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Pleiolama

Mammalia - Ungulata - Camelidae

Taxonomy
Pleiolama was named by Webb and Meachen (2004). Its type is Pleiolama mckennai. It was considered monophyletic by Webb and Meachen (2004).

It was assigned to Lamini by Webb and Meachen (2004) and Hulbert and Whitmore (2006).

Synonymy list
YearName and author
2004Pleiolama Webb and Meachen pp. 350-351
2006Pleiolama Hulbert and Whitmore p. 6

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subphylumVertebrata
superclassGnathostomata
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
Batrachosauria()
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
Synapsida()
RankNameAuthor
Therapsida()
infraorderCynodontia()
Epicynodontia
infraorderEucynodontia
Probainognathia
Mammaliamorpha
Mammaliaformes
classMammalia
subclassTribosphenida()
infraclassEutheria()
orderUngulata(Linnaeus 1766)
orderArtiodactyla()
suborderTylopoda()
superfamilyCameloidea
familyCamelidae
subfamilyCamelinaeGray 1821
tribeLaminiWebb 1965
genusPleiolama

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
ReferenceDiagnosis
S. D. Webb and J. A. Meachen 2004The long narrow rostrum extends 32 mm ahead of I3 and is widest across C1. The en- larged braincase has a low sagittal crest. The zy- gomatic arch is deep and sigmoid, not shallow and straight. The posterior narial opening is broadly rounded and opens opposite M2. The bullae are thick and rectangular in outline. The paroccipital process extends well below the bulla and gives or- igin to a well developed M. digastricus. The upper and lower diastemata (posterior to first premolars) are moderately long (30–35 mm long.) The dental formula is I1, C1, P4–3, M3, and I3, C1, P4–3, M3. P1 and P1 are single rooted; P2 and P2 are reduced or absent. P3 and P3 are nearly as long as P4 and P4 respectively. The lingual crescent of P3 is nearly complete. The strong ‘‘llama buttresses’’ on the lower molars reach maximum expression in Stage 3 wear. The molars are weakly to moderately hyp- sodont. The metapodials are very long and slender.
Pleiolama differs from Hemiauchenia in its smaller size, shorter diastema, P1/1 and P3/3 larger, lower incisors more delicate, and symphysis nar- rower. Pleiolama differs from Palaeolama in its larger P3/3, simpler P4, and much longer metapodi- als.
Pleiolama also differs from Alforjas in P1/1 and P3/3 larger, lower incisors more delicate, symphysis narrower, cheek teeth much less hypsodont, palatine notch rounded and opposite M2, and metapodials longer. This new genus can be distinguished from Camelops in most of the same features as from Al- forjas, but in addition, it retains P1/1 and P2/2.
Measurements
No measurements are available
Composition: phosphaticsubp
Environment: terrestrialo
Locomotion: actively mobilec
Life habit: ground dwellingf
Diet: browserf
Diet 2: browserf
Created: 2005-06-08 10:11:09
Modified: 2005-08-31 16:42:02
Source: f = family, o = order, c = class, subp = subphylum
References: Nowak 1991, Nowak 1999, Carroll 1988, Hendy et al. 2009

Age range: base of the Clarendonian to the top of the Hemphillian or 13.60000 to 4.90000 Ma

Collections (37 total)


Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Miocene23.03 - 5.333USA (Nevada) Hemiauchenia vera (19048 19052 19053 19054)
Clarendonian13.6 - 10.3USA (Nebraska) P. mckennai (18218)
Clarendonian - Hemphillian13.6 - 4.9USA (Nebraska) Hemiauchenia vera (18305)
Clarendonian - Pliocene13.6 - 2.588USA (Oklahoma) P. vera (170199)
Hemphillian10.3 - 4.9USA (Texas) Hemiauchenia sp. (18198) Hemiauchenia vera (18073 18097)
Hemphillian10.3 - 4.9USA (Alabama) Camelidae indet. (18559)
Hemphillian10.3 - 4.9USA (Nebraska) Hemiauchenia vera (18086 18201 18441)
Hemphillian10.3 - 4.9USA (Oklahoma) Pliauchenia sp. (18304)
Hemphillian10.3 - 4.9USA (New Mexico) Hemiauchenia vera (19291)
Hemphillian10.3 - 4.9USA (Oregon) Hemiauchenia vera (19015)
Hemphillian10.3 - 4.9USA (Kansas) Hemiauchenia vera (18166 18237 18241 18263 18342) Pliauchenia sp. (18140)
Hemphillian10.3 - 4.9Costa Rica (Puntarenas) Hemiauchenia sp. (144596)
Late/Upper Hemphillian10.3 - 4.9USA (California) Hemiauchenia vera (19604)
Late/Upper Hemphillian10.3 - 4.9USA (Oklahoma) Tanupolama vera (18076)
Late/Upper Hemphillian10.3 - 4.9USA (Nevada) Hemiauchenia vera (19374 19375)
Late/Upper Hemphillian10.3 - 4.9USA (Arizona) Hemiauchenia vera (19612)
Late/Upper Hemphillian10.3 - 4.9USA (Nebraska) Hemiauchenia vera (18126 18247 18359)
Late/Upper Hemphillian10.3 - 4.9Mexico (Guanajuato) Hemiauchenia sp. (18740) Hemiauchenia vera (18737 18738)
Pliocene5.333 - 2.588Mexico (Jalisco) Hemiauchenia vera (189788 189790)