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Cypraea (cowry)

Gastropoda - Cypraeidae

Synonyms
Synonymy list
YearName and author
1758Cypraea flaveola Linnaeus
1758Cypraea Linnaeus p. 718
1815Cypraea Rafinesque
1884Vulgusella Jousseaume
1890Pantherinaria Sacco
1925Cypraea Mansfield p. 49
1931Cypraea Olsson p. 93
1947Cypraea Gardner p. 540
1947Cypraea Harris and Palmer p. 315
1948Cypraea Gardner p. 213
1960Cypraea MacNeil p. 50
1977Cypraea Adegoke p. 142
1977Cypraea Ladd p. 18
1982Cypraea Ladd p. 36
1984Cypraea Squires p. 23
1988Cypraea Squires p. 12
1989Cypraea (Pantherinaria) Voight p. 33
1993Cypraea Wilson p. 174
2001Cypraea Harzhauser and Mandic p. 702
2002Cypraea Sepkoski
2004Cypraea Dolin and Lozouet p. 18
2017Cypraea Bouchet et al. p. 85

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Bilateria
EubilateriaAx 1987
Protostomia
Spiralia
superphylumLophotrochozoa
phylumMollusca
classGastropoda
RankNameAuthor
subclassCaenogastropoda(Cox 1959)
Sorbeoconcha(Ponder and Lindberg 1997)
Hypsogastropoda(Ponder and Lindberg 1997)
superorderLatrogastropodaRiedel 2000
superfamilyCypraeoidea(Rafinesque 1815)
familyCypraeidaeRafinesque 1815
subfamilyCypraeinaeRafinesque 1815
genusCypraea

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

G. Cypraea Linnaeus 1758 [cowry]
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Subg. †Cypraea (Austrocypraea) Cossmann 1903
Subg. †Cypraea (Bernayia) Jousseaume 1884
Subg. †Cypraea (Conocypraea) Oppenheim 1901
Subg. Cypraea (Cribrarula) Strand 1929
Subg. Cypraea (Cypraea) Linnaeus 1758
Subg. †Cypraea (Cypropterina) De Gregorio 1880
Subg. †Cypraea (Luponia) Gray 1837
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Subg. Cypraea (Notocypraea) Schilder 1927
Cypraea boucheti Dolin and Lozouet 2004
Cypraea fenestratis Conrad 1854
Cypraea ohiroi Masuda 1967
Cypraea pantherina Solander 1786
Cypraea pediculus Lamarck 1802
Cypraea pennae White 1887
Cypraea problematica Heilprin 1886
Cypraea sulcosa Lamarck 1802
Cypraea tigris Linnaeus 1758
Eratotrivia crenata Deshayes 1835
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Invalid names: Eratotrivia crenularis Oppenheim 1901 [synonym]
Invalid names: Cypraea flaveola Linnaeus 1758 [nomen dubium], Pantherinaria Sacco 1890 [synonym], Vulgusella Jousseaume 1884 [objective synonym]
Diagnosis
No diagnoses are available
Measurements
No measurements are available
Composition: aragonitec
Locomotion: actively mobilef
Life habit: epifaunalf
Diet: omnivoref
Diet 2: grazerf
Vision: limitedc
Created: 2009-09-10 07:50:11
Modified: 2009-09-10 09:50:11
Source: f = family, c = class
References: Kiessling 2004, Hendy et al. 2009

Age range

Maximum range based only on fossils: base of the Late/Upper Maastrichtian to the top of the Holocene or 70.60000 to 0.00000 Ma
Minimum age of oldest fossil (stem group age): 66.0 Ma

Collections (167 total)


Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Maastrichtian72.1 - 66.0USA (Texas) Cypraea sp. (205446)
Late/Upper Maastrichtian70.6 - 66.0USA (Alabama) Cypraea sp. (4187)
Danian66.0 - 61.6USA (Texas) Cypraea sp. (205466) Cypraea sp. K (91791) Cypraea sp. L (91803)
Danian - Selandian66.0 - 59.2USA (Alabama) Cypraea sp. (35081) Cypraea sp. B (98433)
Danian - Selandian66.0 - 59.2Egypt Cypraea sp. (87000)
Danian - Selandian66.0 - 59.2USA (Mississippi) Cypraea sp. D (98528)
Paleocene66.0 - 56.0USA (California) Cypraea sp. (11117)
Selandian61.6 - 59.2USA (Georgia) Cypraea sp. E (92371)
Selandian61.6 - 59.2USA (Alabama) Cypraea sp. (205499)
Thanetian59.2 - 56.0Poland Cypraea sp. (27018 27019 27020)
Ypresian56.0 - 47.8USA (Maryland) Cypraea sp. A (91550 99264 99267)
Ypresian56.0 - 47.8USA (California) Cypraea sp. (52429)
Ypresian56.0 - 47.8United Kingdom (England) Cypraea sp. (76601)
Eocene56.0 - 33.9USA (Oregon) Cypraea sp. (200899)
Middle Eocene48.6 - 37.2Marshall Islands Cypraea sp. (43328)
Lutetian47.8 - 41.3France Cypraea pediculus, Cypraea sulcosa (184107)
Lutetian47.8 - 41.3France (Picardie) Eratotrivia crenularis (178119)
Lutetian47.8 - 41.3USA (Texas) Cypraea sp. (205421 205440) Cypraea spp. (205532)
Lutetian47.8 - 41.3United Kingdom (England) Cypraea sp. (42113)
Bartonian41.3 - 38.0USA (Texas) Cypraea sp. (205411 205422 205430 205433 205480 205485 205515)
Bartonian41.3 - 38.0USA (North Carolina) Cypraea sp. (5366 5367) Cypraea sp. F, Cypraea sp. G, Cypraea sp. H, Cypraea sp. I, Cypraea sp. J (91736) Cypraea sp. G, Cypraea sp. H, Cypraea sp. I (91737) Cypraea sp. a, Cypraea sp. b, Cypraea sp. c, Cypraea sp. d, Cypraea sp. e (5436) Cypraea sp. b, Cypraea sp. c, Cypraea sp. d, Cypraea sp. e (5437)
Bartonian41.3 - 38.0USA (Louisiana) Cypraea sp. (205501)
Bartonian41.3 - 38.0USA (South Carolina) Cypraea sp. (5344 5353 5354) Cypraea sp. C (91762)
Bartonian41.3 - 38.0USA (Alabama) Cypraea sp. (205438)
Bartonian41.3 - 38.0USA (Washington) Cypraea sp. (52204)
Priabonian38.0 - 33.9USA (South Carolina) Cypraea sp. (5362 5363)
Priabonian38.0 - 33.9Italy Cypraea sp. (78617 81043)
Priabonian38.0 - 33.9Peru (Piura) Cypraea indet. (55431)
Kaiatan37.2 - 36.0New Zealand (Canterbury) Cypraea sp. (45036)
Late/Upper Eocene37.2 - 33.9Jamaica Cypraea sp. (8122 60955 111543 111544)
Late/Upper Eocene37.2 - 33.9Panama Cypraea sp. (42488 42489)
Early/Lower Oligocene33.9 - 28.4Jamaica Cypraea sp. (111546 111547)
Oligocene - Early/Lower Miocene33.9 - 15.97Christmas Island Cypraea sp. (209827)
Late/Upper Oligocene28.4 - 23.03Costa Rica Cypraea sp. (77791)
Late/Upper Oligocene28.4 - 23.03New Zealand (Central Otago) Cypraea sp. (35118)
Chattian28.1 - 23.03Austria (Upper Austria) Cypraea sp. (55237)
Early/Lower Miocene23.03 - 15.97Brazil (Para) Cypraea paraensis, Cypraea pennae (112582) Cypraea pennae (60979 60980 112577 112590)
Early/Lower Miocene23.03 - 15.97Cuba Cypraea sp. (75313 75314 75315)
Early/Lower Miocene23.03 - 15.97Jamaica Cypraea sp. (111548)
Early/Lower Miocene23.03 - 15.97Brazil (Maranhao) Cypraea pennae (112598)
Early/Lower Miocene23.03 - 15.97Northern Mariana Islands Cypraea sp. (43361 43365 43368)
Early/Lower Miocene23.03 - 15.97Somalia Cypraea sp. (79079 79099)
Early/Lower Miocene23.03 - 15.97Australia (Western Australia) Cypraea sp. (70714)
Miocene23.03 - 5.333Colombia Cypraea sp. (73800)
Miocene23.03 - 5.333Iran Cypraea sp. (151431)
Otaian21.7 - 19.0New Zealand Cypraea sp. (67887)
Burdigalian20.44 - 15.97Chile Cypraea sp. (78521)
Burdigalian20.44 - 15.97USA (Florida) Cypraea sp. (68971)
Burdigalian20.44 - 15.97France Cypraea boucheti (70191)
Burdigalian - Langhian20.44 - 13.82Japan (Fukui ) Cypraea ohiroi (176560)
Burdigalian - Langhian20.44 - 13.82Australia (Western Australia) Cypraea sp. (34467)
Langhian15.97 - 13.82Japan Cypraea ohiroi (44959 176558)
Langhian15.97 - 13.82Dominican Republic Cypraea sp. (74958)
Langhian15.97 - 13.82Austria Cypraea sp. (146509)
Langhian - Serravallian15.97 - 11.62Brazil (Para) Cypraea pennae (58454)
Middle Miocene15.97 - 11.608Ecuador (Guayas) Cypraea sp. (61086)
Middle Miocene15.97 - 11.608Poland Cypraea sp. (70539)
Middle Miocene15.97 - 11.608Australia (Western Australia) Cypraea sp. A, Cypraea sp. C, Cypraea sp. E (63288) Cypraea sp. B, Cypraea sp. D (63312) Cypraea sp. D (63292 63300)
Middle Miocene15.97 - 11.608Libya Cypraea sp. (77254)
Middle Miocene15.97 - 11.608Somalia Cypraea sp. (79077 79082)
Middle Miocene15.97 - 11.608Indonesia Cypraea sp. (70086)
Middle Miocene15.97 - 11.608Japan Cypraea sp. (70064 70306)
Serravallian13.82 - 11.62Hungary Cypraea sp. (34739)
Badenian13.65 - 12.7Moldova Cypraea sp. 1 (78661) Cypraea sp. 1, Cypraea sp. 2 (78647) Cypraea sp. 2 (78653)
Tortonian11.62 - 7.246Japan (Shizuoka) Cypraea ohiroi (176546)
Tortonian - Zanclean11.62 - 3.6Australia (Victoria) Cypraea sp. (166810)
Late/Upper Miocene11.608 - 5.333Guam Cypraea tigris (77939)
Late/Upper Miocene11.608 - 5.333Vanuatu Cypraea subchinensis (77902)
Late/Upper Miocene11.608 - 5.333Japan Cypraea sp. (71048)
Late/Upper Miocene11.608 - 5.333Indonesia (Borneo) Cypraea sp. (42339)
Late/Upper Miocene11.608 - 5.333Indonesia Cypraea tigris (70100)
Late/Upper Miocene - Pliocene11.608 - 2.588Aruba Cypraea sp. (209168)
Messinian7.246 - 5.333Algeria Cypraea sp. (69864 70785 70786 70860 70861 70863 70864 70880 70882 70887)
Messinian7.246 - 5.333Italy Cypraea sp. (70513)
Messinian7.246 - 5.333Morocco Cypraea sp. (34723 34724 69860)
Messinian7.246 - 5.333Spain Cypraea sp. (56687 69812)
Messinian - Zanclean7.246 - 3.6Dominican Republic Cypraea sp. (75040)
Early/Lower Pliocene5.333 - 3.6Trinidad and Tobago Cypraea sp. (60412 60415)
Zanclean5.333 - 3.6Dominican Republic Cypraea sp. (74961 80084)
Pliocene5.333 - 2.588Fiji Cypraea sp. (68180)
Pliocene5.333 - 2.588South Africa Cypraea sp. (77527)
Pliocene5.333 - 2.588Mexico (Baja California) Cypraea sp. (96587 96588)
Late/Upper Pliocene3.6 - 2.588Japan (Okinawa) Cypraea sp. (96696)
Early/Lower Pleistocene2.588 - 0.781Egypt Cypraea sp. (42121)
Early/Lower Pleistocene2.588 - 0.781USA (Florida) Cypraea problematica (41501 41718 79331)
Early/Lower Pleistocene2.588 - 0.781Costa Rica Cypraea sp. (66777)
Pleistocene2.588 - 0.0117Sudan Cypraea sp. (101414)
Pleistocene2.588 - 0.0117Eritrea Cypraea pantherina (101415)
Calabrian - Middle Pleistocene1.806 - 0.126Japan (Okinawa) Cypraea sp. (42305)
Middle Pleistocene0.781 - 0.126USA (Hawaii) Cypraea sp. (96682)
Middle Pleistocene (interglacial)0.781 - 0.126Bahamas Cypraea sp. (80676)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.126 - 0.0117India (Kerala) Cypraea sp., Cypraea tigris (107971)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.126 - 0.0117Israel Cypraea sp. (225667)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.126 - 0.0117Eritrea Cypraea pantherina (80719)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.126 - 0.0117Djibouti Cypraea pantherina (96787)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.126 - 0.0117Japan (Ryukyu) Cypraea sp. (41605 41606)
Late/Upper Pleistocene (interglacial)0.126 - 0.0117Bahamas Cypraea sp. (80677)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.126 - 0.0117Cayman Islands Cypraea sp. (80835 80837)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.126 - 0.0117Saudi Arabia Cypraea pantherina (192720) Cypraea sp. (201414)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0India Cypraea sp. (76319)