Blackwater (Pleistocene of Ireland)

Where: Ireland (52.4° N, 6.3° W: paleocoordinates 52.4° N, 6.3° W)

• coordinate based on nearby landmark

• local area-level geographic resolution

When: Wexford Gravels Formation, Middle Pleistocene (0.8 - 0.1 Ma)

• Traditionally thought to be Pliocene

• formation-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: marine; conglomerate

• Shell-fragments were frequent in both sands and gravels but complete shells were almost confined to the finer gravel.

Size class: macrofossils

Primary reference: N. F. McMillan. 1963. The Mollusca of the Wexford Gravels (Pleistocene), South-East Ireland. Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. Section B: Biological, Geological, and Chemical Science 63:265-289 [P. Wagner/P. Wagner]more details

Purpose of describing collection: taxonomic analysis

PaleoDB collection 178118: authorized by Pete Wagner, entered by Pete Wagner on 19.04.2016

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

Gastropoda
 Heterostropha - Acteonidae
Acteon tornatilis Linnaeus 1758 snail
 Heterostropha - Ellobiidae
"Melampus pyramidalis" = Ellobium pyramidale
"Melampus pyramidalis" = Ellobium pyramidale Sowerby 1822 snail
 Neotaenioglossa - Trichotropidae
Wexfordia dautzenbergi n. gen. n. sp.
Wexfordia dautzenbergi n. gen. n. sp. Harmer 1921 snail
 Epitonioidea - Epitoniidae
"Scala greenlandicum" = Epitonium (Scala)
"Scala greenlandicum" = Epitonium (Scala) wentletrap
 Sorbeoconcha - Littorinidae
Lacuna crassior periwinkle
 Sorbeoconcha - Naticidae
"Natica catena" = Euspira catena, "Natica cf. pallida" = Euspira pallida, Natica nanum, Natica ? fusca, Natica ? alderi
"Natica catena" = Euspira catena da Costa 1778 moon snail
"Natica cf. pallida" = Euspira pallida Broderip and Sowerby 1829 moon snail
Natica nanum moon snail
Natica ? fusca moon snail
Natica ? alderi moon snail
 Sorbeoconcha - Capulidae
Capulus ungaricus Linnaeus 1758 snail
 Neogastropoda - Volutomitridae
 Neogastropoda - Mitridae
Mitra cornicula mitre shell
 Neogastropoda - Muricidae
"Ocenebra erinacea" = Ocenebra erinaceus, "Sipho latericeus" = Trophon (Sipho), "Sipho curtus" = Trophon (Sipho), "Sipho exiguus" = Trophon (Sipho), "Sipho ? feneslratus" = Trophon (Sipho), "Sipho gracilis" = Trophon (Sipho), "Sipho howsei" = Trophon (Sipho), "Sipho jeffreysianus" = Trophon (Sipho), "Sipho latriceus" = Trophon (Sipho), "Sipho togatus" = Trophon (Sipho), Nucella lapillus, "Trophonopsis clathratus" = Boreotrophon clathratus
"Ocenebra erinacea" = Ocenebra erinaceus Linnaeus 1758 murex snail
"Sipho latericeus" = Trophon (Sipho) murex snail
"Sipho curtus" = Trophon (Sipho) murex snail
"Sipho exiguus" = Trophon (Sipho) murex snail
"Sipho ? feneslratus" = Trophon (Sipho) murex snail
"Sipho gracilis" = Trophon (Sipho) murex snail
"Sipho howsei" = Trophon (Sipho) murex snail
"Sipho jeffreysianus" = Trophon (Sipho) murex snail
"Sipho latriceus" = Trophon (Sipho) murex snail
"Sipho togatus" = Trophon (Sipho) murex snail
Sipho togatus crassus
Nucella lapillus Linnaeus 1758 murex snail
"Trophonopsis clathratus" = Boreotrophon clathratus Linnaeus 1767 murex snail
 Neogastropoda - Cancellariidae
Admete viridula Fabricius 1780 admete
 Neogastropoda - Conidae
"Lora turricula" = Oenopota, "Lora pyramidalis" = Oenopota, "Lora nobilis" = Oenopota, "Lora rufa" = Oenopota
"Lora turricula" = Oenopota cone shell
Lora turricula rosea
"Lora pyramidalis" = Oenopota cone shell
"Lora nobilis" = Oenopota cone shell
"Lora rufa" = Oenopota cone shell
Lora rufa ulideana
 Neogastropoda - Nassariidae
Nassarius reticulata snail
Nassarius reticulata nitida
Nassarius elegans Sowerby 1824 snail
Nassarius reticosus Sowerby 1815 snail
 Neogastropoda - Buccinidae
Neptunea sp., "Trophonopsis truncatus" = Neptunea (Trophonopsis), "Trophonopsis muricatus" = Neptunea (Trophonopsis), "Trophonopsis marmeri" = Neptunea (Trophonopsis), "Trophonopsis coddii" = Neptunea (Trophonopsis), "Trophonopsis barvicensis" = Neptunea (Trophonopsis), "Trophonopsis fabricii" = Neptunea (Trophonopsis), Searlesia forbes, Buccinum conoideum, Buccinum pulchellum, Buccinum finmarkianum, Buccinum undatum, "Sipho islandicus" = Colus islandicus
Neptunea sp. Röding 1798 true whelk
"Trophonopsis truncatus" = Neptunea (Trophonopsis) true whelk
"Trophonopsis muricatus" = Neptunea (Trophonopsis) true whelk
"Trophonopsis marmeri" = Neptunea (Trophonopsis) true whelk
"Trophonopsis coddii" = Neptunea (Trophonopsis) true whelk
"Trophonopsis barvicensis" = Neptunea (Trophonopsis) true whelk
"Trophonopsis fabricii" = Neptunea (Trophonopsis) true whelk
Trophonopsis fabricii
Searlesia forbes true whelk
Buccinum conoideum true whelk
Buccinum finmarkianum Verkrüzen 1875 true whelk
Buccinum undatum Linnaeus 1758 true whelk
"Sipho islandicus" = Colus islandicus Mohr 1786 true whelk
 Sorbeoconcha - Triviidae
"Trivia monacha" = Trivia (Trivia) monacha
"Trivia monacha" = Trivia (Trivia) monacha da Costa 1778 snail
 Sorbeoconcha - Cassidae
 Sorbeoconcha - Aporrhaidae
Aporrhais pespelecani Linnaeus 1758 snail
 Cerithioidea - Turritellidae
"Turritella incrassata" = Turritella (Haustator) incrassata Sowerby 1814 turret shell
Turritella biplicata turret shell
Turritella triplicata turret shell
Turritella communis Risso 1826 turret shell
 Lepetellida - Fissurellidae
"Diodora apertura" = Diodora graeca
"Diodora apertura" = Diodora graeca Linnaeus 1758 snail
Bivalvia
 Ostreida - Ostreidae
Ostrea edulis Linnaeus 1758 oyster
 Pectinida - Pectinoidae
"Chlamys varia" = Chlamys (Chlamys) varia, "Chlamys islandica" = Chlamys (Chlamys) islandica, "Pecten maximus" = Pecten maxima, "Chlamys distorta" = Talochlamys pusio, "Chlamys opercularis" = Aequipecten opercularis
"Chlamys varia" = Chlamys (Chlamys) varia Linnaeus 1758 scallop
"Chlamys islandica" = Chlamys (Chlamys) islandica Müller 1776 scallop
"Pecten maximus" = Pecten maxima Linnaeus 1758 scallop
"Chlamys distorta" = Talochlamys pusio Linnaeus 1758 scallop
"Chlamys opercularis" = Aequipecten opercularis Linnaeus 1758 scallop
 Pectinida - Anomiidae
Anomia ephippium Linnaeus 1758 jingle
 Arcida - Limopsidae
 Arcida - Arcidae
Arca lactea Linnaeus 1767 ark
 Arcida - Glycymerididae
Glycymeris pilosa Linnaeus 1767 clam
Glycymeris glycymeris Linnaeus 1758 clam
 Mytilida - Mytilidae
Mytilus edulis Linnaeus 1758 mussel
"Modiolus modiolus" = Modiolus (Modiolus) modiolus Linnaeus 1758 mussel
 Solenida - Pharidae
 Solenida - Solenidae
Solen marginatus, "Ensis ensis" = Solen ensis
Solen marginatus Pulteney 1799 clam
"Ensis ensis" = Solen ensis Linnaeus 1767 clam
 Hiatellida - Hiatellidae
"Panomya arctica" = Panomya norvegica Spengler 1793 clam
Hiatella arctica Linnaeus 1767 clam
 Pholadida - Pholadidae
Zirfaea crispata Linnaeus 1758 clam
 Pholadida - Myidae
"Mya truncata" = Mya (Mya) truncata
"Mya truncata" = Mya (Mya) truncata Linnaeus 1758 softshell clam
 Cardiida - Veneridae
"Venus fasciata" = Clausinella fasciata, "Venus casina" = Dosina cassina, "Dosinia lupinus" = Dosinia lupina, Irus irus, Paphia aurea, Paphia rhomboides, Paphia pullastra
"Venus fasciata" = Clausinella fasciata da Costa 1778 venus clam
"Venus casina" = Dosina cassina Linnaeus 1758 venus clam
"Dosinia lupinus" = Dosinia lupina Linnaeus 1758 venus clam
Irus irus Linnaeus 1767 venus clam
Paphia aurea venus clam
Paphia rhomboides venus clam
Paphia pullastra venus clam
 Cardiida - Mactridae
Lutraria lutraria Linnaeus 1767 clam
Spisula solida clam
Spisula solida truncato
Spisula subtruncata da Costa 1778 clam
Spisula elliptica Brown 1827 clam
 Cardiida - Arcticidae
Arctica islandica Linnaeus 1767 clam
 Cardiida - Tellinidae
"Tellina ? crassa" = Arcopagia (Arcopagia) crassa, "Macoma balthica" = Macoma (Macoma) balthica
"Tellina ? crassa" = Arcopagia (Arcopagia) crassa Pennant 1777 tellin clam
"Macoma balthica" = Macoma (Macoma) balthica Linnaeus 1758 tellin clam
 Cardiida - Donacidae
Donax vittatus da Costa 1778 clam
 Cardiida - Cardiidae
"Cardium crassum" = Laevicardium crassum, "Cardium echinatum" = Acanthocardia (Acanthocardia) echinata, Cardium tuberculatum, "Cardium edule" = Cerastoderma edule
"Cardium crassum" = Laevicardium crassum Gmelin 1791 cockle
"Cardium echinatum" = Acanthocardia (Acanthocardia) echinata Linnaeus 1767 cockle
Cardium tuberculatum Linnaeus 1758 cockle
"Cardium edule" = Cerastoderma edule Linnaeus 1758 cockle
 Carditida - Astartidae
Astarte montagui Dillwyn 1817 clam
Astarte elliptica Brown 1827 clam
Astarte sulcata Da Costa 1778 clam
 Carditida - Carditidae
Cardita senilis Lamarck 1805 clam
 Nuculida - Nuculidae
Acila cobboldiae divaricate nutclam
 Nuculanida - Nuculanidae
Nuculana pernula Müller 1779 pointed nut clam