Kitching Ridge (Fremouw Fm.): Early/Lower Triassic, Antarctica
collected by J. W. Kitching, T. Rich, J. Ruben 1970-1971

List of taxa
Where & when
Taphonomy & methods
Metadata & references
Taxonomic list
Cryobatrachus kitchingi n. gen., n. sp. Colbert and Cosgriff 1974
Colbert and Cosgriff 1974 3 specimens
nomen dubium belonging to Stereospondyli
AMNH 9503 (holotype), skull lacking palate and braincase. AMNH 9537, 9540
Reptilia - Procolophonidae
Procolophon trigoniceps Owen 1876
7 specimens
AMNH 9501, 9506, 9508-12
Reptilia - Prolacertidae
Prolacerta broomi Parrington 1935
Colbert 1987 6 specimens
AMNH 9513, 9535, 9564, 9568, 9573, 9502
Fremouwsaurus geludens n. gen., n. sp. Gow 1992
Gow 1992 1 specimen
synonym of Palacrodon browni
BP/1/5296, partial skull and lower jaw
Therocephalia - Ericiolacertidae
Ericiolacerta parva Watson 1931
Colbert and Kitching 1981 1 specimen
AMNH 9542
    = cf. Ericiolacerta parva Watson 1931
Huttenlocker and Sidor 2012
Eutherocephalia indet. Hopson and Barghusen 1986
Huttenlocker and Sidor 2012 1 specimen
AMNH FARB 9550, originally referred to Ericiolacerta parva by Colbert & Kitching (1981)
Pedaeosaurus parvus
Colbert and Kitching 1981 1 specimen
nomen dubium belonging to Baurioidea
AMNH 9548
see common names

Coordinates: 85.2° South, 177.0° West (view map)
Paleocoordinates:81.6° South, 69.5° East
Basis of coordinate:stated in text
Geographic resolution:outcrop
Period:Triassic Epoch:Early/Lower Triassic
10 m.y. bin:Triassic 1
Key time interval:Early/Lower Triassic
Age range of interval:252.17000 - 247.20000 m.y. ago
Geological group:Beacon Formation:Fremouw Member:Lower
Stratigraphic resolution:group of beds
Stratigraphy comments: "lower portion of the Fremouw Formation, of Early Triassic age" (Colbert & Kitching, 1975);
"The lowest vertebrate horizon is 13 m above the base. The Permian-Triassic boundary lies at the base or within the lower 13 m of the Fremouw Formation. [...] In the 1970 field season, [...] specimens were collected at 6 levels on bedding-plane surfaces, but exact stratigraphic position of each fossil was not recorded." (Collinson et al., 2006, GSA Bull. 118(5/6) p. 755; see also figs. 4 and 6 in that reference)
Lithology and environment
Primary lithology:medium sandstone
Secondary lithology:gray,green mudstone
Lithology description: "A fining-upward cycle of 8 m of medium-grained sandstone followed by 5 m of greengray fine-grained strata." (Collinson et al., 2006, GSA Bull. 118(5/6) p.755)
Environment:fluvial indet. Tectonic setting:foreland basin
Geology comments: "Late Permian and Triassic rocks in the central Transantarctic Mountains were deposited in a retroarc foreland basin (Dalziel and Elliot, 1982; Collinson, 1990, 1991; Isbell, 1991; Collinson et al., 1994)." (Collinson et al., 2006 p. 749); "The entire Upper Permian and Lower to Middle Triassic fluvial sequence in the central Transantarctic Mountains was deposited by low-sinuosity braided streams (Barrett et al., 1986)." (Collinson et al., 2006 p. 757)
Modes of preservation:body,mold/impression
Size of fossils:macrofossils
Preservation of anatomical detail:variable
Articulated whole bodies:none
Associated major elements:some
Disassociated major elements:some
Temporal resolution:snapshot
Spatial resolution:parautochthonous
Collection methods and comments
Collection methods:surface (in situ),field collection
Reason for describing collection:taxonomic analysis
Museum repositories:AMNH,BPI
Collectors:J. W. Kitching, T. Rich, J. Ruben Collection dates:austral summer 1970-1971
Collection method comments: "All specimens were collected by J. W. Kitching, except AMNH 9509, collected by Thomas Rich, and AMNH 9510, collected by John Ruben." (Colbert & Kitching, 1975)
Also known as:Cumulus Hills
Database number:87410
Authorizer:J. Mueller, R. Butler, C. Sidor Enterer:T. Liebrecht, R. Butler, C. Sidor
Modifier:C. Sidor Research group:vertebrate
Created:2009-03-17 07:30:52 Last modified:2013-09-04 16:05:56
Access level:the public Released:2009-03-17 07:30:52
Creative Commons license:CC BY
Reference information

Primary reference:

29423. E. H. Colbert and J. W. Kitching. 1975. The Triassic Reptile Procolophon in Antarctica. American Museum Novitates 2566:1-23 [J. Mueller/T. Liebrecht]

Secondary references:

35275 E. H. Colbert. 1987. The Triassic reptile Prolacerta in Antarctica. American Museum Novitates 2882:1-19 [R. Butler/R. Butler]
43611 E. H. Colbert and J. W. Cosgriff. 1974. Labyrinthodont amphibians from Antarctica. American Museum Novitates 2552:1-30 [R. Butler/R. Butler]
48077 E. H. Colbert and J. W. Kitching. 1981. Scaloposaurian reptiles from the Triassic of Antarctica. American Museum Novitates 2709:1-30 [C. Sidor/C. Sidor]
32307 C. Gow. 1992. An enigmatic new reptile from the Lower Triassic Fremouw Formation of Antarctica. Palaeontologia africana 29:21-23 [R. Butler/R. Butler]
48075 A. K. Huttenlocker and C. A. Sidor. 2012. Taxonomic revision of therocephalians (Therapsida: Theriodontia) from the Lower Triassic of Antarctica. American Museum Novitates 3738:1-19 [C. Sidor/C. Sidor]