Rudabánya (Miocene of Hungary)

Also known as Rudabánya 1 ("Mastodon Wall"), Rudabánya 2 ("Gibraltar"), Rudabánya 3 ("The Great Wall"), Rudabánya 4, Rudabánya 5, Rudabánya 6, Rudabánya 7

Where: Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén, Hungary (48.4° N, 20.6° E: paleocoordinates 48.0° N, 20.4° E)

• coordinate based on nearby landmark

• outcrop-level geographic resolution

When: Edelény Formation, MN 9 (11.1 - 9.7 Ma)

• "A synthesis of the biochronologic bases for Rudabánya II’s age strongly supports a late MN 9, Pannonian F correlation, ca. 10-9.7 Ma" (Bernor et al., 2004). All other sublocalities are regarded to be contemporaneous (Bernor et al., 2004).

•According to Nemeth et al. (2013) the Pannonian sediments of the Rudabánya mining area are referred to as Edelény Formation.

• group of beds-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: lacustrine; unlithified, gray, red marl and unlithified, black, gray claystone

• Deposition took place in different "lacustrine and peri-lacustrine" (swamp forests etc.) environments (Bernor et al., 2004) on a low-angle slope at the periphery of the Pannonian Lake. A detailed reconstruction of the paleoenvironments of Rudabánya is given in Andrews & Cameron (2010, Palaeogeogr., Palaeoclimatol., Palaeoecol. 297(2):311-329).
• "Rudabánya’s sediments include cyclic layers of gray marl, clay and lignite, totalling 8-12 meters in thickness. These sediments, include rich fossiliferous levels that contain plant impressions, seeds, molluscs, vertebrate remains and, of especial note, catarrhine primates" (Bernor et al., 2004).

•For a more elaborate description of the sediments of the Rudabanya 2 sublocality see Andrews & Cameron (2010).

Size classes: macrofossils, mesofossils

Preservation: original aragonite, original phosphate

Collected by G. Pethö, G. Hernyák, M. Kretzoi, L. Kordos, D.R. Begun, R. L. Bernor, M. Armour-Chelu, P. Andrews, in the 1900s, 1920s, 1960s–2000s

Collection methods: surface (in situ), sieve,

• The first known vertebrate was found in 1902 by G. Pethö. A few important discoveries were made by G. Hernyák, the chief geologist of the Vilmos mine, in the 1960s and later on. First systematic collecting took place in the 1970s under the aegis of M. Kretzoi. After 1990 several paleontologists from the western hemisphere joined the excavations. For a more detailed review of the research history at Rudabánya see Bernor et al. (2004).

•All or at least the bulk of the Rudabánya material is housed in the Geological and Geophysical Institute of Hungary (hung.: Magyar Földtani és Geofizikai Intézet, formerly Magyar Állami Földtani Intézet, abbreviated MAFI) in Budapest.

Primary reference: R. L. Bernor, L. Kordos L. Rook et al. 2004. Recent Advances on Multidisciplinary Research at Rudabánya, Late Miocene (MN9), Hungary: a compendium. Palaeontographia Italica 89:3-36 [J. Mueller/T. Liebrecht/T. Liebrecht]more details

Purpose of describing collection: taxonomic analysis

PaleoDB collection 75481: authorized by Lars van den Hoek Ostende, entered by Lars van den Hoek Ostende on 11.10.2007, edited by Torsten Liebrecht and Mark Uhen

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

• The emphasis of the paper by Bernor et al. (2004) is on the Rudabánya 2 (also spelled "Rudabánya II") sublocality but most co-authors list taxa from all sublocalities without giving particularities on specimens and/or sites.

•List contains taxa that may have been cited by earlier authors under a different name and/or combination and some names cited in earlier works may have fallen into synonymy with those cited in the list (may already be noted in the list).

•Determinations in Bernor et al. (2004): E. Krolopp (molluscs); Z. Roček (amphibians); Z. Szyndlar (snakes); D. Janossy (birds); G. Topal (bats); L. Kordos and D. R. Begun (primates); G. Daxner-Höck, O. Fejfar, and L. Kordos (rodents); L. Werdelin (carnivorans); M. Gasparik (proboscideans); R. L. Bernor, M. Armour-Chely, T. Kaiser, R. Scott, L. de Bonis, J. Franzen, and K. Heissig (perissodactyls); M. Fortelius, R. L. Bernor, N. Fessaha, M. Armour-Chelu, and A. Gentry (artiodactyls).

•The list only contains vertebrate taxa mentioned in the text of Bernor et al. (2004) and ignores the faunal list given in table 3 (pp. 22-24) since it is partially contradictory to the informations given in the text (e.g. the table lists "?Leptotyphlopidae gen. et sp. indet." whereas Szyndlar in his section on snakes explicitly states that the only vertebra clearly referrable to Scolecophidia may belong to Typhlops and that the presence of leptotyphlopids in Rudabánya is very unlikely). In the taxon list in table 3 there appear 5 chelonian taxa which are not mentioned elsewhere in the paper: Trionyx sp., Geomyda sp., Testudo cf. kalksburgensis, Testudo sp. I, and Testudo sp. II.

 Anseriformes - Anatidae
"Anas aff. velox" = Nettion velox, Anas sp.
"Anas aff. velox" = Nettion velox Milne-Edwards 1867 duck
Anas sp. Linnaeus 1758 dabbling duck
"size of actua-querquedula"
 Passeriformes - Corvidae
Corvus sp. Linnaeus 1758 crow
represented by "a suite of terminal phalanges"
 Passeriformes - Acrocephalidae
Acrocephalus sp. Naumann and Naumann 1811 reed warbler
similar in size and morphology to Acrocephalus arundinaceus
 Passeriformes - Sylviidae
Locustella sp. Kaup 1829 perching bird
a single acrocoracoideum; appears to be smaller than Locustella luscinioides
 Gruiformes - Rallidae
? Miorallus sp. Lambrecht 1933 rail
 Strigiformes - Strigidae
Athene sp. Scopoli 1769 true owl
Strix aff. brevis Ballman 1969 true owl
 Galliformes - Phasianidae
Miophasianus cf. medius Milne-Edwards 1871 pheasant
Palaeortyx aff. phasianoides Milne-Edwards 1871 pheasant
"approximately the size of Palaeortyx phasianoides and/or P. intermedius"
"Palaeortyx aff. grivensis" = Palaeortyx gallica Milne-Edwards 1869 pheasant
 Squamata - Elapidae
? Naja sp. Laurenti 1768 cobra
4 vertebral fragments
Naja romani Hoffstetter 1939 cobra
"a single, but perfectly preserved relatively large vertebra"
 Squamata - Crotalidae
Vipera "sp. ("aspis" complex)" Laurenti 1768 pit viper
3 fragmentary trunk vertebrae
Vipera "sp. ("Oriental viper" group)" Laurenti 1768 pit viper
1 fragmentary trunk vertebra
 Squamata - Typhlopidae
? Typhlops sp. Oppel 1811 blind snake
a single, very small scolecophidian vertebra; in fact not determinable, even on a familiar level, but presence of scolecophidians other than Typhlops is regarded "not highly likely"
 Squamata - Colubridae
Natrix sp. Laurenti 1768 water snake
49 vertebrae of natricines, only some of which allow determination on generic level
Colubrinae "indet. A" Oppel 1811 colubrid snake
200 vertebrae, "relatively large", probably Coluber
Colubrinae "indet. B" Oppel 1811 colubrid snake
6 vertebrae, "minute", possibly posteriormost trunk vertebrae of Colubrine A
Colubrinae indet. Oppel 1811 colubrid snake
too damaged for a more precise determination, but "most likely referrable to Colubrine A"
 Proboscidea - Deinotheriidae
Deinotherium giganteum Kaup 1829 deinothere
"represented by a dp4 and another milk molar fragment"
 Proboscidea - Elephantidae
Stegotetrabelodon gigantorostris elephant
"four upper tusks, lower and upper molars, as well as deciduous dentition"
 Proboscidea - Gomphotheriidae
Tetralophodon longirostris Kaup 1832 gomphothere
"abundant"; "includes lower and upper tusks, lower and upper molars, as well as deciduous dentition"
Tetralophodon cf. longirostris Kaup 1832 gomphothere
"two lower tusk fragments and some upper and lower molars"
 Lagomorpha -
Eurolagus sp. Lopez Martinez 1977 placental
 Rodentia - Sciuridae
Blackia miocaenica Mein 1970 squirrel
Albanensia grimmi Black 1966 squirrel
Miopetaurista sp. Kretzoi 1962 squirrel
Hylopetes sp. Thomas 1908 squirrel
Spermophilinus bredai von Meyer 1848 squirrel
 Rodentia - Anomalomyidae
Anomalomys rudabayensis rodent
described by Kordos (1989); includes material identfied/recognized as Anomalomys cf. gaillardi, Prospalax (or Allospalax) petteri and Anomalomys gaudryi in earlier publications
 Rodentia - Gliridae
Paraglirulus werenfelsi Engesser 1972 dormouse
Glirulus lissiensis Hugueney and Mein 1965 Japanese dormouse
Glis aff. minor Kowalski 1963 dormouse
Muscardinus hispanicus de Bruijn 1966 dormouse
Muscardinus aff. vallesiensis Hartenberger 1966 dormouse
 Rodentia - Eomyidae
 Rodentia - Castoridae
 Rodentia - Cricetidae
"Kowalskia cf. schaubi" = Neocricetodon mouse
Democricetodon sp. Fahlbusch 1964 mouse
Eumyarion aff. latior Schaub and Zapfe 1953 mouse
Microtocricetus molassicus Fahlbusch and Mayr 1975 mouse
 Primates - Pliopithecidae
Anapithecus hernyaki Kretzoi 1975 monkey
original combination: Pliopithecus hernyaki; includes material formerly recognized as Rangwapithecus (Ataxopithecus) serus Kretzoi (see Kordos & Begun, 2001)
 Primates - Hominidae
"Dryopithecus brancoi" = Hispanopithecus (Hispanopithecus) hungaricus Kretzoi 1969 ape
comprises material formerly recognized as Rudapithecus hungaricus Kretzoi and Bodvapithecus altipalatus Kretzoi (see Kordos & Begun, 2001, J. Hum. Evol. 40(1):17-39)
 Artiodactyla - Tragulidae
Dorcatherium naui Kaup 1833 chevrotain
1 right upper molar "in early wear" (1973/15), and perhaps a left astragalus (1988/15)
 Artiodactyla - Bovidae
Bovidae sp. Gray 1821 antelope
14 specimens of slightly hypsodont teeth
Miotragocerus sp. Stromer 1928 antelope
"more than 70 specimens"; assignment is based "on the evidence of a distal end of a right horn core, 1992/66, about 90 mm long"; "most probably" conspecific with Miotragocerus pannoniae"
 Artiodactyla - Cervidae
Lucentia aff. pierensis Thomas 1951 deer
"most common ruminant at Rudabánya"; "over 100 identified specimens" (antlers, teeth)
 Artiodactyla - Moschidae
Micromeryx flourensianus Lartet 1851 musk deer
"more than 60 specimens"
 Artiodactyla - Suidae
Propotamochoerus palaeochoerus pig
"most abundant artiodactyl at the site"; "over 400 specimens"; previously reported as Kornyochoerus palaeochoerus
Parachleuastochoerus sp. Golpe-Posse 1972 pig
"previously unrecognized species"; "possibly represented by two morphs"; includes material named "Conohyus ferreus" by Kretzoi, but that name was never validly published
 Perissodactyla - Equidae
Hippotherium intrans hipparionine horse
described as Hipparion intrans by Kretzoi (1983); includes material previously referred to Hippotherium aff. primigenium (Bernor et al., 1993, Mitt. BSPG 33(3):195-207)
Hippotherium sp. Kaup 1832 hipparionine horse
"smaller hipparion morph", coming from the Upper Lignite of Rudabánya 2 sublocality
 Perissodactyla - Chalicotheriidae
Chalicotherium aff. goldfussi Kaup 1833 chalicothere
occurs at "Rudabánya localities 2 and 3, andincludes goog diagnostic maxillary and mandibular cheek tooth material. The most complete specimen is an associated partial upper and lower dentition."
 Perissodactyla - Tapiridae
Tapirus cf. priscus Kaup 1833 tapir
"a single fragmentary lower molar tooth and a fragmentary phalanx from Rudabanya 2"; originally identified as the suid genus Listriodon
 Perissodactyla - Rhinocerotidae
Aceratherium incisivum Cuvier 1824 rhinoceros
Lartetotherium aff. sansaniense Lartet 1837 rhinoceros
 Carnivora -
Proputorius sp. Filhol 1890 carnivoran
 Carnivora - Ursidae
Ursavus brevirhinus Hofmann 1887 bear
Ursavus primaevus Gaillard 1899 bear
Miomaci pannonicum n. gen. n. sp.1 de Bones et al. 2017 pinniped
 Carnivora - Mustelidae
Paralutra sp. Roman and Viret 1934 otter
"previously unknown"
Paralutra jaegeri Fraas 1862 otter
"most abundant mustelid"
Melinae indet. Burmeister 1872 badger
Taxodon cf. sansaniensis Lartet 1851 badger
cf. Trochictis sp. von Meyer 1842 mustelid carnivore
 Carnivora - Ailuridae
Simocyon diaphorus Kaup 1832 red panda
Alopecocyon sp. Camp and Vanderhoof 1940 red panda
 Carnivora - Amphicyonidae
Amphicyonidae sp. Haeckel 1886 bear-dog
"new taxon"
 Carnivora - Nimravidae
Sansanosmilus jourdani Filhol 1883 false sabre-tooth
 Carnivora - Viverridae
 Carnivora - Hyaenidae
cf. Thalassictis montadai Villalta and Crusafont Pairo 1943 hyaena
"only some fragmentary specimens"
 Carnivora - Percrocutidae
 Tribosphenida - Erinaceidae
Galericinae indet.2 Pomel 1848 hedgehog
Ziegler & Meszaros (in Bernor et al., 2004) list "Galerix sp." instead but note that "referral of this species to Schizogalerix cannot be excluded"
Postpalerinaceus cingulatus n. sp.2 Ziegler 2005 hedgehog
Ziegler & Meszaros (in Bernor et al., 2004) list "Postpalerinaceus nov. sp." instead
Lanthanotherium sanmigueli2 Villalta and Crusafont 1944 hedgehog
 Tribosphenida - Erinaceoidae
Dimylidae indet.2 Schlosser 1887 placental
Metacordylodon aff. schaffneri2 placental
Ziegler & Meszaros (in Bernor et al., 2004) list "Metacordylodon aff. schlosseri" instead
Plesiodimylus chantrei2 Gaillard 1899 placental
 Soricomorpha - Plesiosoricidae
Plesiosorex schaffneri2 Engesser 1972 placental
Ziegler & Meszaros (in Bernor et al., 2004) list "Plesiosorex aff. styriacus" instead
 Soricomorpha - Talpidae
Talpa sp.2 Linnaeus 1758 mole
Archaeodesmana primigenia2 Ziegler 2005 mole
Ziegler & Meszaros (in Bernor et al., 2004) list "'Archaeodesmana' nov. sp." instead
 Soricomorpha - Soricidae
Soricinae indet.2 Fischer von Waldheim 1817 red-toothed shrew
Crusafontina aff. endemica2 Gibert 1975 red-toothed shrew
Paenelimnoecus aff. repenningi2 Bachmayer and Wilson 1970 red-toothed shrew
Dinosorex engesseri2 Rabeder 1998 shrew
Ziegler & Meszaros (in Bernor et al., 2004) list "Dinosorex nov. sp." instead
 Chiroptera - Vespertilionidae
Eptesicus "sp. nov." Rafinesque 1820 house bat
Eptesicus campanensis Baudelot 1970 house bat
cf. Miostrellus risgoviensis Rachl 1983 vesper bat
 Caudata - Urodela
Mioproteus caucasicus Estes and Darevsky 1978 mudpuppy
"most abundant tailed amphibian at Rudabánya"
Salamandridae "sp. type I" Gray 1825 newt
"fragmentary maxillae and premaxillae recalling extant Salamandra"
Salamandridae "sp. type II" Gray 1825 newt
"tiny vertebrae [...] belonging to the Brachycormus-Triturus complex"
Chelotriton "sp. type I" Pomel 1853 newt
Chelotriton "sp. type II" Pomel 1853 newt
 Salientia - Palaeobatrachidae
Palaeobatrachus sp. Tschudi 1839 frog
"dominant"; probably more than one species present, indicated by material varying "extremely" in size and somewhat in morphology
 Salientia - Pelodytidae
Pelodytes sp. Fitzinger 1838 parsley frog
 Salientia - Pelobatidae
Pelobatidae indet. Lataste 1879 spadefoot toad
whether Eopelobates or Pelobates
 Salientia - Hylidae
Hyla sp. Laurenti 1768 tree frog
 Salientia - Ranidae
Rana sp. Linnaeus 1758 frog
"at least two forms", inferred from presence of different-sized ilia
 Salientia - Discoglossidae
Bombina sp. Oken 1816 fire-bellied toad
 Salientia -
Latonia gigantea Lartet 1851 frog
"most common Rudabánya anuran"
 Heterostropha - Planorbidae
 Stylommatophora - Acanthinulidae
 Stylommatophora - Gastrocoptidae
Gastrocopta fissidens slug
subsp. C. f. infrapontica Wenz
Gastrocopta acuminata Klein 1846 slug
Gastrocopta edlaueri Wenz 1920 slug
 Stylommatophora - Valloniidae
Vallonia sp. Risso 1826 slug
 Stylommatophora - Azecidae
 Stylommatophora - Strobilopsidae
Strobilops sp. Pilsbry 1893 slug
 Stylommatophora - Argnidae
Argna oppoliensis Andreae 1902 slug
 Stylommatophora - Chondrinidae
 Stylommatophora - Vertiginidae
Vertigo angustior slug
subsp. V. a. oecsensis (Halaváts)
Vertigo sp. Muller 1774 slug
Vertigo cf. moedlingensis Wenz and Edlauer 1942 slug
Vertigo callosa Reuss 1849 slug
 Stylommatophora - Pristilomatidae
Vitrea sp. Fitzinger 1833 slug
 Stylommatophora - Zonitidae
Zonitidae indet. Mörch 1864 true glass snail
 Stylommatophora - Limacidae
Limacidae "indet. I" Lamarck 1801 slug
Limacidae "indet. II" Lamarck 1801 slug
 Stylommatophora - Clausiliidae
Nordsieckia fischeri Michaud 1862 slug
subsp. N. f. pontica Lueger
Serrulella sp. Nordsieck 1978 slug
 Stylommatophora - Helicidae
Helicigona sp. Risso 1826 slug
 Stylommatophora - Hygromiidae
"Trichia sp." = Trochulus
"Trichia sp." = Trochulus Chemnitz 1786 slug
 Stylommatophora - Succineidae
Succinea sp. Draparnaud 1801 amber snail
 Stylommatophora - Helicodiscidae
Helicodiscus sp. Morse 1864 slug
 Pulmonata - Discidae
Discus cf. pleuradrus Bourguignat 1881 disk snail
 Cycloneritida - Helicinidae