
G. †Elliotherium Sidor and Hancox 2006
+
Elliotherium kersteni Sidor and Hancox 2006
G. †Irajatherium Martinelli et al. 2005
+
Irajatherium hernandezi Martinelli et al. 2005
G. †Pachygenelus Watson 1913
+
Pachygenelus monus Watson 1913
G. †Pattsia Lees and Mills 1983
+
Pattsia likhoelensis Lees and Mills 1983
G. †Riograndia Bonaparte et al. 2001
+
Riograndia guaibensis Bonaparte et al. 2001
G. †Tritheledon Broom 1930
+
Tritheledon riconoi Broom 1912
Invalid names: Pachygenelus milleri Chatterjee 1983 [nomen dubium]
Fm. †Tritylodontidae Cope 1884
+
G. †Archaeodon von Huene 1925
+
Invalid names: Archaeodon reuningi von Huene 1925 [nomen dubium]
G. †Bienotherium Young 1940
+
Bienotherium magnum Chow 1962
Bienotherium minor Young 1947
+
Invalid names: Bienotherium elegans Young 1940 [synonym], Oligokyphus sinensis Young 1974 [synonym]
G. †Bienotheroides Young 1982
+
Bienotheroides shartegensis Watabe et al. 2007
Bienotheroides ultimus Maisch et al. 2004
G. †Bocatherium Clark and Hopson 1985
+
Bocatherium mexicanum Clark and Hopson 1985
G. †Chalepotherium Simpson 1928
+
Chalepotherium plieningeri Ameghino 1903
G. †Dianzhongia Cui 1981
+
G. †Dinnebitodon Sues 1986
+
Dinnebitodon amarali Sues 1986
G. †Kayentatherium Kermack 1982
+
Kayentatherium wellesi Kermack 1982
+
Invalid names: Nearctylodon broomi Lewis 1986 [synonym]
Invalid names: Nearctylodon Lewis 1986 [synonym]
G. †Likhoelia Ginsburg 1961
+
Likhoelia ellenbergeri Ginsburg 1961
G. †Lufengia Chow and Hu 1959
+
Lufengia delicata Chow and Hu 1959
G. †Montirictus Matsuoka et al. 2016
+
Montirictus kuwajimaensis Matsuoka et al. 2016
G. †Nuurtherium Velazco et al. 2017
+
Nuurtherium baruunensis Velazco et al. 2017
G. †Oligokyphus Hennig 1922
+
Oligokyphus biserialis Hennig 1922
Oligokyphus lufengensis Luo and Sun 1993
Oligokyphus major Kühne 1956
Oligokyphus minor Kühne 1956
Oligokyphus triserialis Hennig 1922
G. †Polistodon He and Cai 1984
+
Polistodon chuannanensis He and Cai 1984
G. †Shartegodon Velazco et al. 2017
+
Shartegodon altai Velazco et al. 2017
G. †Stereognathus Charlesworth 1854
+
Stereognathus ooliticus Charlesworth 1854
+
Invalid names: Stereognathus hebridicus Waldman and Savage 1972 [synonym]
Invalid names: Xenocretosuchus Tatarinov and Matchenko 1999 [synonym]
G. †Tritylodon Owen 1884
+
Tritylodon longaevus Owen 1884
Invalid names: Tritylodon fraasi Lydekker 1887 [nomen vanum]
G. †Tritylodontoides Fourie 1963
+
Tritylodontoides maximus Fourie 1963
G. †Yuanotherium Hu et al. 2009
+
Yuanotherium minor Hu et al. 2009
G. †Yunnanodon Cui 1986
+
Invalid names: Yunnania Cui 1976 [replaced]
G. Mitredon Shapiro and Jenkins 2001
+
Mitredon cromptoni Shapiro and Jenkins 2001
G. †Nythosaurus Owen 1859
+
Nythosaurus browni Broom 1912
Fm. †Procynosuchidae Broom 1937
+
G. †Procynosuchus Broom 1937
+
+
Invalid names: Aelurodraco microps Broom and Robinson 1948 [synonym], Cyrbasiodon boycei Broom 1931 [synonym], Galecranium liorhynchus Broom 1948 [synonym], Galeophrys kitchingi Broom 1948 [synonym], Leavachia duvenhagei Broom 1948 [synonym], Leavachia gracilis Brink and Kitching 1951 [synonym], Mygalesaurus platyceps Broom 1942 [synonym], Nanictosuchus melinodon Broom 1940 [synonym], Paracynosuchus rubidgei Broom 1940 [synonym], Parathrinaxodon proops Parrington 1936 [synonym], Procynosuchus rubidgei Broom 1938 [synonym], Protocynodon pricei Broom 1949 [synonym], Scalopocynodon gracilis Brink 1961 [synonym], Silphedestes polyodon Broom 1949 [synonym], Silphedocynodon gymnotemporalis Brink 1951 [synonym]
Procynosuchus vladimirense Tatarinov 2004
Invalid names: Aelurodraco Broom and Robinson 1948 [synonym], Cyrbasiodon Broom 1931 [synonym], Galecranium Broom 1948 [synonym], Galeophrys Broom 1948 [synonym], Leavachia Broom 1948 [synonym], Mygalesaurus Broom 1942 [synonym], Nanictosuchus Broom 1940 [synonym], Paracynosuchus Broom 1940 [synonym], Parathrinaxodon Parrington 1936 [synonym], Protocynodon Broom 1949 [synonym], Scalopocynodon Brink 1961 [synonym], Silphedestes Broom 1949 [synonym], Silphedocynodon Brink 1951 [synonym]
G. †Sludica Ivakhnenko 2012
+
Sludica bulanovi Ivakhnenko 2012
G. †Uralocynodon Tatarinov 1987
+
Uralocynodon tverdokhlebovae Tatarinov 1987
Invalid names: Silphedestidae Haughton and Brink 1954 [synonym]
Fm. †Therioherpetidae Battail 1991
+
G. †Charruodon Abdala and Ribeiro 2000
+
Charruodon tetracuspidatus Abdala and Ribeiro 2000
G. †Meurthodon Sigogneau-Russell and Hahn 1994
+
Meurthodon gallicus Sigogneau-Russell and Hahn 1994
Invalid names: Therioherpetodontidae Bonaparte and Barberena 1975 [synonym]
Fm. †Thrinaxodontidae Watson and Romer 1956
+
G. †Nanocynodon Tatarinov 1968
+
Nanocynodon seductus Tatarinov 1968
G. †Novocynodon Ivakhnenko 2012
Invalid names: Cynognathidae [empty], Cynognathoidea Brink 1963 [empty], Gomphodontidae [empty], Masitisitherium Ellenberger 1970 [nomen nudum], Riograndidae Bonaparte et al. 2001 [empty]
Diagnosis
ReferenceDiagnosis
R. Owen 1861A pair of teeth in each jaw resembling in shape, position, ami relative size to the other teeth, the canines of carnivorous mammals, and dividing the incisors from the molars.
Measurements
No measurements are available
Composition: phosphaticsubp
Maximum body mass: 1374.7 kgs
Minimum body mass: 3 gs
Environment: terrestrialuc
Locomotion: actively mobilec
Created: 2017-04-17 15:15:35
Modified: 2017-04-17 15:15:35
Source: s = species, c = class, subp = subphylum, uc = unranked clade
References: Hopson 1973, Martin 1990, Hendy et al. 2009, Vizcaíno et al. 2010, Legendre 1988, Carroll 1988, Johnson and Madden 1997

Age range

Maximum range based only on fossils: base of the Wuchiapingian to the top of the Holocene or 259.90000 to 0.00000 Ma
Minimum age of oldest fossil (stem group age): 259.51 Ma

Collections (23158 total)

Oldest occurrences

Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Late/Upper Severodvinian264.28 - 259.51Russian Federation (Vologda) Sludica bulanovi (233451)
Severodvinian264.28 - 259.51Russian Federation (Vologda) Sludica bulanovi (179657)
Late/Upper Severodvinian - Vyatkian264.28 - 257.4Russian Federation (Vladimir) Cyrbasiodon vladimirense (93026)
Late/Upper Severodvinian - Vyatkian264.28 - 257.4Russian Federation (Kirov) Nanocynodon seductus (179654)
Late/Upper Severodvinian - Vyatkian264.28 - 257.4Russian Federation (Orenburg) Uralocynodon tverdokhlebovae (179653)
Late/Upper Severodvinian - Vyatkian264.28 - 257.4Russian Federation (Arkhangelsk) Dvinia prima, Permocynodon sushkini (28065)
Wuchiapingian259.9 - 254.17South Africa (Northern Cape) Procynosuchus delaharpeae (190568)
Wuchiapingian259.9 - 254.17Germany (Hesse) Procynosuchus sp. (84836)
Wuchiapingian259.9 - 254.17China (Henan) Hwanghocynodon multienspidus (92909)
Wuchiapingian259.9 - 254.17Zambia (Muchinga) Nshimbodon muchingaensis (215349)
Wuchiapingian259.9 - 254.17South Africa (Western Cape) Abdalodon diastematicus (84714) Charassognathus gracilis (86303) Cynosaurus longiceps (86298) Scalopocynodon gracilis (181803)
Wuchiapingian259.9 - 254.17Tanzania (Ruvuma) Procynosuchus delaharpae (181520) Procynosuchus delaharpeae, Parathrinaxodon proops (135698)
Wuchiapingian259.9 - 254.17South Africa (Eastern Cape) Cynosuchus suppostus (177606)
Lopingian259.9 - 252.17South Africa Protocynodon pricei (190137)
Wuchiapingian - Changhsingian259.9 - 252.17South Africa (Eastern Cape) Baurocynodon gracilis (179646) Galecranium liorhynchus, Procynosuchus rubidgei, Galeophrys kitchingi (80225) Leavachia duvenhagei (80216 171146) Mygalesaurus platyceps (178864) Mygalesuchus peggyae, Nanictosaurus rubidgei (80226) Nanictosaurus kitchingi (177604) Nanictosuchus melinodon (176330) Procynosuchus delaharpeae (80219 114905 174663 181802) Protocynodon pricei (174741) Silphedocynodon gymnotemporalis (89863)
Wuchiapingian - Changhsingian259.9 - 252.17South Africa (Western Cape) Cynosaurus suppostus (80176) Leavachia duvenhagei (181812) Leavachia gracilis (181811) Silphedestes polyodon, Aelurodraco microps, Nanictosaurus robustus (174623)
Wuchiapingian - Changhsingian259.9 - 252.17South Africa (KwaZulu-Natal) Cyrbasiodon boycei (181797) Vetusodon elikhulu (179618)
Wuchiapingian - Olenekian259.9 - 247.2Argentina (Río Negro) Cynodontia indet. (53684)
Changhsingian254.17 - 252.17South Africa (Western Cape) Paracynosuchus rubidgei (80223)
Induan252.17 - 251.2South Africa (Free State) Glochinodontoides gracilis (80140)