Graphite Peak (Fremouw Fm.): Early/Lower Triassic, Antarctica
collected by J. Barrett, J. W. Kitching 1967, 1969-1970, 1970-1971

List of taxa
Where & when
Taphonomy & methods
Metadata & references
Taxonomic list
Labyrinthodontia indet. (Owen 1860)
Colbert 1974 1 individual
"fragment of a labyrinthodont amphibian lower jaw"
    = Austrobrachyops jenseni Colbert and Cosgriff 1974
Colbert and Cosgriff 1974
AMNH 9301, fragment of the articular region of a left lower jaw
    = Brachyopoidea indet. Lydekker 1885
Warren and Marsicano 2000
Reptilia - Prolacertidae
Prolacerta broomi Parrington 1935
Colbert 1987 1 individual
AMNH 9560, cranial and postcranial fragments
Antarctanax shackletoni n. gen., n. sp. Peecook et al. 2019
Peecook et al. 2019 1 specimen
UWBM 95531, consisting of eight presacral vertebrae, several ribs, a left humerus, left metatarsals I–V phalanges, unguals, and unidentifiable flat bones on one slab and an almost complete right pes and a dorsal rib on a second, which was adjoining the first but separated during preparation. Specimen UWBM 95531 is considered to represent a somatically mature individual because all neural arches present are completely fused to their centra, with no indications of sutures.
Thrinaxodon liorhinus Seeley 1894
2 specimens
AMNH 9546, 9547
Kombuisia antarctica Fröbisch et al. 2010
Fröbisch et al. 2010 1 individual
AMNH 9545 (paratype), near complete skull
see common names

Coordinates: 85.1° South, 172.5° East (view map)
Paleocoordinates:80.7° South, 70.9° East
Basis of coordinate:estimated from map
Geographic resolution:small collection
Period:Triassic Epoch:Early/Lower Triassic
10 m.y. bin:Triassic 1
Key time interval:Early/Lower Triassic
Age range of interval:252.17000 - 247.20000 m.y. ago
Geological group:Beacon Formation:Fremouw
Stratigraphic resolution:group of beds
Stratigraphy comments: According to Collinson et al. (2006, GSA Bull. 118(5/6) fig. 6) Lystrosaurus, Prolacerta and Thrinaxodon come from the lower part of the lower Fremouw Fm., about 13 m above formational base.
Lithology and environment
Primary lithology: carbonaceous claystone
Includes fossils?Y
Lithology description: lithology is from Collinson et al. (2006, GSA Bull. 118(5/6) fig. 6)
Environment:fluvial indet. Tectonic setting:foreland basin
Geology comments: "Late Permian and Triassic rocks in the central Transantarctic Mountains were deposited in a retroarc foreland basin (Dalziel and Elliot, 1982; Collinson, 1990, 1991; Isbell, 1991; Collinson et al., 1994)." (Collinson et al., 2006 p. 749); "The entire Upper Permian and Lower to Middle Triassic fluvial sequence in the central Transantarctic Mountains was deposited by low-sinuosity braided streams (Barrett et al., 1986)." (Collinson et al., 2006 p. 757)
Modes of preservation:body
Size of fossils:macrofossils
Preservation of anatomical detail:variable
Articulated whole bodies:none
Temporal resolution:snapshot
Spatial resolution:parautochthonous
Collection methods and comments
Collection methods:field collection
Reason for describing collection:taxonomic analysis
Museum repositories:AMNH
Collectors:J. Barrett, J. W. Kitching Collection dates:austral summers 1967, 1969-1970, 1970-1971
Database number:87420
Authorizer:J. Mueller, R. Butler Enterer:T. Liebrecht, R. Butler, E. Dunne
Modifier:T. Liebrecht Research group:vertebrate
Created:2009-03-17 09:06:06 Last modified:2009-04-04 21:30:18
Access level:the public Released:2009-03-17 09:06:06
Creative Commons license:CC BY
Reference information

Primary reference:

29626. E. H. Colbert and J. W. Kitching. 1977. Triassic Cynodont Reptiles From Antarctica. American Museum Novitates 2611:1-30 [J. Mueller/T. Liebrecht]

Secondary references:

27215 E. H. Colbert. 1974. Lystrosaurus from Antarctica. American Museum Novitates 2535:1-44 [H. Sims/J. Camp/T. Liebrecht]
35275 E. H. Colbert. 1987. The Triassic reptile Prolacerta in Antarctica. American Museum Novitates 2882:1-19 [R. Butler/R. Butler]
43611 E. H. Colbert and J. W. Cosgriff. 1974. Labyrinthodont amphibians from Antarctica. American Museum Novitates 2552:1-30 [R. Butler/R. Butler]
34180 J. Fröbisch, K. D. Angielczyk, and C. A. Sidor. 2010. The Triassic dicynodont Kombuisia (Synapsida, Anomodontia) from Antarctica, a refuge from the terrestrial Permian-Triassic mass extinction. Naturwissenschaften 97:187-196 [R. Butler/R. Butler]
67836 B. R. Peecook, R. M. H. Smith, and C. A. Sidor. 2019. A novel archosauromorph from Antarctica and an updated review of a high-latitude vertebrate assemblage in the wake of the end-Permian mass extinction. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology [R. Butler/E. Dunne/B. Allen]
32401 A. Warren and C. Marsicano. 2000. A phylogeny of the Brachyopoidea (Temnospondyli, Stereospondyli). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 20:462-483 [R. Butler/R. Butler]