Classification of Clark and Twitchell 1915

Ph. Echinodermata Klein 1754
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Cl. Echinoidea Leske 1778 [sea urchin]
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Subcl. Irregularia Latreille 1825
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Atelostomata von Zittel 1879
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Subor. †Asternata
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Fm. Cassidulidae Agassiz and Desor 1847
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G. †Breynella Gregory
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Breynella gregoryi Clark and Twitchell 1915
G. Cassidulus Lamarck 1801
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Subg. Cassidulus (Rhynchopygus) d'Orbigny 1856
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Cassidulus (Rhynchopygus) depressus Clark and Twitchell 1915
Cassidulus (Rhynchopygus) holmsei Clark and Twitchell 1915
Cassidulus (Rhynchopygus) ravenli Clark and Twitchell 1915
Cassidulus abruptus Conrad 1860
Cassidulus aequoreus Morton 1834
Cassidulus amygdala Desor 1858
Cassidulus berryi Clark and Twitchell 1915
Cassidulus californicus Anderson 1905
Cassidulus florealis Morton 1833
Cassidulus hemisphericus Slocum 1909
Cassidulus intermedius Slocom 1909
Cassidulus porrectus Clark 1891
Cassidulus stantoni Clark 1891
Cassidulus subconicus Clark 1891
Cassidulus subquadratus Conrad 1860
G. †Catopygus
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Catopygus oviformis Clark and Twitchell 1915
Catopygus pusillus Clark 1891
Catopygus williamsi Clark 1907
G. Echinolampas Gray 1825
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Echinolampas aldrichi Clark and Twitchell 1915
G. †Galerites Lamarck 1801
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Galerites oregonensis Dana 1849
G. †Pygurus Agassiz 1839
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Pygurus geometricus Morton 1833
Fm. Echinoneidae Agassiz and Desor 1847
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G. †Pyrina Desmoulins
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Pyrina parryi Hall 1857
Fm. †Nucleolitidae Agassiz and Desor 1847
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G. †Amblypygus Agassiz 1840
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Amblypygus merrilli Clark and Twitchell 1915
G. †Botriopygus d'Orbigny 1855
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G. †Echinobrissus Gray 1825
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Echinobrissus angustatus Clark and Twitchell 1915
Echinobrissus expansus Clark 1891
Echinobrissus texanus Clark 1891
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Oligopygus floridanus Clark and Twitchell 1915
Oligopygus haldermani Conrad 1850
Oligopygus wetherbyi de Lortiol 1887
G. †Trematopygus d'Orbigny 1857
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Trematopygus cruciferus Morton 1830
Subor. Sternata
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Fm. †Echinocorythidae Wright 1857
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G. †Ananchytes Lamarck 1816
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Ananchytes ovalis Clark 1893
Ananchytes texana Cragin 1893
G. †Cardiaster Forbes 1850
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Cardiaster cinctus Morton 1830
Cardiaster curtus Clark and Twitchell 1915
Cardiaster smocki Clark 1907
G. †Holaster Agassiz 1836
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Holaster simplex Shumard 1853
Fm. Spatangidae Gray 1825
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G. Agassizia Valenciennes 1846
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Agassizia conradi Bouvé 1851
Agassizia porifera Ravenel 1848
G. Brissopsis Agassiz 1840
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Brissopsis rimulatus Ravenel 1848
G. Echinocardium Gray 1825
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Echinocardium deperessum Clark and Twitchell 1915
Echinocardium gothicus Ravenel 1848
Echinocardium orthonotum Conrad 1843
G. †Enallaster d'Orbigny 1853
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Enallaster texanus Roemer 1849
G. Eupatagus Agassiz 1847
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Eupatagus carolinensis Clark and Twitchell 1915
Eupatagus floridanus Clark and Twitchell 1915
G. Hemiaster Agassiz and Desor 1847 [heart urchin]
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Hemiaster beecheri Clark and Twitchell 1915
Hemiaster bexari Clark and Twitchell 1915
Hemiaster californicus Clark 1891
Hemiaster calvini Clark 1893
Hemiaster comanchei Clark and Twitchell 1915
Hemiaster dalli Clark 1891
Hemiaster elegans Shumard 1853
Hemiaster humphreysanus Meek and Hayden 1856
Hemiaster kuemmeli Clark 1907
Hemiaster lacunosus Slocom 1909
Hemiaster parastatus Morton 1833
Hemiaster stella Morton 1830
Hemiaster texanus Roemer 1849
Hemiaster ungula Morton 1833
Hemiaster welleri Clark 1907
G. †Hemipatagus Desor 1858
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Hemipatagus argutus Clark and Twitchell 1915
Hemipatagus subrostratus Clark and Twitchell 1915
G. †Linthia Desor 1853
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Linthia alabamensis Clark and Twitchell 1915
Linthia californica Weaver 1908
Linthia wilmingtonensis Clark and Twitchell 1915
G. Macropneustes Agassiz 1847
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Macropneustes carolinensis Clark and Twitchell 1915
Macropneustes mortoni Conrad 1850
G. Metalia Gray 1855
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Metalia holmesii McCrady 1855
Metalia ravenelianus McCrady 1855
G. †Sarsella Pomel
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Sarsella gregoryi Clark and Twitchell 1915
G. Schizaster Agassiz 1835
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Schizaster americana Clark and Twitchell 1915
Schizaster armiger Clark and Twitchell 1915
Schizaster atropos Lamarck 1816
Schizaster floridanus Clark and Twitchell 1915
Schizaster lecontei Merriam 1899
Schizaster stalderi Weaver 1908
G. Spatangus Gray 1825
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Or. Gnathostomata von Zittel 1879
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Subor. Clypeasterina Agassiz 1872
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Fm. Clypeasteridae Agassiz 1836
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G. Clypeaster Lamarck 1801
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Clypeaster bowersi Weaver 1908
Clypeaster brewerianus Remond 1867
Clypeaster rogersi Morton 1834
G. †Diplothecanthus Duncan
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Diplothecanthus dalli Clark and Twitchell 1915
G. †Echinanthus Leske 1778
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Echinanthus georgiensis Clark and Twitchell 1915
Echinanthus mortonis Michelin 1850
G. †Scutellaster Cragin 1895
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Scutellaster cretaceus Cragin 1895
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Fm. Fibulariidae Gray 1855
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G. Dendraster Agassiz and Desor 1847
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Dendraster arnoldi Clark and Twitchell 1915
Dendraster coalingaensis Clark and Twitchell 1915
Dendraster excentricus Eschscholz 1826
Dendraster gibbsii Rémond 1863
Dendraster interlineatus Stimpson 1856
Dendraster oregonensis Clark 1909
Dendraster perrini Weaver 1908
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Echinocyamus meridionalis Clark and Twitchell 1915
Echinocyamus parvus Emmonds 1858
Echinocyamus texanus Clark and Twitchell 1915
Echinocyamus vaughani Clark and Twitchell 1915
G. Fibularia Lamarck
G. †Sismondia Desor 1858
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Sismondia arnoldi Clark and Twitchell 1915
Sismondia coalingaensis Clark and Twitchell 1915
Fm. Laganidae Desor 1858
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G. Laganum Link 1807
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Laganum archerensis Clark and Twitchell 1915
Laganum crustuloides Morton 1833
Laganum dalli Clark and Twitchell 1915
Laganum eldridgei Clark and Twitchell 1915
Laganum floridanum Clark and Twitchell 1915
Laganum johnsoni Clark and Twitchell 1915
Fm. Scutellidae Angas 1871
Subor. †Holectypina
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Fm. †Pygasteridae Lambert 1900
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Holectypus cragini Clark and Twitchell 1915
Holectypus pealei Clark and Twitchell 1915
Holectypus planatus Roemer 1852
Subcl. Regularia Latreille 1825
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Or. Cidaroidea Claus 1880
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Fm. Cidaridae Gray 1825
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G. Cidaris Leske 1778
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Cidaris alabamensis Morton 1846
Cidaris alabamensis Morton 1846
Cidaris blandis De Gregorio 1890
Cidaris branneri Arnold 1908
Cidaris carolinensis Emmonds 1858
Cidaris dilleri Clark and Twitchell 1915
Cidaris dixiensis Cragin 1893
Cidaris georgiana Clark and Twitchell 1915
Cidaris merriami Arnold 1908
Cidaris mitchelli Emmonds 1858
Cidaris modestus De Gregorio 1890
Cidaris mortoni Conrad 1850
Cidaris nahalakensis de Loriol 1887
Cidaris ordinatus De Gregorio 1890
Cidaris perdubius De Gregorio 1890
Cidaris plumasensis Clark and Twitchell 1915
Cidaris pratti Clark and Twitchell 1915
Cidaris shastensis Clark and Twitchell 1915
Cidaris smithi Clark and Twitchell 1915
Cidaris splendens Morton 1841
Cidaris taylorensis Clark 1893
Cidaris tehamensis Clark and Twitchell 1915
Cidaris texanus Clark 1891
Cidaris thouarsii Valencienncs 1846
Cidaris walcotti Clark 1891
G. †Leiocidaris Desor 1855
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Leiocidaris hemigranosus Shumard 1860
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Subor. Arbacina Gregory 1900
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Fm. Arbaciidae Gray 1855
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Coelopleurus aldrichi Clark and Twitchell 1915
Coelopleurus infulatus Morton 1833
Coelopleurus sloani Clark and Twitchell 1915
G. †Echinocidaris Duncan
Fm. †Hemicidaridae Wright 1857
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G. †Goniopygus Agassiz 1838
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Goniopygus zitteli Clark 1891
G. †Hemicidaris Agassiz 1838
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G. †Hypodiadema Desor 1858
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Hypodiadema elegans Clark and Twitchell 1915
G. †Leptarbacia Clark and Twitchell 1915
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Leptarbacia argutus Clark and Twitchell 1915
Subor. Calycina Gregory 1900
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Fm. Saleniidae Agassiz 1838
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G. Salenia Gray 1835
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Salenia bellula Clark 1801
Salenia texana Credner 1891
Salenia tumidula Clark 1801
Subor. Diademina Duncan 1889
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G. †Coptosoma Desor 1855
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Coptosoma mortoni de Loriol 1887
Coptosoma speciosum Clark 1801
G. †Cyphosoma Agassiz 1838
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Cyphosoma hilli Clark 1891
Cyphosoma volanum Cragin 1893
G. †Gagaria Duncan 1889
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Gagaria americana Clark and Twitchell 1915
G. †Micropsis
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Micropsis lineatus Clark and Twitchell 1915
G. †Orthechinus Gauthier
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Orthechinus pretiosus Clark and Twitchell 1915
Fm. Diadematidae Gray 1855
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G. †Cottaldia Desor 1856
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Cottaldia rotula Clark and Twitchell 1915
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Hemipedina charltoni Cragin 1894
G. †Heterodiadema Cotteau 1864
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Heterodiadema ornatum Clark and Twitchell 1915
G. †Pseudodiadema Desor 1858
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Pseudodiadema diatretum Morton 1833
Pseudodiadema emersoni Clark 1893
Pseudodiadema texanum Roemer 1852
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Diplopodia streeruvitzi Cragin 1893
Diplopodia taffi Gragin 1893
Fm. †Orthopsidae Duncan 1889
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G. †Orthopsis Cotteau 1864
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Orthopsis occidentalis Cragin 1893
Orthopsis planulata Clark and Twitchell 1915
Fm. Pedinidae Pomel 1883
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G. †Stomechinus Desor 1858
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Stomechinus hyatti Clark 1893
Subor. Echinina
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G. Echinus Linnaeus 1758
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Pedinopsis pondi Clark 1893
Pedinopsis symmetrica Craigin 1893
G. Toxopneustes Agassiz 1841
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Cl. Holothuroidea de Blainville 1834 [sea cucumber]
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Fm. Synaptidae Burmeister 1837
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G. Chirodota Eschscholtz 1829
G. Synapta Eschscholtz 1829
Cl. Stelleroidea Gregory 1900
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Subcl. Ophiuroidea Gray 1840 [brittle star]
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Fm. Amphiuridae Ljungman 1867
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G. Amphiura Forbes 1843
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Amphiura sanctaecrucis Arnold 1908
G. †Aspidura Agassiz 1836
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Aspidura idahoensis Clark and Twitchell 1915
Fm. Ophiodermatidae Ljungman 1867
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G. Ophioderma Müller and Troschel 1840
Fm. Ophiolepididae Matsumoto 1915
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G. Ophioglypha Lyman 1860
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Ophioglypha texana Clark 1893
Ophioglypha utahensis Clark and Twitchell 1915
Cl. Crinoidea Miller 1821 [Sea lily]
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Subcl. †Dicyclica
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Or. †Flexibilia Zittel 1895
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Subor. †Pinnata
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G. †Rhizocrinus Sars
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Rhizocrinus alabamensis De Loriol 1882
Rhizocrinus cylindricus Weller 1907
Or. †Inadunata Wachsmuth and Springer 1897
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Subor. †Dendrocrinoidea Bather 1899
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Fm. †Encrinidae Dujardin and Hupé 1862
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G. †Encrinus Andreae 1764
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Encrinus hyatti Clark and Twitchell 1915
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Marsupites americanus Springer 1911
Fm. †Pentacrinidae Gray 1842
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G. Isocrinus Meyer in Agassiz 1836
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Isocrinus californicus Clark and Twitchell 1915
Isocrinus knighti Springer 1909
Isocrinus smithi Clark and Twitchell 1915
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Uintacrinus socialis Grinnell 1876
G. Brissus Gray 1825
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Brissus spatiosus Ravenel 1848
G. †Epiaster
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Epiaster whitei Clark 1891
Subcl. †Asteridae
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G. Asterias Linnaeus 1758
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Asterias dubium Whitfield 1877
Asterias lincki Sears 1905
Asterias remondii Gabb 1869
Asterias stellionura Sears 1905
G. †Pentacrinus Miller 1821
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Pentacrinus asteriscus Meek and Hayden 1858
Pentacrinus bryani Gabb 1876
Pentacrinus shastensis Clark and Twitchell 1915
Pentacrinus tehamaensis Clark and Twitchell 1915
Pentacrinus whitei Clark 1893
Fm. Scutellidae Gray 1825
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Astrodapsis antiselli Conrad 1856
Astrodapsis arnoldi Clark and Twitchell 1915
Astrodapsis tumidus Remond 1867
Astrodapsis whitneyi Remond 1867
G. Echinarachnius Gray 1825
G. Encope Agassiz 1840
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Encope macrophora Ravenel 1842
G. Mellita Agassiz 1841
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Mellita caroliniana Ravenel 1841
Mellita pentapora Gmelin 1788
G. †Mortonella Pomel 1883
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G. †Periarchus Conrad 1866
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Periarchus altus Conrad 1865
Periarchus lyelli Conrad 1834
Periarchus pileussinensis Ravenel 1844
Periarchus protuberans Clark and Twitchell 1915
G. Scutaster Pack 1909
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Scutaster andersoni Pack 1909
G. †Scutella Lamarck 1816
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Scutella aberti Conrad 1842
Scutella andersoni Clark and Twitchell 1915
Scutella conradi Cotteau 1891
Scutella fairbanksi Arnold 1907
Scutella gabbi Rémond 1863
Scutella merriami Anderson 1905
Scutella mississippiensis Clark and Twitchell 1915
Scutella norrisi Pack 1909
Scutella tuomeyi Clark and Twitchell 1915
Subcl. Asteroidea de Blainville 1830 [sea star]
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Or. Cryptozonia Sladen 1889
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Fm. Asteriidae Gray 1840
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Fm. Astropectinidae Gray 1840
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G. Astropecten Gray 1840
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Astropecten montanus Douglass 1903
Fm. †Atheneidae
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G. Goniaster Agassiz 1836
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Goniaster mammillata Gabb 1876
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G. Pentagonaster Gray 1840
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Pentagonaster browni Weller 1905
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G. Pentaceros Gray 1840
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Pentaceros asperulus Weller 1907