Fossil Lake (Pleistocene of the United States)

Where: Lake County, Oregon (43.3° N, 120.5° W: paleocoordinates 43.3° N, 120.5° W)

• coordinate stated in text

• outcrop-level geographic resolution

When: Late/Upper Pleistocene (0.1 - 0.0 Ma)

• "early Pleistocene, approximating [the age] of Rancho La Brea" (i.e., late Pleistocene)

Environment/lithology: lacustrine - large; sandstone and claystone

• the deposits "formed on the bottom" of a "large" lake
• "sand and clay"

Size class: macrofossils

Collected by T. Condon, C. H. Sternberg, E. D. Cope, A. M. Alexander, C. Stock, E. L. Furlong in 1876, 1877, 1879, 1901, 1923, 1924; reposited in the AMNH, UCMP

• Sternberg and Cope material is at the AMNH; Alexander, Stock, and Furlong material is at the UCMP; Condon collection is at the University of Oregon and was not seen by Elftman

Primary reference: H. O. Elftman. 1931. Pleistocene mammals of Fossil Lake, Oregon. American Museum Novitates 481:1-21 [J. Alroy/J. Alroy/J. Alroy]more details

Purpose of describing collection: taxonomic analysis

PaleoDB collection 93251: authorized by John Alroy, entered by John Alroy on 09.01.2010, edited by Mark Uhen

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

• revises original descriptions of Cope (1878, 1884, 1889) and Matthew (1902)
unclassified
  -
Aves
 Charadriiformes - Laridae
Sterna forsteri3 Nuttall 1834 Foster's tern
"Chlidonias nigra" = Chlidonias niger3 Linnaeus 1758 black tern
Larus californicus3 Lawrence 1854 California gull
Larus robustus3 Shufeldt 1891 gull
Larus oregonus3 Shufeldt 1891 gull
"Larus philadelphia" = Chroicocephalus philadelphia3 Ord 1815 Bonaparte's gull
 Charadriiformes - Scolopacidae
Numenius ? americanus3, Limnodromus ? griseus3, "Erolia melanotos" = Calidris melanotos5, "Lobipes lobatus" = Phalaropus lobatus3, "Totanus melanoleucas" = Tringa melanoleuca3
Numenius ? americanus3 Bechstein 1812 long-billed curlew
Limnodromus ? griseus3 Gmelin 1789 short-billed dowitcher
"Erolia melanotos" = Calidris melanotos5 Vieillot 1819 pectoral sandpiper
"Lobipes lobatus" = Phalaropus lobatus3 Linnaeus 1758 red-necked phalarope
"Totanus melanoleucas" = Tringa melanoleuca3 Gmelin 1789 greater yellowlegs
 Charadriiformes - Stercorariidae
 Charadriiformes - Recurvirostridae
Himantopus mexicanus3 Muller 1776 black-necked stilt
Recurvirostra americana3 Gmelin 1789 American avocet
 Galliformes - Phasianidae
"Palaeotetrix gillii" = Dendragapus gilli3 Shufeldt 1891 pheasant
Centrocercus urophasianus3 Bonaparte 1827 greater sage-grouse
"Pedioecetes phasianellus" = Tympanuchus phasianellus3 Linnaeus 1758 sharp-tailed grouse
 Anseriformes - Anatidae
"Erismatura jamaicensis" = Oxyura jamaicensis3, Mareca americana3, "Chen hyperborea" = Anser caerulescens3, "Chen rossii" = Anser rossii3, Anser albifrons3, Branta propinqua3, Branta bernicla3, Branta ? hypsibata3, Branta canadensis3, "Sthenelides paloregonus" = Cygnus paloregonus3, Cygnus buccinator3, "Anas cyanoptera" = Spatula cyanoptera3, Spatula clypeata3, Mergus serrator3, Mergus merganser3, "Charitonetta albeola" = Bucephala3, "Melanitta deglandi" = Melanitta fusca deglandi5, Melanitta perspicillata3, Clangula hyemalis3, "Nyroca affinis" = Aythya affinis3, "Nyroca ? collaris" = Aythya collaris3, "Nyroca americana" = Aythya americana3, Anas platyrhynchos3, "Anas carolinensis" = Anas crecca carolinensis3, Anas acuta3, Anabernicula sp.3, Anabernicula oregonensis n. sp.4
"Erismatura jamaicensis" = Oxyura jamaicensis3 Gmelin 1789 ruddy duck
Mareca americana3 Gmelin 1789 American wigeon
"Chen hyperborea" = Anser caerulescens3 Linnaeus 1758 snow goose
"Chen rossii" = Anser rossii3 Cassin 1861 Ross's goose
Anser albifrons3 Scopoli 1769 greater white-fronted goose
Branta propinqua3 Shufeldt 1891 goose
Branta bernicla3 Linnaeus 1758 brant
Branta ? hypsibata3 Cope 1878 goose
Branta canadensis3 Linnaeus 1758 Canada goose
"Sthenelides paloregonus" = Cygnus paloregonus3 Cope 1878 swan
Cygnus buccinator3 Richardson 1832 trumpeter swan
"Anas cyanoptera" = Spatula cyanoptera3 Viellot 1816 cinnamon teal
Spatula clypeata3 Linnaeus 1758 northern shoveler
Mergus serrator3 Linnaeus 1758 red-breasted merganser
Mergus merganser3 Linnaeus 1758 common merganser
"Charitonetta albeola" = Bucephala3 seaduck
"Melanitta deglandi" = Melanitta fusca deglandi5 Bonaparte 1850 white-winged scoter
Melanitta perspicillata3 Linnaeus 1758 surf scoter
Clangula hyemalis3 Linnaeus 1758 long-tailed duck
"Nyroca affinis" = Aythya affinis3 Eyton 1838 lesser scaup
"Nyroca ? collaris" = Aythya collaris3 Donovan 1809 ring-necked duck
"Nyroca americana" = Aythya americana3 Eyton 1838 redhead
Anas platyrhynchos3 Linnaeus 1758 mallard
"Anas carolinensis" = Anas crecca carolinensis3 Gmelin 1789 green-winged teal
Anas acuta3 Linnaeus 1758 northern pintail
Anabernicula sp.3 Ross 1935 dabbling duck
Anabernicula oregonensis n. sp.4 Howard 1964 dabbling duck
 Falconiformes - Falconidae
Falco oregonus n. sp.3 Howard 1946 falcon
 Strigiformes - Strigidae
Bubo virginianus3 Gmelin 1788 great horned owl
 Piciformes - Picidae
"Colaptes cafer" = Colaptes auratus cafer3
"Colaptes cafer" = Colaptes auratus cafer3 Gmelin 1788 northern flicker
 Passeriformes - Icteridae
? Agelaius sp.3 Vieillot 1816 perching bird
Euphagus cyanocephalus3 Wagler 1829 Brewer's blackbird
Molothrus ? ater3 Boddaert 1783 brown-headed cowbird
Sturnella sp.3 Vieillot 1816 meadowlark
or Xanthocephalus
 Passeriformes - Corvidae
Corvus corax3 Linnaeus 1758 common raven
 Gruiformes - Rallidae
Rallus limicola3 Vieillot 1819 Virginia rail
Fulica americana3 Gmelin 1789 American coot
subspecies minor
 Podicipediformes - Podicipedidae
Aechmophorus occidentalis3, Podilymbus podiceps3, "Colymbus parvus" = Podiceps parvus3, "Colymbus nigricollis" = Podiceps nigricollis3
Aechmophorus occidentalis3 Lawrence 1858 western grebe
subspeceis lucasi
Podilymbus podiceps3 Linnaeus 1758 pied-billed grebe
"Colymbus parvus" = Podiceps parvus3 Schufeldt 1913 grebe
"Colymbus nigricollis" = Podiceps nigricollis3 Brehm 1831 black-necked grebe
 Pelecaniformes - Ardeidae
Ardea herodias3 Linnaeus 1758 great blue heron
Botaurus lentiginosus3 Rackett 1813 American bittern
 Pelecaniformes - Pelecanidae
Pelecanus erythrorhynchos3 Gmelin 1789 American white pelican
 Phoenicopteriformes - Phoenicopteridae
Phoenicopterus copei3 Shufeldt 1891 flamingo
 Accipitriformes - Accipitridae
Haliaeetus leucocephalus3 Linnaeus 1766 bald eagle
Aquila chrysaetos3 Linnaeus 1758 golden eagle
Circus cyaneus3 Linnaeus 1766 hen harrier
 Suliformes - Phalacrocoracidae
Phalacrocorax ? auritus3 Lesson 1831 double-crested cormorant
Phalacrocorax macropus3 Cope 1878 cormorant
Mammalia
 Rodentia - Cricetidae
"Fiber oregonus n. sp." = Ondatra annectens, Microtus montanus
"Fiber oregonus n. sp." = Ondatra annectens Brown 1908 muskrat
Microtus montanus Peale 1848 montane vole
 Rodentia - Geomyidae
"Thomomys townsendi" = Thomomys townsendii
"Thomomys townsendi" = Thomomys townsendii Bachman 1839 Townsend's pocket gopher
includes T. near clusius, T. talpoides, T. bulbivorus, T. sp., and T. scudderi type of previous authors
 Rodentia - Castoridae
Castor sp. Linnaeus 1758 beaver
said to be new
 Lagomorpha - Leporidae
Lepus sp. Linnaeus 1758 hare
 Perissodactyla - Equidae
Equus sp. Linnaeus 1758 horse
small
Equus pacificus Leidy 1868 horse
 Carnivora - Ursidae
Arctodus sp.2 Leidy 1854 bear
 Carnivora - Mustelidae
Taxidea sp. Waterhouse 1839 badger
said to be new; includes Lutra of Matthew
 Carnivora - Canidae
Vulpes sp., Canis cf. dirus, Canis latrans, "Canis cf. occidentalis" = Canis lupus
Vulpes sp. Frisch 1775 fox
Canis cf. dirus Leidy 1858 dire wolf
Canis latrans Say 1823 coyote
"Canis cf. occidentalis" = Canis lupus Linnaeus 1758 gray wolf
 Carnivora - Felidae
Felinae indet.1 Trouessart 1885 cat
large and small forms
 Xenarthra - Mylodontidae
"Mylodon cf. harlani" = Paramylodon harlani
"Mylodon cf. harlani" = Paramylodon harlani Owen 1840 Harlan's ground sloth
"Mylodon, near harlani" (includes M. sodalis type of Cope)
 Proboscidea - Elephantidae
"Elephas ? columbi" = Mammuthus columbi
"Elephas ? columbi" = Mammuthus columbi Falconer 1857 Columbian mammoth
includes E. primigenius and E. imperator of previous authors
 Ungulata - Tayassuidae
Platygonus sp. Leconte 1848 peccary
small
Platygonus cf. vetus Leidy 1882 peccary
 Ungulata - Camelidae
Camelops hesternus Leidy 1873 camel
Eschatius sp. Cope 1884 camel
includes E. conidens (referred specimen) and E. longirostris (type) of Cope
"? Tanupolama sp." = Hemiauchenia Gervais and Ameghino 1880 camel
includes Eschatius vitakeriana type of Cope
 Ungulata - Antilocapridae
Antilocapra cf. americana Ord 1815 pronghorn