Gryphaea (Crassostrea) gryphoides crassissima assemblage zone, Crete (Miocene of Greece)

Where: Greece (35.3° N, 24.6° E: paleocoordinates 34.9° N, 24.2° E)

• coordinate based on political unit

• local area-level geographic resolution

When: Apostoli Formation, Tortonian (11.6 - 7.2 Ma)

• N 16: Neogloboquadrina acostaensis zone

• group of beds-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: shallow subtidal; lithified limestone and lithified marl

• The basal parts are composed of conglomerates and sands. The middle and upper parts consist of organic limestones alternating with clays and marls.

Size class: macrofossils

Primary reference: M. Dermitzakis and E. Georgiades-Dikeoulia. 1987. Biozonation of the Neogene invertebrate megafauna of the Hellenic area. Annales Instituti Geologici Publici Hungarici 70:125-136 [W. Kiessling/U. Merkel]more details

Purpose of describing collection: taxonomic analysis

PaleoDB collection 72310: authorized by Wolfgang Kiessling, entered by Uta Merkel on 01.06.2007, edited by Wolfgang Kiessling

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

Bivalvia
 Pectinida - Pectinoidae
Spondylus concentricus, Spondylus gaederopus, Spondylus crassicosta, Pecten praebenedictus, Pecten revolutus, Pecten benedictus, Pecten dunkeri, Pecten aduncus, "Chlamys multistriata" = Talochlamys multistriata, "Pecten (Flabellipecten) besseri" = Camptonectes virgatus, Hinnites brassonii, Chlamys (Manupecten) jakloweciana, Chlamys (Macrochlamys) latissima, Chlamys solarium, Chlamys angelonii, Chlamys bollenensis, Chlamys haueri, Chlamys (Macrochlamys) tournali, "Chlamys (Aequipecten) scabrella" = Chlamys scabrellus, "Chlamys varia" = Chlamys (Chlamys) varia, "Pecten (Flabellipecten) ugolini" = Flabellipecten, "Flabellipecten incrassatus" = Flabellipecten, Flabellipecten fraterculus, "Chlamys (Aequipecten) spinulosa" = Aequipecten, "Chlamys (Aequipecten) opercularis" = Aequipecten opercularis, "Chlamys opercularis" = Aequipecten opercularis, "Amussium cristatum" = Amusium
Spondylus concentricus Bronn 1831 scallop
Spondylus gaederopus Linnaeus 1758 scallop
Spondylus crassicosta Lamarck 1819 scallop
Pecten aduncus Eichwald 1830 scallop
"Chlamys multistriata" = Talochlamys multistriata Poli 1795 scallop
"Pecten (Flabellipecten) besseri" = Camptonectes virgatus Nilsson 1827 scallop
Hinnites brassonii scallop
subsp. calligens
"Chlamys (Aequipecten) scabrella" = Chlamys scabrellus Lamarck 1819 scallop
"Chlamys varia" = Chlamys (Chlamys) varia Linnaeus 1758 scallop
"Pecten (Flabellipecten) ugolini" = Flabellipecten scallop
"Flabellipecten incrassatus" = Flabellipecten scallop
Flabellipecten fraterculus Sowerby in Smith 1841 scallop
"Chlamys (Aequipecten) spinulosa" = Aequipecten scallop
"Chlamys (Aequipecten) opercularis" = Aequipecten opercularis Linnaeus 1758 scallop
"Chlamys opercularis" = Aequipecten opercularis Linnaeus 1758 scallop
subsp. audouini
"Amussium cristatum" = Amusium scallop
 Pectinida - Anomiidae
Anomia (Anomia) ephippium Linnaeus 1758 jingle
 Ostreida - Ostreidae
Gryphaea (Crassostrea) gryphoides, "Ostrea (Ostrea) digitalina" = Cubitostrea digitalina, Ostrea fimbriata, Ostrea (Ostrea) fimbriata, Ostrea gingensis, "Ostrea (Ostrea) edulis" = Ostrea edulis, "Ostrea (Ostrea) lamellosa" = Ostrea edulis, "Ostrea lamellosa" = Ostrea edulis
Gryphaea (Crassostrea) gryphoides Schlotheim 1813 oyster
subsp. crassissima
"Ostrea (Ostrea) digitalina" = Cubitostrea digitalina Eichwald 1830 oyster
Ostrea gingensis Schlotheim 1813 oyster
"Ostrea (Ostrea) edulis" = Ostrea edulis Linnaeus 1758 oyster
subsp. adriatica
"Ostrea (Ostrea) lamellosa" = Ostrea edulis Linnaeus 1758 oyster
"Ostrea lamellosa" = Ostrea edulis Linnaeus 1758 oyster
subsp. boblayei
 Ostreida - Gryphaeidae
"Pycnodonta navicularis" = Neopycnodonte navicularis, "Pycnodonta germanitala" = Pycnodonte
"Pycnodonta navicularis" = Neopycnodonte navicularis Brocchi 1814 oyster
"Pycnodonta germanitala" = Pycnodonte oyster
 Arcida - Noetiidae
 Arcida - Glycymerididae
"Arca (Pectinarca) pectinata" = Tucetona pectinata Gmelin 1791 clam
Glycymeris (Glycymeris) cor Lamarck 1805 clam
Glycymeris (Glycymeris) pilosa Linnaeus 1767 clam
subsp. deshayesi
 Arcida - Arcidae
Arca turoniensis, Arca turonica, Arca (Anadara) noae, Barbatia (Barbatia) barbata, "Arca (Anadara) girondica" = Anadara, "Arca (Anadara) fichteli" = Anadara fichteli, "Arca (Anadara) diluvii" = Scapharca (Scapharca) diluvii
Arca turonica ark
subsp. taurangulosa
Arca (Anadara) noae Linnaeus 1758 ark
Barbatia (Barbatia) barbata Linnaeus 1758 clam
"Arca (Anadara) girondica" = Anadara ark
"Arca (Anadara) fichteli" = Anadara fichteli Deshayes 1850 ark
"Arca (Anadara) diluvii" = Scapharca (Scapharca) diluvii Lamarck 1805 clam
 Carditida - Carditidae
Cardita jouanneti clam
subsp. ponderosa
"Beguina (Glans) rhomboidea" = Glans clam
"Beguina (Glans) rudista" = Glans clam
 Cardiida - Cardiidae
Cardium (Ringicardium) hians Spengler 1799 cockle
subsp. danubianum
Cardium tuberculatum Linnaeus 1758 cockle
"Cardium echinatum" = Acanthocardia (Acanthocardia) echinata Linnaeus 1767 cockle
subsp. mucronata
"Cardium (Cerastoderma) edule" = Cerastoderma edule Linnaeus 1758 cockle
 Cardiida - Veneridae
Venus (Ventricola) multilamella, "Dosinia (Orbiculus) lupinus" = Dosinia lupina
Venus (Ventricola) multilamella Lamarck 1818 venus clam
"Dosinia (Orbiculus) lupinus" = Dosinia lupina Linnaeus 1758 venus clam
subsp. austriaca
 Cardiida - Mactridae
 Cardiida - Chamidae
Chama gryphoides Linnaeus 1758 jewel box
 Pholadida - Corbulidae
Corbula (Corbula) carinata Dujardin 1837 clam
subsp. hoernesi
 Lucinida - Lucinidae
Gastropoda
 Patellogastropoda - Patellidae
 Lepetellida - Fissurellidae
Diodora (Lucapina) italica Defrance 1820 snail
 Trochoidea - Turbinidae
"Astraea (Bolma) meynardi" = Bolma, "Astraea (Bolma) rugosa" = Bolma rugosus
"Astraea (Bolma) meynardi" = Bolma snail
"Astraea (Bolma) rugosa" = Bolma rugosus Linnaeus 1767 snail
 Heterostropha - Ringiculidae
"Ringicula (Ringiculella) auriculata" = Ringicula minor
"Ringicula (Ringiculella) auriculata" = Ringicula minor Grateloup 1838 snail
subsp. pauluciae
 Cerithioidea - Potamididae
"Potamides tricinctus" = Potamides (Ptychopotamides) tricinctus, "Terebralia bidentata" = Terebralia bidentata, "Terebralia lignitarum" = Terebralia bidentata, "Potamides (Tympanotomus) trochlearispina" = Tympanotonos
"Potamides tricinctus" = Potamides (Ptychopotamides) tricinctus Brocchi 1814 horn snail
subsp. scalaritina
"Terebralia bidentata" = Terebralia bidentata Defrance 1832 horn snail
subsp. cingulatior, vignali, prolignitarium and bidentata
"Terebralia lignitarum" = Terebralia bidentata Defrance 1832 horn snail
subsp. lignitarum
"Potamides (Tympanotomus) trochlearispina" = Tympanotonos horn snail
subsp. subfenestrata
 Cerithioidea - Cerithiidae
 Cerithioidea - Turritellidae
"Turritella (Haustator) hoernesi" = Haustator, "Turritella (Haustator) partschi" = Haustator, "Turritella (Haustator) eryna" = Haustator eryna, Turritella (Haustator) tricincta, Turritella (Zaria) subangulata, Turritella (Turritella) turris, "Turritella (Torculoidella) bicarinata" = Turritella bicarinata, Turritella (Turritella) tricarinata, "Turritella (Archimediella) dertonensis" = Archimediella, "Turritella (Archimediella) archimedis" = Archimediella, "Turritella (Archimediella) pythagoraica" = Archimediella, "Turritella (Torculoidella) triplicata" = Archimediella (Torculoidella), "Archimediella (Torculoidella) spirata" = Archimediella (Torculoidella) spiratus
"Turritella (Haustator) hoernesi" = Haustator turret shell
"Turritella (Haustator) partschi" = Haustator turret shell
subsp. quatricincta
"Turritella (Haustator) eryna" = Haustator eryna d'Orbigny 1852 turret shell
subsp. rotundata
Turritella (Haustator) tricincta Münster 1841 turret shell
Turritella (Turritella) turris Basterot 1825 turret shell
subsp. capriciosa
"Turritella (Torculoidella) bicarinata" = Turritella bicarinata Elchwald 1830 turret shell
subsp. bicarinata and subunocincta
Turritella (Turritella) tricarinata Brocchi 1814 turret shell
subsp. communis
"Turritella (Archimediella) dertonensis" = Archimediella turret shell
subsp. dertonensis, persulcata and subconica
"Turritella (Archimediella) archimedis" = Archimediella turret shell
subsp. dertonatior
"Turritella (Archimediella) pythagoraica" = Archimediella turret shell
subsp. pythagoraica
"Turritella (Torculoidella) triplicata" = Archimediella (Torculoidella) turret shell
and subsp. crasseplicata, dertosimplex and superneaplicata
"Archimediella (Torculoidella) spirata" = Archimediella (Torculoidella) spiratus Brocchi 1814 turret shell
 Sorbeoconcha - Campanilidae
"Cerithium (Vulgocerithium) crenatum" = Thericium, "Cerithium (Thericium) italicum" = Thericium italicum, Cerithium (Thericium) vulgatum, "Cerithium (Thericium) europaeum" = Thericium europaeum
"Cerithium (Vulgocerithium) crenatum" = Thericium snail
"Cerithium (Thericium) italicum" = Thericium italicum Mayer 1878 snail
subsp. dertonensis
Cerithium (Thericium) vulgatum Bruguière 1789 snail
subsp. miospina
"Cerithium (Thericium) europaeum" = Thericium europaeum Mayer 1878 snail
subsp. europaeum
 Sorbeoconcha - Vermetidae
Petaloconchus intortus Lamarck 1818 worm shell
Lemintina arenaria worm shell
 Sorbeoconcha - Naticidae
Polinices (Polinices) redemptus, Neverita olla, "Natica (Neverita) josephinia" = Neverita josephinia, Lunatia catena, "Sigaretus (Sigaretus) striatus" = Sinum, "Polinices (Polinices) dertomamilla" = Tectonatica dertomamilla, Natica (Nacca) millepunctata
Polinices (Polinices) redemptus Michelotti 1847 moon snail
Neverita olla De Serres 1829 moon snail
"Natica (Neverita) josephinia" = Neverita josephinia Risso 1826 moon snail
Lunatia catena moon snail
subsp. helicina
"Sigaretus (Sigaretus) striatus" = Sinum moon snail
"Polinices (Polinices) dertomamilla" = Tectonatica dertomamilla Sacco 1890 moon snail
Natica (Nacca) millepunctata Sacco 1890 moon snail
 Sorbeoconcha - Strombidae
"Strombus (Canarium) bonellii" = Persististrombus bonellii, "Strombus (Strombus) coronatus" = Persististrombus coronatus
"Strombus (Canarium) bonellii" = Persististrombus bonellii Brongniart 1823 true conch
"Strombus (Strombus) coronatus" = Persististrombus coronatus Defrance 1827 true conch
 Sorbeoconcha - Aporrhaidae
 Neogastropoda - Volutidae
Athleta (Athleta) ficulina Lamarck 1811 volute
subsp. rarispina
 Neogastropoda - Muricidae
Ocinebrina sublavata murex snail
subsp. sublavata
"Hexaplex (Muricanthus) subasperrimus" = Muricanthus murex snail
Purpura (Tritonalia) delbosiana murex snail
subsp. friedbergi
Hadriania craticulata Brocchi 1814 murex snail
"Typhis (Typhinellus) tetrapterus" = Typhinellus murex snail
Thais (Stramonita) exilis Parsch in Hörnes 1856 murex snail
 Neogastropoda - Cancellariidae
 Neogastropoda - Ancillariidae
"Ancilla (Baryspira) glandiformis" = Amalda glandiformis
"Ancilla (Baryspira) glandiformis" = Amalda glandiformis Lamarck 1810 snail
 Neogastropoda - Olividae
 Neogastropoda - Costellariidae
Vexillum (Vexillum) plicatulum Brocchi 1814 ribbed mitre
 Neogastropoda - Nassariidae
"Hinia (Uzita) limata" = Nassarius (Uzita), "Nassa (Hinia) incrassata" = Nassarius incrassatus
"Hinia (Uzita) limata" = Nassarius (Uzita) snail
"Nassa (Hinia) incrassata" = Nassarius incrassatus Müller 1773 snail
 Neogastropoda - Fasciolariidae
"Fasciolaria (Pleuroploca) fimbriata" = Pleuroploca, Latirus (Latirus) lynchi, Latirus (Latirus) valenciennesi
"Fasciolaria (Pleuroploca) fimbriata" = Pleuroploca snail
 Neogastropoda - Columbellidae
"Columbella (Alia) curta" = Pyrene (Alia) dovesnail
subsp. curta
 Neogastropoda - Melongenidae
Galeodes (Galeodes) cornutus Agassiz 1843 snail
 Neogastropoda - Buccinidae
 Neogastropoda - Mitridae
Mitraria (Mitraria) ambigua mitre shell
subsp. ambigua
Mitra (Tiara) substriatula d'Orbigny 1852 mitre shell
"Mitra (Tiara) scrobiculata" = Cancilla scrobiculata Brocchi 1814 mitre shell
 Neogastropoda - Borsoniidae
"Genota (Genota) ramosa" = Genota valeriae
"Genota (Genota) ramosa" = Genota valeriae Hoernes and Auinger 1891 snail
subsp. ramosa
 Neogastropoda - Clavatulidae
Clavatula (Clavatula) asperulata snail
subsp. gracilis and ernesti
Clavatula (Clavatula) theodori snail
subsp. calcaratiformis
"Turricula (Surcula) reevei" = Turricula snail
 Neogastropoda - Terebridae
Subula (Oxymeris) fuscata auger snail
subsp. modesta and plicaria
Terebra (Terebra) acuminata auger snail
subsp. acuminata
 Neogastropoda - Drilliidae
"Clavus (Drillia) bellardii" = Drillia, "Clavus (Drillia) pustulatus" = Drillia, Clavus (Drillia) allionii
"Clavus (Drillia) bellardii" = Drillia snail
"Clavus (Drillia) pustulatus" = Drillia snail
Clavus (Drillia) allionii Bellardi 1877 snail
 Neogastropoda - Conidae
"Conus (Rhijoconus) puschi" = Plagioconus puschi, Conus (Rhijoconus) ponterosus, Conus (Rhijoconus) pyrula, Conus (Lithoconus) mercati, "Conus (Lithoconus) antiquus" = Lithoconus antiquus, "Conus (Chelyconus) enjesfeldensis" = Conus (Chelyoconus), "Conus (Chelyconus) fuscocingulatus" = Conus (Chelyoconus), "Conus (Chelyconus) pelagicus" = Conus (Chelyoconus), Conus (Dendroconus) betulinoides, Conus (Conolithus) dujardini
"Conus (Rhijoconus) puschi" = Plagioconus puschi Michelotti 1857 cone shell
Conus (Rhijoconus) ponterosus cone shell
subsp. ponterosus
Conus (Rhijoconus) pyrula cone shell
subsp. mucronata
Conus (Lithoconus) mercati cone shell
subsp. miocaenicus
"Conus (Lithoconus) antiquus" = Lithoconus antiquus Lamarck 1810 cone shell
"Conus (Chelyconus) enjesfeldensis" = Conus (Chelyoconus) cone shell
"Conus (Chelyconus) fuscocingulatus" = Conus (Chelyoconus) cone shell
"Conus (Chelyconus) pelagicus" = Conus (Chelyoconus) cone shell
Conus (Conolithus) dujardini Deshayes 1845 cone shell
 Neogastropoda - Turridae
Gemmula (Hemipleurotoma) annae, Gemmula (Hemipleurotoma) contigua, "Clavatula (Perrona) inedita" = Perrona, "Clavatula (Perrona) jouanneti" = Perrona, "Clavatula (Perrona) saubrigiana" = Perrona, "Clavatula (Perrona) taurinensis" = Perrona, Turris (Turris) rotata, Turris (Turris) aquensis
"Clavatula (Perrona) inedita" = Perrona turrid
"Clavatula (Perrona) jouanneti" = Perrona turrid
"Clavatula (Perrona) saubrigiana" = Perrona turrid
"Clavatula (Perrona) taurinensis" = Perrona turrid
 Sorbeoconcha - Xenophoridae
Xenophora deshayesi Michelotti 1847 carrier shell
 Sorbeoconcha - Tonnidae
"Dolium (Cadium) orbiculatum" = Tonna
"Dolium (Cadium) orbiculatum" = Tonna tun shell
 Sorbeoconcha - Ranellidae
"Cymatium (Lampusia) affine" = Monoplex, Gyrineum (Aspa) marginatum, "Charonia (Sassia) tarbelliana" = Sassia, "Charonia (Sassia) apenninica" = Sassia apenninica
"Cymatium (Lampusia) affine" = Monoplex triton shell
subsp. friedbergi
"Charonia (Sassia) tarbelliana" = Sassia triton shell
"Charonia (Sassia) apenninica" = Sassia apenninica Sassi 1827 triton shell
 Sorbeoconcha - Cassidae
Cassis (Cassis) postmamillaris, "Semicassis (Semicassis) miolaevigata" = Phalium (Semicassis) miolaevigata
"Semicassis (Semicassis) miolaevigata" = Phalium (Semicassis) miolaevigata Sacco 1890 snail
 Sorbeoconcha - Ficidae
"Pyrula lainaei" = Ficus
"Pyrula lainaei" = Ficus fig shell
 Sorbeoconcha - Cypraeidae
"Schilderia annularia" = Zonarina annularia
"Schilderia annularia" = Zonarina annularia Brongniart 1823 cowry
subsp. hoernesiana
 Neotaenioglossa - Calyptraeidae
Crepidula (Jamachus) crepidula Linnaeus 1758 slipper shell
subsp. unguis