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Cirsotrema

Gastropoda - Epitoniidae

Taxonomy
Cirsotrema was named by Mörch (1852) [Sepkoski's age data: T Eo-m-l R Sepkoski's reference number: 123,899]. It is extant. Its type is Scalaria varicosa.

It was reranked as Scalaria (Cirsotrema) by Tate (1890); it was reranked as Scala (Cirsotrema) by Vredenburg (1928); it was reranked as Epitonium (Cirsotrema) by Durham (1937), Hertlein and Stong (1951) and Addicott (1970).

It was assigned to Scalaria by Tate (1890); to Scala by Vredenburg (1928); to Epitonium by Durham (1937), Hertlein and Stong (1951) and Addicott (1970); to Neotaenioglossa by Sepkoski (2002); and to Epitoniidae by Olsson (1967), Maxwell (1978), Squires (1984), Dushane (1988), Wilson (1993), Todd (2001), Wienrich (2001), Harzhauser (2002), Duerr (2004) and Darragh (2017).

Synonymy list
YearName and author
1852Cirsotrema Mörch
1890Scalaria (Cirsotrema) Tate
1928Scala (Cirsotrema) Vredenburg p. 402
1937Epitonium (Cirsotrema) Durham p. 490
1951Epitonium (Cirsotrema) Hertlein and Stong p. 89
1967Cirsotrema Olsson p. 40
1970Epitonium (Cirsotrema) Addicott p. 54
1978Cirsotrema Maxwell p. 36
1984Cirsotrema Squires p. 21
1988Cirsotrema Dushane p. 56
1993Cirsotrema Wilson p. 274
2001Cirsotrema Todd
2001Cirsotrema Wienrich p. 450
2002Cirsotrema Harzhauser p. 93
2002Cirsotrema Sepkoski, Jr.
2004Cirsotrema Duerr p. 152
2017Cirsotrema Darragh p. 55

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Bilateria
EubilateriaAx 1987
Protostomia
Spiralia
superphylumLophotrochozoa
RankNameAuthor
phylumMollusca
classGastropodaCuvier 1797
Ptenoglossa(Gray 1853)
superfamilyEpitonioidea(Berry 1910)
familyEpitoniidaeBerry 1910
genusCirsotremaMörch 1852

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
ReferenceDiagnosis
J. W. Durham 1937Shell thick and massive, sometimes very large; whorls convex, sutures deep; ornamented by thick axial varices, foliaceous or crenulated, more or less reflexed posteriorly, usually not continuous from whorl to whorl, but masking suture completely; primary spirals very coarse, often with finer spirals in interspaces; basal disk bounded by a very prominent posterior "enlargement" of the varices not continuous between any two varices; aperture almost circular; peristome thick and continuous although the inner lip may be somewhat thinner; ornamentation very variable. Living in Philippines and Oceanica.