New Bethesda Commonage (Permian to of South Africa)

Also known as Nieu-Bethesda

Where: Eastern Cape, South Africa (31.9° S, 24.6° E: paleocoordinates 63.0° S, 27.8° W)

• coordinate based on nearby landmark

• local area-level geographic resolution

When: Dicynodon Assemblage Zone zone, Balfour Formation (Beaufort Group), Wuchiapingian to Wuchiapingian (259.9 - 252.2 Ma)

• It is said that the fossils come from the "Daptocephalus zone" (Gow, 1972) which is equivalent to the Dicynodon Assemblage Zone. Geographic and stratigraphic data suggest that the locality is in the Balfour Formation of the Beaufort Group (see Catuneanu et al., 2005, J. Afr. Earth Sci., 43, figs. 24, 25). The Dicynodon AZ is Early and Middle Changhsingian according to Catuneanu et al. (2005).

•Youngoides minor (junior synonym to Youngina capensis) given as Cistecephalus zone by Broom & Robinson (1948), but amended to "Daptocephalus zone" by Kitching (1977). Same situation with Dicynodon woodwardi (synonym to Basilodon woodwardi), given as Cistecephalus zone by Broom (1921), but as "Daptocephalus zone" by Kitching (1977).

• formation-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: terrestrial; lithology not reported

• At least the millerettid specimens "are preserved in fine-grained green mudstone which may or may not form a nodule surrounding the specimen." (Gow, 1972).

Size class: macrofossils

Preservation: permineralized

Collected by R. Broom, J. Venter, B. Kitching; reposited in the AMNH, BPI

Collection methods: mechanical, acetic,

• R.C. = "S. H. Rubidge collection housed on the farm Wellwood near Graff Reinet" (Gow, 1972)

Primary reference: C. E. Gow. 1972. The osteology and relationships of the Millerettidae (Reptilia: Cotylosauria). Journal of Zoology, London 167:219-264 [J. Mueller/J. Dummasch]more details

Purpose of describing collection: taxonomic analysis

PaleoDB collection 80219: authorized by Johannes Mueller, entered by Jana Dummasch on 09.04.2008, edited by Torsten Liebrecht, Richard Butler and Juan Benito Moreno

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

Reptilia
 Eosuchia - Younginidae
"Youngina capensis n. gen. n. sp." = Youngina capensis3, "Youngoides minor n. sp." = Youngina capensis8, "Youngopsis kitchingi n. gen. n. sp." = Youngina capensis6
"Youngina capensis n. gen. n. sp." = Youngina capensis3 Broom 1914 diapsid
AMNH 5561 (type), TM200
"Youngoides minor n. sp." = Youngina capensis8 Broom 1914 diapsid
RC 91
"Youngopsis kitchingi n. gen. n. sp." = Youngina capensis6 Broom 1914 diapsid
TM 1490
 Parareptilia - Millerettidae
"Millerettops kitchingi n. gen. n. sp." = Milleretta rubidgei7, ? Milleropsis pricei, Millerosaurus sp., Millerosaurus ornatus n. gen. n. sp.7
"Millerettops kitchingi n. gen. n. sp." = Milleretta rubidgei7 Broom 1938 parareptile
R.C. 70 (type)
? Milleropsis pricei Watson 1957 parareptile
BP/1/4203
Millerosaurus sp. Broom 1948 parareptile
R.C. 629
Millerosaurus ornatus n. gen. n. sp.7 Broom 1948 parareptile
R.C. 78 (type)
 Parareptilia - Procolophonidae
Spondylolestes rubidgei n. gen. n. sp.6
Spondylolestes rubidgei n. gen. n. sp.6 Broom 1937 parareptile
RC 3, holotype
 Parareptilia - Owenettidae
Owenetta rubidgei n. gen. n. sp.10
Owenetta rubidgei n. gen. n. sp.10 Broom 1939 parareptile
RC 50 (holotype)
Osteichthyes
 Therocephalia - Whaitsiidae
Ictidochampsa platyceps n. gen. n. sp.9, "Alopecopsis atavus n. gen. n. sp." = Theriognathus microps1
Ictidochampsa platyceps n. gen. n. sp.9 Broom 1948 therapsid
Single partial skull
"Alopecopsis atavus n. gen. n. sp." = Theriognathus microps1 Owen 1876 therapsid
AM 4045 (Kimberley Museum), skull
 Therocephalia - Akidnognathidae
Notaelurodon kitchingi9 Broom 1936 therapsid
 Therocephalia - Lycideopidae
Tetracynodon tenuis n. gen. n. sp.9
Tetracynodon tenuis n. gen. n. sp.9 Broom and Robinson 1948 therapsid
RC 89, small skull with lower jaw
 Therocephalia - Ictidosuchidae
Ictidosuchops intermedius9 Broom 1938 therapsid
Three skulls from the riverbed
 Therapsida - Gorgonopidae
cf. Aloposaurus tenuis11, "Aelurosauroides wilmanae n. sp." = Aelurosaurus wilmanae11, "Scymnognathus minor n. sp." = Lycaenops angusticeps11
cf. Aloposaurus tenuis11 Brink and Kitching 1953 therapsid
BSP 1932 I 57
"Aelurosauroides wilmanae n. sp." = Aelurosaurus wilmanae11 Broom 1940 therapsid
MMK 4667, flattened skull
"Scymnognathus minor n. sp." = Lycaenops angusticeps11 Broom 1913 therapsid
AMNH 5535, skull with skeleton
 Anomodontia - Cryptodontidae
"Dicynodon platyceps n. sp." = Oudenodon bainii9
"Dicynodon platyceps n. sp." = Oudenodon bainii9 Owen 1859 therapsid
AMNH FARB 5542, a nearly complete skull and lower jaws
 Dicynodontia -
"Dicynodon woodwardi n. sp." = Basilodon woodwardi2, "Daptocephalus leoniceps" = Daptocephalus leoniceps9, "Dicynodon watsoni n. sp." = Daptocephalus leoniceps2, Dicynodon venteri n. sp.5, "Emydopsis sciuroides n. sp." = Emydorhinus sciuroides2, "Emydorhinus fragilis n. gen. n. sp." = Emydorhinus sciuroides4, "Newtonella platyceps n. gen. n. sp." = Pristerodon platyceps9
"Dicynodon woodwardi n. sp." = Basilodon woodwardi2 Broom 1913 dicynodont
MMMK 4166, a badly weathered partial skull
"Daptocephalus leoniceps" = Daptocephalus leoniceps9 Owen dicynodont
Three recorded skulls
"Dicynodon watsoni n. sp." = Daptocephalus leoniceps2 Owen dicynodont
SAM-PK-7849, a skull roof preserving the interorbital and intertemporal regions
Dicynodon venteri n. sp.5 Broom 1935 dicynodont
TM 199, a complete, dorsoventrally crushed skull
"Emydopsis sciuroides n. sp." = Emydorhinus sciuroides2 Broom 1921 dicynodont
BMNH 4958, a crushed and imperfectly preserved skull
"Emydorhinus fragilis n. gen. n. sp." = Emydorhinus sciuroides4 Broom 1921 dicynodont
TM 261, an imperfect skull
"Newtonella platyceps n. gen. n. sp." = Pristerodon platyceps9 Broom 1937 dicynodont
TM 1646, a skull with lower jaws
 Dicynodontia - Pylaecephalidae
"Dicynodon macrorhynchus n. sp." = Diictodon feliceps2, "Emydorhynchus palustris n. gen. n. sp." = Diictodon feliceps9
"Dicynodon macrorhynchus n. sp." = Diictodon feliceps2 Owen 1876 dicynodont
NHMUK R4954, a poorly preserved, crushed skull embedded in matrix
"Emydorhynchus palustris n. gen. n. sp." = Diictodon feliceps9 Owen 1876 dicynodont
Four skulls from the Gats River in the Village, including AMNH 5512, the holotype
 Therapsida - Procynosuchidae
Procynosuchus delaharpeae9 Broom 1937 cynodont
 Synapsida - Homodontosauridae
Homodontosaurus kitchingi9 Broom 1949 synapsid