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Scala

Gastropoda - Epitoniidae

Synonymy list
YearName and author
1904Scala Martin p. 212

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Bilateria
EubilateriaAx 1987
Protostomia
Spiralia
superphylumLophotrochozoa
RankNameAuthor
phylumMollusca
classGastropodaCuvier 1797
Ptenoglossa(Gray 1853)
superfamilyEpitonioidea(Berry 1910)
familyEpitoniidaeBerry 1910
genusScalaHumphrey

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
No diagnoses are available
Measurements
No measurements are available
Composition: aragonitef
Composition 2: low Mg calcitef
Locomotion: slow-movingf
Life habit: low-level epifaunalf
Diet: carnivoref
Vision: limitedc
Created: 2007-02-05 23:13:43
Modified: 2011-09-22 17:20:39
Source: f = family, c = class
References: Kiessling 2004, Beu et al. 1990

Age range

Maximum range based only on fossils: base of the Albian to the top of the Middle Pleistocene or 113.00000 to 0.12600 Ma
Minimum age of oldest fossil (stem group age): 100.5 Ma

Collections (32 total)


Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Albian113.0 - 100.5Madagascar (Mahajanga) S. franciscae, S. odilae (86497)
Late/Upper Campanian83.5 - 70.6Israel S. sp. (80998)
Maastrichtian72.1 - 66.0USA (Tennessee) S. sillimani (88357)
Paleocene66.0 - 56.0Austria (Salzburg) S. sp. (84335)
Late/Upper Paleocene58.7 - 55.8USA (Virginia) S. virginiana (84048)
Lutetian47.8 - 41.3France (Centre) S. pseudogallica, S. terebralis, S. mirabilis, S. dollfusi, S. subvaricosa, S. crebricostellata (178085)
Bartonian41.3 - 38.0Netherlands S. spirata (3717)
Priabonian38.0 - 33.9Italy S. bryozoophila (78565) S. sp. (78617)
Priabonian38.0 - 33.9Germany (Bavaria) S. sp. (10703)
Burdigalian20.44 - 15.97USA (Florida) Epitonium virginiae (42443)
Burdigalian20.44 - 15.97Germany Epitonium sp. (111599)
Langhian15.97 - 13.82France (Centre) S. subvaricosa (179581)
Middle Miocene15.97 - 11.608Poland S. sp., S. spinosa (70539)
Middle Miocene15.97 - 11.608USA (Maryland) S. marylandica (79115) S. sp. (79106 79109 79113 79114)
Serravallian13.82 - 11.62USA (Florida) Epitonium sp. (111204)
Serravallian13.82 - 11.62USA (Maryland) S. marylandica (70856)
Late/Upper Miocene11.608 - 5.333Australia (South Australia) S. sp. (63432)
Early/Lower Pliocene5.333 - 3.6Italy S. sp. (78335 78338) S. sp. 1, S. sp. 2 (78336)
Zanclean5.333 - 3.6Belgium (Antwerp) S. foliacea (179597)
Zanclean5.333 - 3.6Spain (Huelva) S. frondiculoides, S. tenuicosta (71916)
Pliocene5.333 - 2.588Ecuador (Manabi) Epitonium loripanum (51880)
Late/Upper Pliocene3.6 - 2.588Jamaica Epitonium gabbi, Epitonium etolium, Epitonium alidotum (58522)
Gelasian2.588 - 1.806Italy S. tenuicosta (178457)
Middle Pleistocene0.781 - 0.126Ireland S. greenlandicum (178118)
Middle Pleistocene - Late/Upper Pleistocene0.781 - 0.0117Morocco S. communis, S. crenata (127581)