Norden Bridge Quarry (Miocene of the United States)

Also known as UNSM Bw-106

Where: Brown County, Nebraska (42.8° N, 100.0° W: paleocoordinates 43.3° N, 96.8° W)

• coordinate stated in text

• small collection-level geographic resolution

When: Cornell Dam Member (Valentine Formation), Barstovian (16.0 - 13.6 Ma)

• Hurlbut Ash in CD Mbr. dated at 11.6 +/- 1.1 (recalibrated from 13.6 +/- 1.3) Ma FT on glass; this date is anomalous and the recalibration was never justified

• group of beds-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: "channel"; unlithified sandstone

• "channel deposit" (Chantell 1964)
• "buff-colored, loose, and completely unconsolidated, crossbedded channel sands of fine to medium texture" (Tihen and Chantell 1963)

Size classes: macrofossils, mesofossils

Collected by J. A. Holman, M. Voorhies in 1960, 1962, 1971 (MSU), 1974 - 1979 (MSU), 1981; reposited in the UMMP, UNSM, USNM

Collection methods: bulk, quarrying, sieve

• additional specimens are in the Michigan State University collection, which was obtained from "a five ton sample of matrix" (Holman 1973)

Primary reference: J. A. Tihen and C. J. Chantell. 1963. Urodele remains from the Valentine Formation of Nebraska. Copeia 1963(3):505-510 [J. Alroy/J. Alroy]more details

Purpose of describing collection: taxonomic analysis

PaleoDB collection 18284: authorized by John Alroy, entered by John Alroy on 05.08.1992, edited by Chris Bell, Jonathan Marcot, Mark Uhen, Matthew Carrano and Philip Mannion

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

• NISP not completely clear; NISP 3396 for "large" specimens from five main quarries (clearly almost all mammals), and NISP 892 for screenwashed mammals in four screened samples (may include unidentifiable specimens), for a total of about 4288
 Anseriformes - Anatidae
Anserinae indet.3 Vigors 1825 goose
 Gruiformes - Rallidae
Rallinae indet.3 Vigors 1825 rail
 Crocodylia -
Crocodylia indet.25 Owen 1842 crocodilian
 Testudines - Pantrionychidae
Trionyx quinni n. sp.10
Trionyx quinni n. sp.10 Holman 1982 turtle
 Testudines - Chelydridae
"Macroclemys sp." = Macrochelys22
"Macroclemys sp." = Macrochelys22 Gray 1856 alligator snapping turtle
 Testudines - Emydidae
Glyptemys valentinensis12 Holman and Fritz 2001 turtle
Emydinae indet.2 Rafinesque 1815 turtle
cf. Graptemys sp.22 Agassiz 1857 map turtle
Chrysemys sp.11 Gray 1844 painted turtle
 Testudines - Testudinidae
"Geochelone nordensis n. sp." = Hesperotestudo orthopygia9, "Geochelone orthopygia" = Geochelone (Hesperotestudo) orthopygia
"Geochelone nordensis n. sp." = Hesperotestudo orthopygia9 Cope 1878 turtle
"Geochelone orthopygia" = Geochelone (Hesperotestudo) orthopygia Cope 1878 turtle
 Squamata - Viperidae
Viperidae indet.10 Oppel 1811 viper
 Squamata - Boidae
Charina prebottae22 Brattstrom 1958 boa
Geringophis depressus10 Holman 1976 sand boa
 Squamata - Colubridae
Neonatrix elongata10 Holman 1973 colubrid snake
Neonatrix magna n. sp.10 Holman 1982 colubrid snake
Salvadora paleolineata10 Holman 1973 colubrid snake
Elaphe nebraskensis n. sp.8 Holman 1964 colubrid snake
Nebraskophis skinneri10 Holman 1973 colubrid snake
Ameiseophis cf. robinsoni10 Holman 1976 colubrid snake
originally entered as Ameisophis robinsoni
Lampropeltis similis n. sp.8 Holman 1964 colubrid snake
Paleoheterodon tiheni n. gen. n. sp.8 Holman 1964 colubrid snake
 Squamata - Anguidae
Anguidae indet.6 Gray 1825 squamates
Gerrhonotus cf. mungerorum22 alligator lizard
 Squamata - Xenosauridae
Nordenosaurus magnus n. sp.22 Holman 1973 squamates
 Squamata - Iguanidae
Sceloporus sp.22 Wiegmann 1828 spiny lizard
Leiocephalus nebraskensis22 curly-tailed lizard
 Squamata - Scincidae
cf. Eumeces sp.6 Wiegmann 1834 skink
Eumeces sp.24 Wiegmann 1834 skink
 Squamata - Rhineuridae
cf. Rhineura sp.22 Cope 1861 worm lizard
 Rodentia - Cricetidae
"Copemys niobrariensis" = Copemys longidens23, "Tregomys sp." = Copemys23
"Copemys niobrariensis" = Copemys longidens23 Hall 1930 mouse
"Tregomys sp." = Copemys23 Wood 1936 mouse
 Rodentia - Zapodidae
Schaubeumys sp.23 Wood 1935 jumping mouse
Megasminthus tiheni15 Klingener 1966 jumping mouse
 Rodentia - Mylagaulidae
Pterogaulus sp.18 Korth 2000 rodent
 Rodentia - Sciuridae
Spermophilus sp.23 Cuvier 1825 ground squirrel
Tamias cf. ateles1 Hall 1930 chipmunk
Petauristodon sp.1 Engesser 1979 squirrel
Miospermophilus sp.23 Black 1963 squirrel
Blackia sp.23 Mein 1970 squirrel
 Rodentia - Castoridae
Anchitheriomys fluminis23 Matthew 1918 beaver
see also Korth and Emry 1997a
"Monosaulax valentinensis" = Temperocastor valentinensis1 Stout 1999 beaver
Eucastor tortus23 Leidy 1858 beaver
confirmed by Evander 1999
Monosaulax skinneri7 Stout 1999 beaver
 Rodentia - Eomyidae
? Leptodontomys sp.15 Shotwell 1956 rodent
 Rodentia - Geomyidae
Phelosaccomys sp.19 Korth and Reynolds 1994 pocket gopher
consistent with Evander 1999; "? Parapliosaccomys sp." said to be new; "P. annae" of Korth 1987
 Rodentia - Heteromyidae
Mioheteromys amplissimus17 Korth 1997 rodent
Cupidinimus sp.1 Wood 1935 rodent
Cupidinimus nebraskensis15 Wood 1935 rodent
Lignimus cf. montis23 Storer 1970 rodent
described by Storer 1973
Perognathus brevidens16 Korth 1987 pocket mouse
Perognathus trojectioansrum23 Korth 1979 pocket mouse
 Lagomorpha - Leporidae
Hypolagus parviplicatus23 Dawson 1958 rabbit
Hypolagus cf. fontinalis23 Dawson 1958 rabbit
 Lagomorpha - Ochotonidae
Hesperolagomys fluviatilis23 Storer 1970 pika
Russellagus vonhofi23 Storer 1970 pika
 Chiroptera - Vespertilionidae
cf. Antrozous sp.23 Allen 1862 pallid bat
a bat
 Carnivora - Amphicyonidae
Pseudocyon sp.14 Lartet 1851 bear-dog
 Carnivora - Ursidae
Ursidae indet.1 Gray 1825 bear
 Carnivora - Procyonidae
"Probassariscus antiquus" = Bassariscus antiquus1
"Probassariscus antiquus" = Bassariscus antiquus1 Matthew and Cook 1909 ringtail
 Carnivora - Mustelidae
Leptarctus primus23 Leidy 1856 mustelid carnivore
Brachypsalis modicus1 Matthew 1918 mustelid carnivore
"Plionictis parviloba" = Martes parviloba23 Cope 1873 marten
Plionictis ogygia23 Matthew 1901 mustelid carnivore
Miomustela cf. madisonae23 Douglass 1929 mustelid carnivore
cf. Mionictis pristinus1 Matthew and Gidley 1904 otter
 Carnivora - Canidae
Leptocyon vafer23 Leidy 1858 canine
Cynarctus saxatilis23 Matthew 1902 bone-crushing dog
confirmed by Wang et al. 1999
Aelurodon cf. ferox1 Leidy 1858 bone-crushing dog
Carpocyon compressus1 Cope 1890 bone-crushing dog
Paratomarctus temerarius1 Leidy 1858 bone-crushing dog
 Carnivora - Felidae
Felidae indet.23 Gray 1821 cat
 Perissodactyla - Chalicotheriidae
Chalicotheriidae indet.23 Gill 1872 chalicothere
 Perissodactyla - Rhinocerotidae
"Teleoceras minor" = Teleoceras meridianum20 Leidy 1865 rhinoceros
Peraceras profectum21 Matthew 1899 rhinoceros
Peraceras superciliosum1 Cope 1880 rhinoceros
Aphelops megalodus23 Cope 1873 rhinoceros
 Perissodactyla - Tapiridae
Tapiridae indet.23 Gray 1821 tapir
 Perissodactyla - Equidae
Megahippus mckennai23 Tedford and Alf 1962 anchitheriine horse
Archaeohippus sp.23 Gidley 1906 anchitheriine horse
Parahippus cognatus23 Leidy 1858 anchitheriine horse
Hypohippus osborni23 Gidley 1907 anchitheriine horse
"Merychippus" republicanus23 Osborn 1918 horse
i.d. checked by JA 24 October 1990, on basis of figures and description of species provided by Webb and Hulbert 1986; the same species as USNM 1352 is present
Merychippus insignis23 Leidy 1856 horse
Calippus proplacidus1 Osborn 1918 horse
Protohippus sp.23 Leidy 1858 horse
said to be a new species; less hypsodont, more complex fossettes than P. perditus; probably not P. vetus either
"Hippotherium ? quinni" = Cormohipparion quinni26 Woodburne 1996 hipparionine horse
 Artiodactyla - Merycoidodontidae
? Ticholeptus sp.23, "Merychyus medius" = Ustatochoerus medius1
? Ticholeptus sp.23 Cope 1878 oreodont
"Merychyus medius" = Ustatochoerus medius1 Leidy 1858 oreodont
 Artiodactyla - Tayassuidae
"Prosthennops xiphodonticus" = Stirtonhyus xiphodonticus1
"Prosthennops xiphodonticus" = Stirtonhyus xiphodonticus1 Barbour 1925 peccary
 Artiodactyla - Protoceratidae
Protoceratidae indet.23 Marsh 1891 protoceratid
 Artiodactyla - Moschidae
Blastomeryx gemmifer23 Cope 1874 musk deer
 Artiodactyla - Antilocapridae
Ramoceros osborni23, Merycodus necatus23, "Submeryceros minor" = Merycodus minor1
Ramoceros osborni23 Matthew 1904 pronghorn
Merycodus necatus23 Leidy 1854 pronghorn
"Submeryceros minor" = Merycodus minor1 Frick 1937 pronghorn
 Artiodactyla - Palaeomerycidae
Bouromeryx cf. americanus23 Douglass 1899 ruminant
 Artiodactyla - Leptomerycidae
Pseudoparablastomeryx sp.23 Frick 1937 ruminant
 Artiodactyla - Camelidae
cf. Miolabis sp.23 Hay 1899 camel
Aepycamelus robustus23 Leidy 1858 camel
Procamelus occidentalis23 Leidy 1858 camel
 Theriamorpha - Erinaceidae
Metechinus amplior23 Rich 1981 hedgehog
Untermannerix copiosus23 Rich 1981 hedgehog
Parvericius montanus23 Koerner 1940 hedgehog
 Theriamorpha - Plesiosoricidae
Plesiosorex donroosai23 Green 1977 placental
 Theriamorpha - Talpidae
Mystipterus sp.23 Hall 1930 mole
Domninoides valentinensis23 Reed 1962 mole
cf. Scalopoides sp.23 Wilson 1960 mole
 Theriamorpha - Soricidae
Alluvisorex sp.23 Hutchison 1966 shrew
 Proboscidea - Mammutidae
cf. Zygolophodon sp.23 Vacek 1877 mastodon
 Proboscidea - Gomphotheriidae
"Gomphotherium cf. willistoni" = Trilophodon osborni1
"Gomphotherium cf. willistoni" = Trilophodon osborni1 Barbour 1916 gomphothere
 Caudata - Urodela
"Cryptobranchus mccalli n. sp." = Andrias matthewi, Ambystoma minshalli n. sp., Siren sp.13
"Cryptobranchus mccalli n. sp." = Andrias matthewi Cook 1917 giant salamander
Ambystoma minshalli n. sp. Tihen and Chantell 1963 mole salamander
Siren sp.13 Linnaeus 1766 siren
 Salientia - Pelobatidae
"Scaphiopus wardorum n. sp." = Scaphiopus (Scaphiopus) wardorum6, "Scaphiopus bombifrons" = Spea bombifrons22
"Scaphiopus wardorum n. sp." = Scaphiopus (Scaphiopus) wardorum6 Estes and Tihen 1964 spadefoot toad
"Scaphiopus bombifrons" = Spea bombifrons22 Cope 1863 Plains spadefoot
 Salientia - Ranidae
Rana aff. pipiens22 Schreber 1782 Northern leopard frog
 Salientia - Bufonidae
Bufo valentinensis n. sp.6 Estes and Tihen 1964 toad
Bufo cf. hibbardi6 Taylor 1936 toad
Bufo kuhrei n. sp.9 Holman 1973 toad
 Salientia - Hylidae
Hyla cf. versicolor5 Le Conte 1825 gray tree frog
Hyla cf. gratiosa4 Le Conte 1856 barking treefrog
see also Chantell 1966
Hyla cf. squirella4 Bosc 1800 squirrel treefrog
Pseudacris nordensis n. sp.4 Chantell 1964 chorus frog
Pseudacris cf. clarki4 Baird 1854 spotted chorus frog
Acris cf. crepitans4 Baird 1854 northern cricket frog
see also Chantell 1966
 Lepisosteiformes - Lepisosteidae
Lepisosteus sp. Agassiz 1843 gar
 Amiiformes - Amiidae
Amia calva Linnaeus 1766 bowfin
 Centrarchiformes - Centrarchidae
Lepomis microlophus Lee 1980 sunfish
Micropterus sp.22 Lacépède 1802 black bass
 Acanthomorphata - Sciaenidae
Aplodinotus grunniens22 Rafinesque 1819 freshwater drum
 Esociformes - Esocidae
Esox sp.22 Linnaeus 1758 pike
 Cypriniformes - Cyprinidae
Cyprinidae indet.22 Rafinesque 1815 carp-like fish
 Siluriformes - Ictaluridae
Ictalurus cf. punctatus Rafinesque 1818 catfish
 Acipenseriformes - Acipenseridae
Acipenser sp.22 Linnaeus 1758 sturgeon