Gram Formation (Miocene of Denmark)

Where: Denmark (55.3° N, 9.0° E: paleocoordinates 55.5° N, 8.0° E)

• coordinate based on nearby landmark

• basin-level geographic resolution

When: Gram Formation, Tortonian (11.6 - 7.2 Ma)

• STRATIGRAPHIC RELATIONS: From the Gram Fm, which conformably overlies the Hodde Fm (Serravallian) and is unconformably overlain by Quaternary deposits. AGE: Tortonian. STRATIGRAPHIC POSITION: General list for formation.

• formation-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: marine; poorly lithified, micaceous, silty claystone

• SPECIFIC LITHOLOGY: Silty, dark, micaceous clay. LITHIFICATION: Poorly-lithified, on the basis of figured specimens.

Size classes: macrofossils, mesofossils

Collection methods: surface (in situ),


Primary reference: F. Roth and K. Hoedemakers. 2005. The Marine Gram Formation at Gram, Denmark: Late Miocene Geology and Palaeontology. Palaeontos 7:1-189 [A. Hendy/A. Hendy]more details

Purpose of describing collection: taxonomic analysis

PaleoDB collection 98312: authorized by Austin Hendy, entered by Austin Hendy on 30.09.2010

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

• COVERAGE: Exhaustive for molluscs. NOMENCLATURE: Modern nomenclature, with species-resolution identifications.
 Diptera - Xylophagidae
Xylophaga sp. Turton 1822 fly
 Decapoda - Nephropidae
Nephrops kvistgaardae Fraaije et al. 2005 clawed lobster
Homarus cf. gammarus clawed lobster
 Decapoda - Galatheidae
Munida sp. Leach 1820 decapod
 Decapoda - Cancridae
Tasadia carniolica Bittner 1884 crab
 Decapoda - Geryonidae
Chaceon miocenicus Fraaije et al. 2005 crab
 Decapoda - Retroplumidae
Retropluma borealis Fraaife et al. 2005 crab
 Arcida - Glycymerididae
"Glycymeris (Chevronia) obovata" = Glycymeris (Glycymeris) obovata
"Glycymeris (Chevronia) obovata" = Glycymeris (Glycymeris) obovata Lamarck 1819 clam
 Arcida - Limopsidae
"Limopsis (Pectunculina) cf. anomala" = Limopsis, Limopsis (Limopsis) aurita
"Limopsis (Pectunculina) cf. anomala" = Limopsis clam
Limopsis (Limopsis) aurita Brocchi 1814 clam
 Pectinida - Pectinoidae
Pseudamussium clavatum Poli 1795 scallop
Pseudamussium cf. lilli Pusch 1837 scallop
 Pectinida - Anomiidae
"Pododesmus (Heteranomia) squamula" = Heteranomia squamula
"Pododesmus (Heteranomia) squamula" = Heteranomia squamula Linnaeus 1758 scallop
 Ostreida - Pinnidae
Atrina sp. Gray 1842 oyster
 Mytilida - Mytilidae
Mytilus sp. Linnaeus 1758 mussel
 Carditida - Astartidae
 Carditida - Carditidae
 Pholadida - Corbulidae
 Pholadida - Teredinidae
Teredinidae indet. Rafinesque 1815 clam
 Cardiida - Montacutidae
Mioerycina coarctata Wood 1840 clam
 Cardiida - Kelliellidae
 Cardiida - Glossidae
 Cardiida - Mactridae
Spisula aff. subtruncata da Costa 1778 clam
 Cardiida -
 Cardiida - Semelidae
Abra (Abra) cf. prismatica Montagu 1808 abra
 Cardiida - Cardiidae
 Cardiida - Leptonidae
"Lepton transversarium" = Lepton (Lepton) transversarium
"Lepton transversarium" = Lepton (Lepton) transversarium Cossmann 1896 clam
 Hiatellida - Hiatellidae
Hiatella (Hiatella) arctica Linnaeus 1767 clam
 Thraciida - Periplomatidae
Periploma ariei Gürs 1996 clam
 Thraciida - Thraciidae
 Poromyida - Cuspidariidae
 Lucinida - Thyasiridae
 Lucinida - Lucinidae
Lucinidae indet. Fleming 1828 clam
 Nuculida - Nuculidae
 Protobranchia - Sareptidae
 Protobranchia - Yoldiidae
Yoldia (Yoldia) glaberrima von Münster 1837 clam
 Ptenoglossa - Epitoniidae
Cirsotrema sp. Mörch 1852 wentletrap
 Thecosomata - Limacinidae
 Cephalaspidea - Retusidae
 Cephalaspidea - Cylichnidae
 Cephalaspidea - Diaphanidae
 Cephalaspidea -
 Triphoroidea - Triphoridae
 Triphoroidea - Cerithiopsidae
 Neogastropoda - Buccinidae
Colus distinctus true whelk
 Neogastropoda - Nassariidae
 Neogastropoda - Fasciolariidae
 Neogastropoda - Cancellariidae
 Neogastropoda - Mitridae
"Mitra grateloupi" = Mitra (Tiara) grateloupi
"Mitra grateloupi" = Mitra (Tiara) grateloupi d'Orbigny 1852 mitre shell
 Neogastropoda - Volutidae
 Neogastropoda - Costellariidae
"Vexillum (Uromitra) cimbrica" = Uromitra
"Vexillum (Uromitra) cimbrica" = Uromitra ribbed mitre
 Neogastropoda - Muricidae
"Trophonopsis (Pagodula) semperi" = Pagodula, Lyrotyphis (Eotyphis) sejunctus, Spinucella reimersi, "Murex (Tubicauda) spinicosta" = Murex (Promurex) spinicosta
"Trophonopsis (Pagodula) semperi" = Pagodula murex snail
Spinucella reimersi murex snail
"Murex (Tubicauda) spinicosta" = Murex (Promurex) spinicosta Bronn 1831 murex snail
 Neogastropoda - Mangeliidae
 Neogastropoda - Drilliidae
Spirotropis gramensis Janssen 1993 snail
 Neogastropoda - Turridae
 Neogastropoda - Raphitomidae
 Neogastropoda - Horaiclavidae
 Neogastropoda - Borsoniidae
 Neogastropoda - Conidae
"Conus (Conolithus) antediluvianus" = Conus (Conolithes), Oenopota kochi
"Conus (Conolithus) antediluvianus" = Conus (Conolithes) cone shell
Oenopota kochi cone shell
 Neogastropoda - Terebridae
 Entomotaeniata - Cimidae
 Stromboidea - Aporrhaidae
Aporrhais dingdenensis Marquet et al. 2002 snail
 Ficoidea - Ficidae
Ficus (Ficus) conditus Brongniart 1823 fig shell
 Vanikoroidea - Aclididae
 Vanikoroidea - Eulimidae
 Naticoidea - Naticidae
Euspira helicina Brocchi 1814 moon snail
 Xenophoroidea - Xenophoridae
Xenophora (Stellaria) testigera Bronn 1831 carrier shell
 Tonnoidea - Cassidae
Galeodea bicatenata, "Semicassis (Semicassis) miolaevigata" = Phalium (Semicassis) miolaevigata
Galeodea bicatenata Sowerby 1815 snail
"Semicassis (Semicassis) miolaevigata" = Phalium (Semicassis) miolaevigata Sacco 1890 snail
 Rissooidea - Rissoidae
 Rissooidea - Vitrinellidae
Circulus (Circulus) hennei Glibert 1952 snail
 Sorbeoconcha - Turritellidae
Turritella (Turritella) tricarinata, "Turritella (Archimediella) cochlias" = Archimediella
Turritella (Turritella) tricarinata Brocchi 1814 turret shell
"Turritella (Archimediella) cochlias" = Archimediella turret shell
 Heterostropha - Acteonidae
 Heterostropha - Ringiculidae
 Pyramidelloidea - Pyramidellidae
 Pyramidelloidea - Tjaernoiidae
 Turbinoidea - Turbinidae
 Lepetelloidea - Pseudococculinidae
 Trochoidea - Trochidae
 Dentaliida - Dentaliidae
 Gadilida - Gadilidae
 Squaliformes - Squalidae
Squalus cf. acanthias1 Linnaeus 1758 spiny dogfish
 Rajiformes - Rajidae
Raja sp.1 Linnaeus 1758 skate
 Hexanchiformes - Hexanchidae
Hexanchus primigenus1 sixgill shark
 Lamniformes - Cetorhinidae
Cetorhinus maximus1 Gunner 1765 basking shark
 Lamniformes - Otodontidae
"Carcharodon megalodon" = Otodus megalodon1
"Carcharodon megalodon" = Otodus megalodon1 Agassiz 1843 megalodon
 Lamniformes - Lamnidae
Isurus sp.1 Agassiz 1843 mako shark
Isurus escheri1 Agassiz 1843 mako shark
"Isurus hastalis" = Carcharodon hastalis1 Agassiz 1843 white shark
 Lamniformes - Odontaspididae
Odontaspis sp.1 Agassiz 1843 sand tiger shark
 Carchariniformes - Carcharhinidae
Galeocerdo sp.1 Müller and Henle 1837 tiger shark
  - Scyllidae
 Spatangoida - Brissidae
Brissopsis lyrifera2 heart urchin